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Now showing items 17 - 32 of 55

  • The role of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases in the excitotoxicity induced by the overactivation of NMDA receptors

    Sun, Yongjun   Chen, You   Zhan, Liying   Zhang, Linan   Hu, Jie   Gao, Zibin  

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the primary modes of regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The non-receptor tyrosine kinases are one of the two types of protein tyrosine kinases that are involved in this process. The overactivation of NMDA receptors is a primary reason for neuron death following cerebral ischemia. Many studies have illustrated the important role of non-receptor tyrosine kinases in ischemia insults. This review introduces the roles of Src, Fyn, focal adhesion kinase, and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 in the excitotoxicity induced by the overactivation of NMDA receptors following cerebral ischemia.
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  • Computational analysis of matrix-degrading enzymes in cancer-cell invasion

    Zhang, Linan   Kim, Dongchoul  

    Invasion is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. Cancer cells secrete enzymes and invade the surrounding matrix. In this paper, a. new model primary study on the invasive process of cancer cells is presented. Our three-dimensional haptotaxis model consists of a,cancer-cell population, matrix-degrading enzymes (MDEs), and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and it describes two procedures for invasion by cancer cells. In the first step, cancer cells secrete MDEs, and in the next step, the secreted MDEs degrade the ECM. The simulation results thoroughly reveal that the degradation of the ECM is an influential process in cancer-cell invasion.
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  • Mesenchymal stem cells: a potential targeted-delivery vehicle for anti-cancer drug, loaded nanoparticles.

    Gao, Zibin   Zhang, Linan   Hu, Jie   Sun, Yongjun  

    UNLABELLED: The targeted delivery of anticancer agents is a promising field in anticancer therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have inherent tumor-tropic and migratory properties, which allow them to serve as vehicles for targeted drug delivery systems for isolated tumors and metastatic diseases. MSCs have been successfully studied and discussed as a vehicle for cancer gene therapy. However, MSCs have not yet been discussed adequately as a potential vehicle for traditional anticancer drugs. In this review, we will examine the potential of MSCs as a targeted-delivery vehicle for anticancer drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs), summarize various challenges, and discuss possible solutions for these challenges.; FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: In this review, the feasibility of mesenchymal stem cell-based targeted delivery of anticancer agents is discussed. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • Effect of inflammatory factor-induced cyclo-oxygenase expression on the development of reperfusion-related no-reflow phenomenon in acute myocardial infarction.

    Jiao, Qibin   Ke, Qiang   Li, Weiwei   Jin, Meihua   Luo, Yan   Zhang, Linan   Yang, Dong   Zhang, Xingwei  

    No reflow after reperfusion therapy for myocardial infarction is a strong predictor of clinical outcome. Increased levels of inflammatory factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP), in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may affect myocardial perfusion. However, why the no-reflow phenomenon increases in inflammation stress after PCI is not clear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of CRP on the expression of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) on the development of the no-reflow phenomenon. There was a significant increase in plasma levels of CRP and interleukin (IL)-6 in no-reflow patients, suggesting that inflammatory factors play an important role in the development of the no-reflow phenomenon. The mechanisms involved were further evaluated after reperfusion in a rat model mimicking the no-reflow phenomenon. Compared with normal reflow rats, there were significant increases in both COX-1 and COX-2 in cardiac tissue from no-reflow rats. The COX inhibitor indomethacin (5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the no-reflow area. In another series of experiments, human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) were treated with CRP at clinically relevant concentrations (5-25 mug/mL). C-Reactive protein significantly increased COX-1 and COX-2 levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were activated in CRP (5, 10, 25 mug/mL)-treated HCAEC cultures. Furthermore, the ERK inhibitor pd98059 (30 mumol/L) and the JNK inhibitor sp600125 (10 mumol/L) blocked CRP-induced COX-1 and COX-2 expression for 12 h. Together, the findings of the present study suggest that CRP can promote the development of the no-reflow phenomenon by increasing COX-1 and COX-2 expression, which is regulated, in part, via ERK and JNK activity. =C2=A9 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
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  • Storage of aerobic granular sludge embedded in agar and its reactivation by real wastewater

