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Now showing items 33 - 48 of 64

  • Development of 27 trinucleotide microsatellite markers forSaccharina japonicausing next generation sequencing technology

    Zhang, Linan   Peng, Jie   Li, Xiaojie   Liu, Yanling   Cui, Cuiju   Wu, Hao   Wu, Ruina   Tian, Pingping   Li, Yan  

    Twenty-seven polymorphic trinucleotide microsatellite DNA markers were developed from Saccharina japonica, through paired-end Illumina sequencing data. Sixty-three gametophyte clones of the species, preserved indoor as germplasm resources were genotyped using these markers. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 7 with an average 4.7 per locus. The gene diversity and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.171 to 0.774 and from 0.174 to 0.793, respectively. Sixteen loci could be successfully amplified in Saccharina longissima with 12 loci being polymorphic. These novel microsatellite DNA markers will be extremely useful in germplasm resource conservation and management of S. japonica and also in its related species S. longissima.
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  • Effects of Fungal Polysaccharide on Oxidative Damage and TLR4 Pathway to the Central Immune Organs in Cadmium Intoxication in Chickens

    Li, Ruyue   Zhang, Linan   Tang, Zequn   Li, Tianqi   Li, Guangxing   Zhang, Ruili   Ge, Ming  

    Cadmium (Cd) can cause animal organism damage, but there have been few studies on the damage of cadmium to the immune organs of birds. Most fungal polysaccharide has antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. The experimental study investigated the effects of fungal polysaccharide (Agaricus blazei Murill polysaccharide and Ganoderma luciduccharide) on the oxidative damage of central immune organs (thymus and bursa of Fabricius) and on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway in cadmium-poisoned chickens. The results showed that Agaricus blazei polysaccharide and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide can reduce cadmium content, TLR4 expression, inflammatory factor (IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha) content, and lipid peroxidation product MDA content and increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px in thymus and bursa of cadmium poisoning chickens. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide could decrease the expression of TLR4, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 in cadmium poisoning peripheral blood lymphocytes of chicken, and TLR4 inhibitor had the same effect. The results demonstrated the protective effects of Agaricus blazei Murill polysaccharide and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on the damage of the central immune organs of chickens caused by cadmium poisoning were closely related to the TLR4 signaling pathway and oxidative stress.
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  • Electrochemical detection of trace cadmium in soil using a Nafion/stannum film-modified molecular wire carbon paste electrodes

    Wang, Zhiqiang   Liu, Gang   Zhang, Linan   Wang, Hui  

    In this paper, a novel Nafion polymer-coated stannum film-modified carbon paste electrode was developed for the analysis of trace cadmium by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The electronic conductive material-molecular wire (diphenylacetylene)-was employed as the binder instead of traditional mineral oil for fabricating this electrode. It was found that the prepared electrode possessed excellent electrochemical performance and increased electron transfer rate due to the introduction of molecular wire as a binder, and exhibited a better sensitivity and stability as well as high resistance to surfactants due to the synergistic effect of Nafion and stannum film. Under the optimal conditions, the stripping peak currents showed a good linear relationship with the Cd(II) concentration in the range from 1.0 to 80.0 mu g L-1 with a detection limit of 0.13 mu g L-1 (S/N = 3). The developed electrode was further applied to the determination of Cd(II) in soil extracts with satisfactory results.
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  • Multiphysics and Multiscale Analysis for Chemotherapeutic Drug.

    Zhang, Linan   Kim, Sung Youb   Kim, Dongchoul  

    This paper presents a three-dimensional dynamic model for the chemotherapy design based on a multiphysics and multiscale approach. The model incorporates cancer cells, matrix degrading enzymes (MDEs) secreted by cancer cells, degrading extracellular matrix (ECM), and chemotherapeutic drug. Multiple mechanisms related to each component possible in chemotherapy are systematically integrated for high reliability of computational analysis of chemotherapy. Moreover, the fidelity of the estimated efficacy of chemotherapy is enhanced by atomic information associated with the diffusion characteristics of chemotherapeutic drug, which is obtained from atomic simulations. With the developed model, the invasion process of cancer cells in chemotherapy treatment is quantitatively investigated. The performed simulations suggest a substantial potential of the presented model for a reliable design technology of chemotherapy treatment.=20
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  • Computational analysis of the effects of matrix-degrading enzymes on cancer-cell invasion

