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Now showing items 49 - 58 of 58

  • Synthesis and characterization of hyperbranched polymers via Cp2TiCl-catalyzed self-condensing vinyl polymerization using glycidyl methacrylate as inimer

    Xiao-hui Liu   Zhong-min Dong   Xiu-lan Tang   Yue-sheng Li  

    Hyperbranched polymers were produced using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)/Cp 2TiCl 2/Zn as self-condensing vinyl polymerization (SCVP) system. The polymerization is firstly initiated by the epoxide radical ring opening catalyzed by Cp 2Ti(III)Cl generated in situ via the reaction of Cp 2TiCl 2 with Zn. By optimizing the molar ratio of the SCVP inimer (GMA) to the mediator (Cp 2Ti(III)Cl), the active propagation chains are reversibly transformed to the dormant species and the cross-linking does not occur until a higher level of monomer conversion (ca. 80%). We detail this facile one-step polymerization technique to prepare highly branched polymers with a multiplicity of particular end reactive functionalities including Ti alkoxide, hydroxyl and vinyl functional groups, which differs from most previously reported SCVP systems. [All rights reserved Elsevier].
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  • Synthesis of hyperbranched polymers via a facile self-condensing vinyl polymerization system – Glycidyl methacrylate/Cp2TiCl2/Zn

    Xiao-hui Liu   You-mei Bao   Xiu-lan Tang   Yue-sheng Li  

    A facile self-condensing vinyl polymerization (SCVP) system, the combination of glycidyl methacrylate, Cp2TiCl2 and Zn, has been firstly used to prepare novel hyperbranched polymers, consisting of vinyl polymers as the backbone, and cyclic ester polymers (poly(-caprolactone) or poly(l-lactide)) as the side chains. The polymerizations are initiated by the epoxide radical ring-opening catalyzed by Cp2Ti(III)Cl which is generated in situ via the reaction of Cp2TiCl2 with Zn. The key to success is that the polymerizations can proceed concurrently via two dissimilar chemistries possessing the opposite active initiating species, including ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP). We have demonstrated that this facile one-step polymerization technique can be applied successfully to prepare highly branched polymers with a multiplicity of end reactive functionalities including Ti alkoxide, hydroxyl and vinyl functional groups.
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  • 2-Cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate mediated reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of acrylonitrile targeting a polymer with a higher molecular weight

    Xiao-Hui Liu   Yan-Guo Li   Ying Lin   Yue-Sheng Li  

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  • Leaf mesophyll K<sup>+</sup>, H<sup>+</sup> and Ca<sup>2+</sup> fluxes are involved in drought-induced decrease in photosynthesis and stomatal closure in soybean

    Michelle Mak   Mohammad Babla   Sheng-Chun Xu   Andrew O’Carrigan   Xiao-Hui Liu   Ya-Ming Gong   Paul Holford   Zhong-Hua Chen  

    Abstract Understanding the roles of chemical signals for drought tolerance is important for improving plant water use efficiency. Microelectrode ion flux measurement (MIFE), leaf gas exchange, and stomatal imaging were employed to assess the impact of short-term, PEG-induced and prolonged drought stress on soybean plants. We developed a new method to record steady-state K + , H + and Ca 2+ fluxes from leaf mesophyll of soybean plants grown in a glasshouse over a long time period. Long-term K + , H + and Ca 2+ fluxes under drought condition differed significantly from short-term PEG-induced drought stress. Moreover, the magnitude of changes differed between the ion fluxes and the physiological and growth traits. For instance, in the severe drought treatment, differences in the magnitude of Ca 2+ efflux between the drought-stressed plants and the control were greater than the changes in aperture width, guard cell width and leaf temperature. In addition, H + influx and K + and Ca 2+ efflux of leaf mesophyll were highly significantly ( P < 0.01) correlated with many physiological traits. In summary, our results suggest that a large K + efflux, alkalisation of apoplastic pH (H + influx), and an early response of Ca 2+ efflux from leaf mesophyll are likely to serve as chemical signals and significant indicators for levels of drought stress in soybean.
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  • Number of and distance between response elements in Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 promoter influence its activation by replication and transcription activator and its repression by interferon regulatory factor 7

    Xiao-Hui Liu   Yue-Qi Liu   Xiao-Yong Shi   Ying Wang   Yun-Qi Geng   Jin-Zhong Wang  

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  • Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA.

