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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 38

  • Registered Replication Report: Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998)

    O'Donnell, Michael   Nelson, Leif D.   Ackermann, Evi   Aczel, Balazs   Akhtar, Athfah   Aldrovandi, Silvio   Alshaif, Nasseem   Andringa, Ronald   Aveyard, Mark   Babincak, Peter   Balatekin, Nursena   Baldwin, Scott A.   Banik, Gabriel   Baskin, Ernest   Bell, Raoul   Bialobrzeska, Olga   Birt, Angie R.   Boot, Walter R.   Braithwaite, Scott R.   Briggs, Jessie C.   Buchner, Axel   Budd, Desiree   Budzik, Kathryn   Bullens, Lottie   Bulley, Richard L.   Cannon, Peter R.   Cantarero, Katarzyna   Cesario, Joseph   Chambers, Stephanie   Chartier, Christopher R.   Chekroun, Peggy   Chong, Clara   Cleeremans, Axel   Coary, Sean P.   Coulthard, Jacob   Cramwinckel, Florien M.   Denson, Thomas F.   Diaz-Lago, Marcos   DiDonato, Theresa E.   Drummond, Aaron   Eberlen, Julia   Ebersbach, Titus   Edlund, John E.   Finnigan, Katherine M.   Fisher, Justin   Frankowska, Natalia   Garcia-Sanchez, Efrain   Golom, Frank D.   Graves, Andrew J.   Greenberg, Kevin   Hanioti, Mando   Hansen, Heather A.   Harder, Jenna A.   Harrell, Erin R.   Hartanto, Andree   Inzlicht, Michael   Johnson, David J.   Karpinski, Andrew   Keller, Victor N.   Klein, Olivier   Koppel, Lina   Krahmer, Emiel   Lantian, Anthony   Larson, Michael J.   Legal, Jean-Baptiste   Lucas, Richard E.   Lynott, Dermot   Magaldino, Corey M.   Massar, Karlijn   McBee, Matthew T.   McLatchie, Neil   Melia, Nadhilla   Mensink, Michael C.   Mieth, Laura   Moore-Berg, Samantha   Neeser, Geraldine   Newell, Ben R.   Noordewier, Marret K.   Ozdogru, Asil Ali   Pantazi, Myrto   Parzuchowski, Michal   Peters, Kim   Philipp, Michael C.   Pollmann, Monique M. H.   Rentzelas, Panagiotis   Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa   Roeer, Jan Philipp   Ropovik, Ivan   Roque, Nelson A.   Rueda, Carolina   Rutjens, Bastiaan T.   Sackett, Katey   Salamon, Janos   Sanchez-Rodriguez, Angel   Saunders, Blair   Schaafsma, Juliette   Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael   Shanks, David R.   Sherman, Martin F.   Steele, Kenneth M.   Steffens, Niklas K.   Sun, Jessie   Susa, Kyle J.   Szaszi, Barnabas   Szollosi, Aba   Tamayo, Ricardo M.   Tinghog, Gustav   Tong, Yuk-yue   Tweten, Carol   Vadillo, Miguel A.   Valcarcel, Deisy   Van der Linden, Nicolas   van Elk, Michiel   van Harreveld, Frenk   Vastfjall, Daniel   Vazire, Simine   Verduyn, Philippe   Williams, Matt N.   Willis, Guillermo B.   Wood, Sarah E.   Yang, Chunliang   Zerhouni, Oulmann   Zheng, Robert   Zrubka, Mark  

    Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with a category associated with intelligence (professor) subsequently performed 13% better on a trivia test than participants primed with a category associated with a lack of intelligence (soccer hooligans). In two unpublished replications of this study designed to verify the appropriate testing procedures, Dijksterhuis, van Knippenberg, and Holland observed a smaller difference between conditions (2%-3%) as well as a gender difference: Men showed the effect (9.3% and 7.6%), but women did not (0.3% and -0.3%). The procedure used in those replications served as the basis for this multilab Registered Replication Report. A total of 40 laboratories collected data for this project, and 23 of these laboratories met all inclusion criteria. Here we report the meta-analytic results for those 23 direct replications (total N =3D 4,493), which tested whether performance on a 30-item general-knowledge trivia task differed between these two priming conditions (results of supplementary analyses of the data from all 40 labs, N =3D 6,454, are also reported). We observed no overall difference in trivia performance between participants primed with the professor category and those primed with the hooligan category (0.14%) and no moderation by gender.
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  • No Effect of Ego Depletion on Risk Taking