    Zhang, Linan   Kang, Seongwon   Kim, Dongchoul  

    Cancer cells secrete matrix degrading enzymes (MDEs) and invade the extracellular matrix (ECM) that is degraded by MDEs. This paper presents a dynamic model that incorporates multiple components and mechanisms to investigate the invasion process of cancer cells. The degradation of ECM by MDEs secreted by cancer cells and the consequent influence on cancer-cell invasion are systematically investigated. The morphology and velocity of cancer cells are analytically characterized by critical factors with the developed model, which are the secreting rate of MDEs, the natural degrading rate of MDEs, and the degrading rate of ECM. The simulation results are consistent with the experimental observations and suggest a substantial potential of the presented model for computational cancer research. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772534]
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  • Outbursts of Comet Hale-Bopp: YANG Ben-you, ZHANG Chun-sheng, FAN Yi-xing, CAI Hong-fang, SUN Shou-sheng, ZHANG Yan & SUN Li-nan Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008

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  • Doxorubicin-Loaded Zein in Situ Gel for Interstitial Chemotherapy

    Cao, Xiaoying   Geng, Jianning   Su, Suwen   Zhang, Linan   Xu, Qian   Zhang, Li   Xie, Yinghua   Wu, Shaomei   Sun, Yongjun   Gao, Zibin  

    A novel drug delivery system of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded Zein in situ gel for interstitial chemotherapy was investigated in this study. The possible mechanisms of drug release were described according to morphological analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity studies showed that DOX-loaded Zein in situ gel was superior to DOX solution. Local pharmacokinetics in tumor tissue was studied by quantitative analysis with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) combined with microdialysis technology. A pharmacokinetics mathematical model of DOX-loaded Zein in situ gel in tumors was then built.
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  • Construction of a high density SNP linkage map of kelp (Saccharina japonica) by sequencing Taq I site associated DNA and mapping of a sex determining locus.

    Zhang, Ning   Zhang, Linan   Tao, Ye   Guo, Li   Sun, Juan   Li, Xia   Zhao, Nan   Peng, Jie   Li, Xiaojie   Zeng, Liang   Chen, Jinsa   Yang, Guanpin  

    BACKGROUND: Kelp (Saccharina japonica) has been intensively cultured in China for almost a century. Its genetic improvement is comparable with that of rice. However, the development of its molecular tools is extremely limited, thus its genes, genetics and genomics. Kelp performs an alternative life cycle during which sporophyte generation alternates with gametophyte generation. The gametophytes of kelp can be cloned and crossed. Due to these characteristics, kelp may serve as a reference for the biological and genetic studies of Volvox, mosses and ferns.; RESULTS: We constructed a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage map for kelp by restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. In total, 4,994 SNP-containing physical (tag-defined) RAD loci were mapped on 31 linkage groups. The map expanded a total genetic distance of 1,782.75cM, covering 98.66% of the expected (1,806.94cM). The length of RAD tags (85bp) was extended to 400-500bp with Miseq method, offering us an easiness of developing SNP chips and shifting SNP genotyping to a high throughput track. The number of linkage groups was in accordance with the documented with cytological methods. In addition, we identified a set of microsatellites (99 in total) from the extended RAD tags. A gametophyte sex determining locus was mapped on linkage group 2 in a window about 9.0cM in width, which was 2.66cM up to marker_40567 and 6.42cM down to marker_23595.; CONCLUSIONS: A high density SNP linkage map was constructed for kelp, an intensively cultured brown alga in China. The RAD tags were also extended so that a SNP chip could be developed. In addition, a set of microsatellites were identified among mapped loci, and a gametophyte sex determining locus was mapped. This map will facilitate the genetic studies of kelp including for example the evaluation of germplasm and the decipherment of the genetic bases of economic traits.=20
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  • Characterization and expression analysis of a peptidoglycan recognition protein gene,SmPGRP2 in mucosal tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) following bacterial challenge

    Zhang, Linan   Gao, Chengbin   Liu, Fengqiao   Song, Lin   Su, Baofeng   Li, Chao  

    Peptidoglycan recognition receptor proteins (PGRPs), a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), can recognize peptidoglycan (PGN) of the bacteria cell wall and play an important role in host immune defense against pathogen infection. They are highly structurally conserved through evolution, but with different function in innate immunity between invertebrates and vertebrates. In teleost fish, several PGRPs have been characterized recently. They have both amidase activity and bactericidal activity and are involved in indirectly killing bacteria and regulating multiple signaling pathways. However, the knowledge of PGRPs in mucosal immunity of teleost fish is still limited. In this study, we identified a PGRPs gene (SmPGRP2) of turbot and investigated its expression patterns in mucosal tissues after challenge with Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus iniae and Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio anguillarum. Phylogenetic analysis showed the strongest relationship of turbot PGRP to halibut, which was consistent with their phylogenetic relationships. In addition, SmPGRP2 was ubiquitously expressed in turbot tissues, and constitutive expression levels were higher in classical immune tissues (including liver, spleen, and head-kidney) than mucosal tissues (intestine, gill and skin). After bacterial challenge, the expression of SmPGRP2 was induced and showed a general trend of up-regulation in mucosal tissues, except in intestine following V. anguillarum infection. These different expression patterns varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting its distinct roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogen. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Interface Energy of Cell Membrane