    Greger Larson   Ranran Liu   Xingbo Zhao   Jing Yuan   Dorian Q Fuller   Loukas Barton   Keith M. Dobney   Qipeng Fan   Zhiliang Gu   Xiao-Hui Liu   Yunbing Luo   Peng Yun Lv   Leif Andersson   Ning Li  

    The establishment of agricultural economies based upon domestic animals began independently in many parts of the world and led to both increases in human population size and the migration of people carrying domestic plants and animals. The precise circumstances of the earliest phases of these events remain mysterious given their antiquity and the fact that subsequent waves of migrants have often replaced the first. Through the use of more than 1,500 modern (including 151 previously uncharacterized specimens) and 18 ancient (representing six East Asian archeological sites) pig (Sus scrofa) DNA sequences sampled across East Asia, we provide evidence for the long-term genetic continuity between modern and ancient Chinese domestic pigs. Although the Chinese case for independent pig domestication is supported by both genetic and archaeological evidence, we discuss five additional (and possibly) independent domestications of indigenous wild boar populations: one in India, three in peninsular Southeast Asia, and one off the coast of Taiwan. Collectively, we refer to these instances as "cryptic domestication," given the current lack of corroborating archaeological evidence. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of numerous populations of genetically distinct and widespread wild boar populations that have not contributed maternal genetic material to modern domestic stocks. The overall findings provide the most complete picture yet of pig evolution and domestication in East Asia, and generate testable hypotheses regarding the development and spread of early farmers in the Far East.
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  • Influence of different great trochanteric entry points on the outcome of intertrochanteric fractures: a retrospective cohort study

    Shuo Pan   Xiao-Hui Liu   Tao Feng   Hui-Jun Kang   Zhi-Guang Tian   Chun-Guang Lou  

    BackgroundThe Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation (PFNA) system for treatment of intertrochanteric fractures is currently widely applied worldwide. However, even though the PFNA has produced good clinical outcomes, a poor introduction technique with an inappropriate entry point can cause surgical complications. Some researchers suggest improving clinical outcomes by modifying the entry point, but no research has focused on this issue. The purpose of the present study is to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of two different trochanteric entry points for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures using the PFNA system.MethodsFrom May 2010 to October 2015, a total of 212 elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures who were treated with the PFNA-II system were included into this retrospective cohort study. Group LA (98 patients) was treated using a lateral anterior trochanteric entry point, and group MP (114 patients) was treated using a medial posterior trochanteric entry point. All patients underwent follow-up assessments at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Radiographic evaluation was based on the impingement, tip-apex distance (TAD) and the position of the helical blade within the femoral head. Clinical evaluation was based on the surgical time, fluoroscopy time, blood loss, hospital stay, visual analogue scale (VAS), thigh pain, and Harris hip score.ResultsThe impingement was significantly reduced (P = 0.011) in group MP. The helical blade positions were significantly lower (P = 0.001) in group MP. The TADs in group LA (22.40 ± 4.43) and group MP (23.39 ± 3.60) were not significantly different (P = 0.075). The fluoroscopy time of group LA (53.26 ± 14.44) was shorter than that of group MP (63.29 ± 11.12, P = 0.000). Five iatrogenic lateral proximal fractures and 3 helical blade cutouts occurred in group LA, but none occurred in group MP. At 1 and 3 months postoperation, the Harris hip scores were significantly higher in group MP (P = 0.001 and P = 0.000, respectively), and the VAS scores were lower (P < 0.05).ConclusionsThe medial posterior trochanteric entry point achieved excellent nail and helical blade position, reduced surgical complications, and enabled early hip function recovery but required longer fluoroscopy time than the lateral anterior trochanteric entry point.
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  • Phase I/II study of adjuvant immunotherapy with sentinel lymph node T lymphocytes in patients with colorectal cancer

    Yun-Huan Zhen   Xiao-Hui Liu   Yuan Yang   Bo Li   Jing-Ling Tang   Qiang-Xing Zeng   Jie Hu   Xing-Nan Zeng   Lu Zhang   Ze-Jun Wang   Xiao-yun Li   Hui-Xin Ge   Ola Winqvist   Ping-Sheng Hu   Jin Xiu  