    Cheng, Yuanyuan   Xuan, Xinpeng   Zhang, Linan   Zhao, Jue   Long, Bei  

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was preserved using an agar embedding method to maintain its stability. No obvious damage was imposed on the granular appearance during 30 days of cold and dry storage, but the granular microstructure had an uneven surface with a large number of holes. The results were consistent with the extinction of microbial communities and the monitored consumption of extracellular polymeric substances, in which granular specific oxygen utilization rate and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids/mixed liquor suspended solids ratio, respectively, decreased by 72.4% and 62.5% during storage. A mass conversation calculation indicated that the loss of granular mass was 1.6393 g. An offensive odour was smelled during storage, and the results indicated that a material transformation and mitigation were involved between AGS and the gas phase. Although the granular structure was destroyed to a certain extent, no obvious damage was imposed on the granular skeleton during storage. After it was aerated again after a feeding with real wastewater, the residual skeleton served as a carrier for the rapid proliferation of microorganisms, and good granular properties were obtained after 11 days of reactivation.
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  • Study of amphotericin B magnetic liposomes for brain targeting.

    Zhao, Mengyu   Hu, Jie   Zhang, Linan   Zhang, Li   Sun, Yongjun   Ma, Nan   Chen, Xiaolong   Gao, Zibin  

    This study aims to prepare amphotericin B magnetic liposomes (AmB-MLPs), which may improve drug concentration in brain, enhance magnetic targeting for brain and reduce drug toxicity in the presence of magnetic field. AmB-MLPs were prepared by means of film dispersion-ultrasonication, and their physical properties were characterized. In vivo, the magnetic targeting for brain by carotid artery administration was investigated. The particle size of AmB-MLPs was 240=C2=B111 nm, the encapsulation efficiency was 79.32=C2=B12.03%, and the saturation magnetization was 32.54 memu g=E2=81=BB at room temperature, which had good magnetic responsiveness. The group of AmB injection was delivered by carotid artery, nevertheless they all died after 20 min. AmB-MLPs were injected by carotid artery, and the drug concentration in brain tissue was obviously increased in presence of magnetic field than that of in absence of magnetic field (P<0.05). The Prussian blue staining in brain of SD rats showed that the density of blue staining-positive particles in brain tissue of applying magnetic field group was higher than that of non magnetic field group. These results suggested that AmB-MLPs could reinforce brain targeting and reduce drug toxicity when they were injected by carotid artery under the effect of magnetic field. Copyright =C2=A9 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Carbon influence on hydrogen absorption and adsorption on Fe-C alloy surfaces

    Tao, Xuan   Zhang, Linan   Ma, Hongxin   Xiong, Xilin   Su, Yanjing  

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  • Development of 27 trinucleotide microsatellite markers forSaccharina japonicausing next generation sequencing technology

    Zhang, Linan   Peng, Jie   Li, Xiaojie   Liu, Yanling   Cui, Cuiju   Wu, Hao   Wu, Ruina   Tian, Pingping   Li, Yan  

    Twenty-seven polymorphic trinucleotide microsatellite DNA markers were developed from Saccharina japonica, through paired-end Illumina sequencing data. Sixty-three gametophyte clones of the species, preserved indoor as germplasm resources were genotyped using these markers. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 7 with an average 4.7 per locus. The gene diversity and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.171 to 0.774 and from 0.174 to 0.793, respectively. Sixteen loci could be successfully amplified in Saccharina longissima with 12 loci being polymorphic. These novel microsatellite DNA markers will be extremely useful in germplasm resource conservation and management of S. japonica and also in its related species S. longissima.
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  • Rapid cultivation and stability of autotrophic nitrifying granular sludge

    Zhang, Linan   Long, Bei   Cheng, Yuanyuan   Wu, Junfeng   Zhang, Binchao   Zeng, Yu   Huang, Sinong   Zeng, Mingjing  

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  • Electrochemical detection of trace cadmium in soil using a Nafion/stannum film-modified molecular wire carbon paste electrodes