    Koppel, Lina   Andersson, David   Vastfjall, Daniel   Tinghog, Gustav  

    We investigated the effect of ego depletion on risk taking. Specifically, we conducted three studies (total n=3D 1,716) to test the prediction that ego depletion results in decisions that are more strongly in line with prospect theory, i.e., that ego depletion reduces risk taking for gains, increases risk taking for losses, and increases loss aversion. Ego depletion was induced using two of the most common manipulations from previous literature: the letter 'e' task (Studies 1 and 3) and the Stroop task (Study 2). Risk taking was measured using a series of standard, incentivized economic decision-making tasks assessing risk preferences in the gain domain, risk preferences in the loss domain, and loss aversion. None of the studies revealed a significant effect of ego depletion on risk taking. Our findings cast further doubts about the ability of ego-depletion manipulations to affect actual behavior in experimental settings.
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  • The effect of acute pain on risky and intertemporal choice

    Koppel, Lina   Andersson, David   Morrison, India   Posadzy, Kinga   Vastfjall, Daniel   Tinghog, Gustav  

    Pain is a highly salient and attention-demanding experience that motivates people to act. We investigated the effect of pain on decision making by delivering acute thermal pain to participants' forearm while they made risky and intertemporal choices involving money. Participants (n =3D 107) were more risk seeking under pain than in a no-pain control condition when decisions involved gains but not when they involved equivalent losses. Pain also resulted in greater preference for immediate (smaller) over future (larger) monetary rewards. We interpret these results as a motivation to offset the aversive, pain-induced state, where monetary rewards become more appealing under pain than under no pain and when delivered sooner rather than later. Our findings add to the long-standing debate regarding the role of intuition and reflection in decision making.
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  • Bullshit-sensitivity predicts prosocial behavior

    Nilsson, Artur   Tinghog, Gustav   Vastfjall, Daniel  

    Bullshit-sensitivity is the ability to distinguish pseudo-profound bullshit sentences (e.g. "Your movement transforms universal observations") from genuinely profound sentences (e.g. "The person who never made a mistake never tried something new"). Although bullshit-sensitivity has been linked to other individual difference measures, it has not yet been shown to predict any actual behavior. We therefore conducted a survey study with over a thousand participants from a general sample of the Swedish population and assessed participants' bullshit-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven bullshit sentences) and profoundness-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven genuinely profound sentences), and used these variables to predict two types of prosocial behavior (self-reported donations and a decision to volunteer for charity). Despite bullshit-receptivity and profoundness-receptivity being positively correlated with each other, logistic regression analyses showed that profoundness-receptivity had a positive association whereas bullshit-receptivity had a negative association with both types of prosocial behavior. These relations held up for the most part when controlling for potentially intermediating factors such as cognitive ability, time spent completing the survey, sex, age, level of education, and religiosity. The results suggest that people who are better at distinguishing the pseudo-profound from the actually profound are more prosocial.
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  • Examining the Triple Code Model in numerical cognition: An fMRI study.

    Skagenholt, Mikael   Traff, Ulf   Vastfjall, Daniel   Skagerlund, Kenny  

    The Triple Code Model (TCM) of numerical cognition argues for the existence of three representational codes for number: Arabic digits, verbal number words, and analog nonsymbolic magnitude representations, each subserved by functionally dissociated neural substrates. Despite the popularity of the TCM, no study to date has explored all three numerical codes within one fMRI paradigm. We administered three tasks, associated with each of the aforementioned numerical codes, in order to explore the neural correlates of numerosity processing in a sample of adults (N =3D 46). Independent task-control contrast analyses revealed task-dependent activity in partial support of the model, but also highlight the inherent complexity of a distributed and overlapping fronto-parietal network involved in all numerical codes. The results indicate that the TCM correctly predicts the existence of some functionally dissociated neural substrates, but requires an update that accounts for interactions with attentional processes. Parametric contrasts corresponding to differences in task difficulty revealed specific neural correlates of the distance effect, where closely spaced numbers become more difficult to discriminate than numbers spaced further apart. A conjunction analysis illustrated overlapping neural correlates across all tasks, in line with recent proposals for a fronto-parietal network of number processing. We additionally provide tentative results suggesting the involvement of format-independent numerosity-sensitive retinotopic maps in the early visual stream, extending previous findings of nonsymbolic stimulus selectivity. We discuss the functional roles of the components associated with the model, as well as the purported fronto-parietal network, and offer arguments in favor of revising the TCM.=20
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  • Exposure to arousal-inducing sounds facilitates visual search