    Although the development of multi-disciplinary management has improved the survival of colorectal cancer (CRC); the prognosis of metastatic CRC patients remains poor. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that immunotherapy with cancer vaccines and adoptive T cell transfusions may improve outcomes as an adjuvant to current standard CRC treatment. In this phase I/II study; 71 CRC patients who underwent radical surgery (stage I–III; n = 46) or palliative surgery (stage IV with non-resectable synchronous metastases; n = 25) were included. In the first part of this study; sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were intraoperatively identified in 55 patients (46 with stage I–III CRC and 9 with stage IV CRC). SLN-T lymphocytes were expanded ex vivo for a median of 28.5 days (range 23–33 days). Thereafter; a median of 153 × 106 cells (range 20.7–639.0 × 106) were transfused. No treatment-related toxicity was observed. In the second part of this study; the stage IV patients were routinely followed. The 24-month survival rate of the SLN-T lymphocyte group was significantly higher than that of the control group: 55.6 versus 17.5 % (p = 0.02). The median overall survival of the SLN-T lymphocyte and control groups was 28 and 14 months; respectively. Our study showed that adjuvant SLN-T lymphocyte immunotherapy is feasible and safe for postoperative CRC patients. Additionally; this therapy may improve the long-term survival of metastatic CRC. Further investigation of the clinical efficacy and anti-tumor immunity is warranted.
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  • Relationship between red blood cell distribution width and intermediate-term mortality in elderly patients after percutaneous coronary intervention

    Xinmin Liu   Changsheng Ma   Xiao-Hui Liu   Xin Du   Jun-ping Kang   Yin Zhang   Jia-hui Wu  

    BACKGROUND Large-scale clinical research on the relationship between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and intermediate-term prognosis in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is lacking. Thus, this study investigated the effects of RDW on the intermediate-term mortality of elderly patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS Data from 1891 patients ≥ 65 years old underwent elective PCI from July 2009 to September 2011 were collected. Based on preoperative median RDW (12.3%), the patients were divided into two groups. The low RDW group (RDW < 12.3%) had 899 cases; the high RDW group (RDW ≥ 12.3%) had 992 cases. The all-cause mortality rates of the two groups were compared. RESULTS Patients in the high RDW group were more likely to be female and accompanied with diabetes, had lower hemoglobin level. The mean follow-up period was 527 days. During follow-up, 61 patients died (3.2%). The postoperative mortality of the high RDW group was significantly higher than that of the low RDW group (4.3% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.004). After adjusting other factors, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that preoperative high RDW was significantly associated with postoperative all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 2.301, 95% confidence interval: 1.106-4.785, P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS Increased RDW was an independent predictor of the increased intermediate-term all-cause mortality in elderly CAD patients after elective PCI.
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  • Dusuqing granules (DSQ) suppress inflammation in Klebsiella pneumonia rat via NF-κB/MAPK signaling

    Xue Mei   Hao-Xun Wang   Jian-Sheng Li   Xiao-Hui Liu   Xiao-Fan Lu   Ya Li   Wei-Yu Zhang   Yan-Ge Tian  

    Background Dusuqing granules (DSQ) have been used in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia clinically, with remarkable benefits. This study was initiated to explore the effects of DSQ on pulmonary inflammation by regulating nuclear factor (NF)-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in bacterial pneumonia rats.MethodsRat model was duplicated with Klebsiella pneumonia by a one-time intratracheal injection. Rats were randomized into control, model, DSQ and levofloxacin (LVX) groups. After administrated with appropriate medicines for 7 days, lung tissues were harvested and prepared for pathological analysis, and interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 detections. NF-κB mRNA was measured by real-time qPCR, and the phosphorylation and total proteins of P38MAPK, JNK46/54, ERK42/44 were determined by Western blotting.ResultsMarked pathological impairments were observed in model rats, whereas were improved in DSQ group. The cytokines levels, NF-κB mRNA expression and the phosphorylation of P38MAPK, JNK46/54 and ERK42/44 proteins were significantly higher in model group, and were significantly depressed in DSQ group.ConclusionThe protective effects of DSQ on Klebsiella pneumonia might be attributed to its inactivative effects of NF-κB/ MAPK pathway.
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