    Zhang, Linan   Kang, Seongwon   Kim, Dongchoul  

    A simulation procedure is demonstrated, which can be used to determine the interface energy of cell membrane. To obtain the interface energy between cell membranes, it is needed to be investigated based on reliable information that induces the recent requests of the advanced computational simulation technology. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide information on studying the interface between two objects. MD simulation represents an ideal tool for studying the interfacial properties. In this study, the biological membrane of cells has been modeled to calculate the interface energy between them. The calculated interface energy is verified with the reported experimental evidence. The consistent and sound simulation results suggest the substantial potential of the suggested approach in estimating various kinds of biological properties and characterizing the biological phenomena.
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  • Hollow Microtube Resonators via Silicon Self-Assembly toward Subattogram Mass Sensing Applications

    Kim, Joohyun   Song, Jungki   Kim, Kwangseok   Kim, Seokbeom   Song, Jihwan   Kim, Namsu   Khan, M. Faheem   Zhang, Linan   Sader, John E.   Park, Keunhan   Kim, Dongchoul   Thundat, Thomas   Lee, Jungchul  

    Fluidic resonators with integrated microchannels (hollow resonators) are attractive for mass, density, and volume measurements of single micro/nanoparticles and cells, yet their widespread use is limited by the complexity of their fabrication. Here we report a simple and cost-effective approach for fabricating hollow microtube resonators. A prestructured silicon wafer is annealed at high temperature under a controlled atmosphere to form self-assembled buried cavities. The interiors of these cavities are oxidized to produce thin oxide tubes, following which the surrounding silicon material is selectively etched away to suspend the oxide tubes. This simple three-step process easily produces hollow microtube resonators. We report another innovation in the capping glass wafer where we integrate fluidic access channels and getter materials along with residual gas suction channels. Combined together, only five photolithographic steps and one bonding step are required to fabricate vacuum-packaged hollow microtube resonators that exhibit quality factors as high as similar to 13 000. We take one step further to explore additionally attractive features including the ability to tune the device responsivity, changing the resonator material, and scaling down the, resonator size. The resonator wall thickness of similar to 120 nm and the channel hydraulic diameter of similar to 60 nm are demonstrated solely by conventional microfabrication approaches. The unique characteristics of this new fabrication process facilitate the widespread use of hollow microtube resonators, their translation between diverse research fields, and the production of commercially viable devices.
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  • A study on the interfacial effect on cancer-cell invasion

    Zhang, Linan   Song, Jihwan   Kim, Dongchoul  

    Cancer-cell invasion is a complex biological process involving cell migration through the extracellular matrix, which is driven by haptotaxis, and the interactions between cancer cells and the surrounding matrix. In this paper, a three-dimensional haptotaxis model that simulates the migration of a cancer cell population, including cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix adhesion, is proposed. We employ a diffuse interface model that incorporates the mechanism of haptotaxis and the interface energy of cancer cells as well as that between cancer cells and the matrix. The semi-implicit Fourier spectral scheme is applied for high efficiency and numerical stability. The simulations systematically reveal the dynamics of cancer-cell migration and the effect of interface energy on the invasion of cancer cells. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3562183]
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  • A genome screen for the development of sex-specific DNA markers in Saccharina japonica

    Zhang, Linan   Cui, Cuiju   Li, Yan   Wu, Hao   Li, Xiaojie  

    Saccharina japonica is an important cultured marine brown alga and it has been the subject of intensive genetic improvement during its domestication and farming. However, there are limited credible and effective sex markers to identify the sex of gametophytes and sporophytes derived from normal hybridization or monogenesis. In the present study, the transcriptomic and genomic sequences of S. japonica were screened by 15 sex-determining region (SDR) genes from a model brown alga (Ectocarpus), and six cDNA sequences and their corresponding genomic sequences were identified. Thirteen primer pairs were designed from the coding region of six genomic sequences and subsequently tested on gametophytes of S. japonica. From these regions, four novel male-specific markers were developed, which derived from S. japonica genomic sequences JXRI01001736 and JXRI01002827, corresponding to a male-specific SDR gene and a gametologue SDR gene in Ectocarpus, respectively. In addition, an existing female marker (M_68_58_2) for Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida, derived from the Ectocarpus SDR gene, could also be used as a female-specific marker for S. japonica. The results of the present study not only demonstrate an important new tool to determine the sex of gametophytes and distinguish between diploid sporophytes and partheno-sporophytes in breeding programmes but also provide insight into the sex-determination system for S. japonica, including the identification of sex chromosomes, SDR, and SDR genes and evolution of sex chromosomes.
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  • Horseradish peroxidase-mediated synthesis of an antioxidant gallic acid-g-chitosan derivative and its preservation application in cherry tomatoes