    Wang, Zhiqiang   Liu, Gang   Zhang, Linan   Wang, Hui  

    In this paper, a novel Nafion polymer-coated stannum film-modified carbon paste electrode was developed for the analysis of trace cadmium by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The electronic conductive material-molecular wire (diphenylacetylene)-was employed as the binder instead of traditional mineral oil for fabricating this electrode. It was found that the prepared electrode possessed excellent electrochemical performance and increased electron transfer rate due to the introduction of molecular wire as a binder, and exhibited a better sensitivity and stability as well as high resistance to surfactants due to the synergistic effect of Nafion and stannum film. Under the optimal conditions, the stripping peak currents showed a good linear relationship with the Cd(II) concentration in the range from 1.0 to 80.0 mu g L-1 with a detection limit of 0.13 mu g L-1 (S/N = 3). The developed electrode was further applied to the determination of Cd(II) in soil extracts with satisfactory results.
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  • Multiphysics and Multiscale Analysis for Chemotherapeutic Drug.

    Zhang, Linan   Kim, Sung Youb   Kim, Dongchoul  

    This paper presents a three-dimensional dynamic model for the chemotherapy design based on a multiphysics and multiscale approach. The model incorporates cancer cells, matrix degrading enzymes (MDEs) secreted by cancer cells, degrading extracellular matrix (ECM), and chemotherapeutic drug. Multiple mechanisms related to each component possible in chemotherapy are systematically integrated for high reliability of computational analysis of chemotherapy. Moreover, the fidelity of the estimated efficacy of chemotherapy is enhanced by atomic information associated with the diffusion characteristics of chemotherapeutic drug, which is obtained from atomic simulations. With the developed model, the invasion process of cancer cells in chemotherapy treatment is quantitatively investigated. The performed simulations suggest a substantial potential of the presented model for a reliable design technology of chemotherapy treatment.=20
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  • Computational analysis of the effects of matrix-degrading enzymes on cancer-cell invasion

    Zhang, Linan   Kang, Seongwon   Kim, Dongchoul  

    Cancer cells secrete matrix degrading enzymes (MDEs) and invade the extracellular matrix (ECM) that is degraded by MDEs. This paper presents a dynamic model that incorporates multiple components and mechanisms to investigate the invasion process of cancer cells. The degradation of ECM by MDEs secreted by cancer cells and the consequent influence on cancer-cell invasion are systematically investigated. The morphology and velocity of cancer cells are analytically characterized by critical factors with the developed model, which are the secreting rate of MDEs, the natural degrading rate of MDEs, and the degrading rate of ECM. The simulation results are consistent with the experimental observations and suggest a substantial potential of the presented model for computational cancer research. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []
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  • Outbursts of Comet Hale-Bopp: YANG Ben-you, ZHANG Chun-sheng, FAN Yi-xing, CAI Hong-fang, SUN Shou-sheng, ZHANG Yan & SUN Li-nan Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008

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  • On the Convergence of the SINDy Algorithm

    Zhang, Linan   Schaeffer, Hayden  

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  • Doxorubicin-Loaded Zein in Situ Gel for Interstitial Chemotherapy

    Cao, Xiaoying   Geng, Jianning   Su, Suwen   Zhang, Linan   Xu, Qian   Zhang, Li   Xie, Yinghua   Wu, Shaomei   Sun, Yongjun   Gao, Zibin  

    A novel drug delivery system of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded Zein in situ gel for interstitial chemotherapy was investigated in this study. The possible mechanisms of drug release were described according to morphological analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity studies showed that DOX-loaded Zein in situ gel was superior to DOX solution. Local pharmacokinetics in tumor tissue was studied by quantitative analysis with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) combined with microdialysis technology. A pharmacokinetics mathematical model of DOX-loaded Zein in situ gel in tumors was then built.
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  • Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals candidate genes related to structural and storage carbohydrate biosynthesis in kelp Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae)

    Zhang, Linan   Cao, Zengmei   Liang, Guangjin   Li, Xiaojie   Wu, Hao   Yang, Guanpin  

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