    Asutay, Erkin   Vastfjall, Daniel  

    Exposure to affective stimuli could enhance perception and facilitate attention via increasing alertness, vigilance, and by decreasing attentional thresholds. However, evidence on the impact of affective sounds on perception and attention is scant. Here, a novel aspect of affective facilitation of attention is studied: whether arousal induced by task-irrelevant auditory stimuli could modulate attention in a visual search. In two experiments, participants performed a visual search task with and without auditory-cues that preceded the search. Participants were faster in locating high-salient targets compared to low-salient targets. Critically, search times and search slopes decreased with increasing auditory-induced arousal while searching for low-salient targets. Taken together, these findings suggest that arousal induced by sounds can facilitate attention in a subsequent visual search. This novel finding provides support for the alerting function of the auditory system by showing an auditory-phasic alerting effect in visual attention. The results also indicate that stimulus arousal modulates the alerting effect. Attention and perception are our everyday tools to navigate our surrounding world and the current findings showing that affective sounds could influence visual attention provide evidence that we make use of affective information during perceptual processing.
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  • Attitudes and Donation Behavior When Reading Positive and Negative Charity Appeals

    Erlandsson, Arvid   Nilsson, Artur   Vastfjall, Daniel  

    This article tries to clarify whether negative charity appeals (i.e., advertisements emphasizing the bad consequences of not helping) or positive charity appeals (i.e., advertisements emphasizing the good consequences of helping) are more effective. Previous literature does not provide a single answer to this question and we suggest that one contributing reason for this is that different studies have operationalized appeal effectiveness in different ways (e.g., actual behavior, self-rated helping intentions, or expressed attitudes about the ad or the organization). Results from four separate studies suggest that positive appeals are more effective in inducing favorable attitudes toward the ad and toward the organization but that negative appeals are more effective (in studies 1A and 1B) or at least equally effective (in studies 1C and 1D) in eliciting actual donations. Also, although people's attitude toward the appeal (i.e., liking) was a good predictor for the expected effectiveness in increasing donation behavior (in Study 2), it was a poor predictor of actual donation behavior in all four main studies. These results cast doubt on marketing theories suggesting that attitudes toward an advertisement and toward the brand always lead to higher purchase behavior.
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    Lindvall, Johan   Vastfjall, Daniel  

    This study examined the effect of the interior sounds of an aircraft cockpit on ratings of affect and expected performance decrement. While exposed to 12 interior aircraft sounds, of which half were modified to correspond to what is experienced with an active noise reduction (ANR) headset, 23 participants rated their affective reactions and how they believed their performance on various tasks would be affected. The results suggest that implementation of ANR-technique has a positive effect on ratings of expected performance. In addition, affective reactions to the noise are related to ratings of expected performance. The implications of these findings for both research and pilot performance are discussed.
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  • Intuition and cooperation reconsidered.

    Tinghog, Gustav   Andersson, David   Bonn, Caroline   Bottiger, Harald   Josephson, Camilla   Lundgren, Gustaf   Vastfjall, Daniel   Kirchler, Michael   Johannesson, Magnus  

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  • Emotional Responses to Information and Warning Sounds

    Vastfjall, Daniel   Bergman, Penny  

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  • Compassion fade: affect and charity are greatest for a single child in need.

    Vastfjall, Daniel   Slovic, Paul   Mayorga, Marcus   Peters, Ellen  

    Charitable giving in 2013 exceeded $300 billion, but why do we respond to some life-saving causes while ignoring others? In our first two studies, we demonstrated that valuation of lives is associated with affective feelings (self-reported and psychophysiological) and that a decline in compassion may begin with the second endangered life. In Study 3, this fading of compassion was reversed by describing multiple lives in a more unitary fashion. Study 4 extended our findings to loss-frame scenarios. Our capacity to feel sympathy for people in need appears limited, and this form of compassion fatigue can lead to apathy and inaction, consistent with what is seen repeatedly in response to many large-scale human and environmental catastrophes. =20
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  • The (Null) Effect of Affective Touch on Betrayal Aversion,Altruism,and Risk Taking

    Koppel, Lina   Andersson, David   Morrison, India   Vastfjall, Daniel   Tinghog, Gustav  

    Pleasant touch is thought to increase the release of oxytocin. Oxytocin, in turn, has been extensively studied with regards to its effects on trust and prosocial behavior, but results remain inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of touch on economic decision making. Participants (n =3D 120) were stroked on their left arm using a soft brush (touch condition) or not at all (control condition; varied within subjects), while they performed a series of decision tasks assessing betrayal aversion (the Betrayal Aversion Elicitation Task), altruism (donating money to a charitable organization), and risk taking (the Balloon Analog Risk Task). We found no significant effect of touch on any of the outcome measures, neither within nor between subjects. Furthermore, effects were not moderated by gender or attachment. However, attachment avoidance had a significant effect on altruism in that those who were high in avoidance donated less money. Our findings contribute to the understanding of affective touch-and, by extension, oxytocin-in social behavior, and decision making by showing that touch does not directly influence performance in tasks involving risk and prosocial decisions. Specifically, our work casts further doubt on the validity of oxytocin research in humans.
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  • Scope insensitivity in helping decisions: Is it a matter of culture and values?