    Zhang, Xiao   Wu, Hao   Zhang, Linan   Sun, Qingjie  

    Owing to their good solubility and film-forming properties, phenolic acid-g-chitosan derivatives can be used for preservation of fruits and vegetables. However, the chemical synthesis used for the preparation of these derivatives poses a great challenge to food safety. In this study, a method involving horseradish peroxidase catalysis was used to prepare a gallic acid-g-chitosan derivative. The grafting mechanism was studied. Then, the derivative's ability to scavenge free radicals and its preserving application in cherry tomatoes were evaluated. The results indicated that the reaction for horseradish peroxidase catalysis occurred between the amino group of chitosan and the carboxyl group of gallic acid. After enzymatic grafting, the gallic acid-g-chitosan derivative possessed excellent antioxidant abilities in scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide anion radicals. When the derivative was used for the preservation of cherry tomatoes, the results showed that it could effectively protect the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidant enzyme system of cherry tomatoes and inhibit enzymatic browning. In addition, since this derivative delayed the postharvest senescence of cherry tomatoes, the aroma compounds remain relatively constant throughout the storage period.
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  • Breeding of an intraspecific kelp hybrid Dongfang no. 6 (Saccharina japonica,Phaeophyceae,Laminariales) for suitable processing products and evaluation of its culture performance

    Li, Xiaojie   Zhang, Zhuangzhi   Qu, Shancun   Liang, Guangjin   Zhao, Nan   Sun, Juan   Song, Shaofeng   Cao, Zengmei   Li, Xia   Pan, Jinhua   Luo, Shiju   Zhang, Linan   Cui, Cuiju   Peng, Jie   Li, Yan   Wu, Ruina   Zhao, Juping   Qian, Rui   Wang, Liqin   Sai, Shan   Yang, Guanpin  

    Dongfang no. 6, an intraspecific hybrid of kelp (Saccharina japonica) which was high in yield and had a high stress tolerance and was suitable for processing, was bred by crossing scientifically selected parental gametophyte clones. The sporophyte of the hybrid was raised by crossing a female gametophyte clone isolated from a Korean ecotype of S. japonica (Korean kelp) with a male gametophyte clone isolated from Lianza no. 1, a variety of S. japonica bred through continuous selection. The culture performance, stress tolerance, and suitability for processing of the hybrid and two commercial controls were compared for a period lasting 5 years (2009-2013). It was found that the hybrid was fast in growth, tolerant to high seawater temperature, resistant to strong solar irradiation, late in maturing time, and high in processed product yield. The percentage of salting processed product of the hybrid was 17.5 and 15.4 % higher than those of control 1 and 2, respectively. The yield of salting processed product of the hybrid increased by 24.2 and 38.8 % over control 1 and 2, respectively. The yield of air drying processed product of the hybrid increased by 109.4 and 88.1 % over control 1 and 2, respectively. The breeding of Dongfang no. 6 demonstrated that crossing gametophyte clones in combination with selecting desirable hybrids are highly effective for breeding kelp hybrids with high-culture performance and suitability for processing.
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  • Direct manipulation of tool-like masters for controlling a master-slave surgical robotic system

    Zhang, Linan   Zhou, Ningxin   Wang, Shuxin  

    BackgroundRobotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS) can benefit both patients and surgeons. However, the learning curve for robotically assisted procedures can be long and the total system costs are high. Therefore, there is considerable interest in new methods and lower cost controllers for a surgical robotic system. MethodsIn this study, a knife-master and a forceps-master, shaped similarly to a surgical knife and forceps, were developed as input devices for control of a master-slave surgical robotic system. In addition, a safety strategy was developed to eliminate the master-slave orientation difference and stabilize the surgical system. ResultsMaster-slave tracking experiments and a ring-and-bar experiment showed that the safety tracking strategy could ensure that the robot system moved stably without any tremor in the tracking motion. Subjects could manipulate the surgical tool to achieve the master-slave operation with less training compared to a mechanical master. ConclusionsDirect manipulation of the small, light and low-cost surgical tools to control a robotic system is a possible operating mode. Surgeons can operate the robotic system in their own familiar way, without long training. The main potential safety issues can be solved by the proposed safety control strategy. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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