    Kogut, Tehila   Slovic, Paul   Vastfjall, Daniel  

    The singularity effect of identifiable victims refers to people's greater willingness to help a single concrete victim compared with a group of victims experiencing the same need. We present 3 studies exploring values and cultural sources of this effect. In the first study, the singularity effect was found only among Western Israelis and not among Bedouin participants (a more collectivist group). In Study 2, individuals with higher collectivist values were more likely to contribute to a group of victims. Finally, the third study demonstrates a more causal relationship between collectivist values and the singularity effect by showing that enhancing people's collectivist values using a priming manipulation produces similar donations to single victims and groups. Moreover, participants' collectivist preferences mediated the interaction between the priming conditions and singularity of the recipient. Implications for several areas of psychology and ways to enhance caring for groups in need are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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  • Iconic photographs and the ebb and flow of empathic response to humanitarian disasters

    Slovic, Paul   Vastfjall, Daniel   Erlandsson, Arvid   Gregory, Robin  

    The power of visual imagery is well known, enshrined in such familiar sayings as "seeing is believing" and "a picture is worth a thousand words." Iconic photos stir our emotions and transform our perspectives about life and the world in which we live. On September 2, 2015, photographs of a young Syrian child, Aylan Kurdi, lying face-down on a Turkish beach, filled the front pages of newspapers worldwide. These images brought much-needed attention to the Syrian war that had resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths and created millions of refugees. Here we present behavioral data demonstrating that, in this case, an iconic photo of a single child had more impact than statistical reports of hundreds of thousands of deaths. People who had been unmoved by the relentlessly rising death toll in Syria suddenly appeared to care much more after having seen Aylan's photograph; however, this newly created empathy waned rather quickly. We briefly examine the psychological processes underlying these findings, discuss some of their policy implications, and reflect on the lessons they provide about the challenges to effective intervention in the face of mass threats to human well-being.
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  • When Room Size Matters: Acoustic Influences on Emotional Responses to Sounds

    Larsson, Pontus   Valjamae, Aleksander   Vastfjall, Daniel   Kleiner, Mendel  

    When people hear a sound (a "sound object" or a "sound event") the perceived auditory space around them might modulate their emotional responses to it. Spaces can affect both the acoustic properties of the sound event itself and may also impose boundaries to the actions one can take with respect to this event. Virtual acoustic rooms of different sizes were used in a subjective and psychophysiological experiment that evaluated the influence of the auditory space perception on emotional responses to various sound sources. Participants (N = 20) were exposed to acoustic spaces with sound source positions and room acoustic properties varying across the experimental conditions. The results suggest that, overall, small rooms were considered more pleasant, calmer, and safer than big rooms, although this effect of size seems to disappear when listening to threatening sound sources. Sounds heard behind the listeners tended to be more arousing, and elicited larger physiological changes than sources in front of the listeners. These effects were more pronounced for natural, compared to artificial, sound sources, as confirmed by subjective and physiological measures.
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  • Perceptual and emotional categorization of sound

    Bergman, Penny   Skold, Anders   Vastfjall, Daniel   Fransson, Niklas  

    This paper investigates how different types of data from psychoacoustical experiments may be combined to render further knowledge about the mechanisms underlying sound perception. Two studies were conducted with auditory alerts of short duration. First, an experiment where participants rated the dissimilarity among the auditory alerts was performed. This resulted in a two-dimensional multi-dimensional scaling solution. Second, an experiment where participants evaluated the stimuli with semantic descriptors and rated their emotional reactions to the sounds was performed. The output of this experiment was a reduced set of underlying perceptual and emotional dimensions. The results of the two experiments were then integrated by the use of multi-dimensional perceptual unfolding and a set mediation analyses. The integrative analyses showed that part of the cognitive categorization of the semantic descriptors was mediated by the emotional reactions to the sounds. The results are discussed in relation to theories of auditory perception and emotional response categorization.
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