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Now showing items 1 - 3 of 3

  • AthCNV: A Map of DNA Copy Number Variations in the Arabidopsis Genome

    Zmienko, Agnieszka   Marszalek-Zenczak, Malgorzata   Wojciechowski, Pawel   Samelak-Czajka, Anna   Luczak, Magdalena   Kozlowski, Piotr   Karlowski, Wojciech M.   Figlerowicz, Marek  

    A catalog of large copy number variations (CNVs), CNV-overlapping genes, and their genotypes in 1060 Arabidopsis accessions will stimulate studies on the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. Copy number variations (CNVs) greatly contribute to intraspecies genetic polymorphism and phenotypic diversity. Recent analyses of sequencing data for >1000 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions focused on small variations and did not include CNVs. Here, we performed genome-wide analysis and identified large indels (50 to 499 bp) and CNVs (500 bp and larger) in these accessions. The CNVs fully overlap with 18.3% of protein-coding genes, with enrichment for evolutionarily young genes and genes involved in stress and defense. By combining analysis of both genes and transposable elements (TEs) affected by CNVs, we revealed that the variation statuses of genes and TEs are tightly linked and jointly contribute to the unequal distribution of these elements in the genome. We also determined the gene copy numbers in a set of 1060 accessions and experimentally validated the accuracy of our predictions by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assays. We then successfully used the CNVs as markers to analyze population structure and migration patterns. Finally, we examined the impact of gene dosage variation triggered by a CNV spanning the SEC10 gene on SEC10 expression at both the transcript and protein levels. The catalog of CNVs, CNV-overlapping genes, and their genotypes in a top model dicot will stimulate the exploration of the genetic basis of phenotypic variation.
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  • Selection of reference genes for qPCR- and ddPCR-based analyses of gene expression in Senescing Barley leaves.

    Zmienko, Agnieszka   Samelak-Czajka, Anna   Goralski, Michal   Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, Ewa   Kozlowski, Piotr   Figlerowicz, Marek  

    Leaf senescence is a tightly regulated developmental or stress-induced process. It is accompanied by dramatic changes in cell metabolism and structure, eventually leading to the disintegration of chloroplasts, the breakdown of leaf proteins, internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA and ultimately cell death. In light of the global and intense reorganization of the senescing leaf transcriptome, measuring time-course gene expression patterns in this model is challenging due to the evident problems associated with selecting stable reference genes. We have used oligonucleotide microarray data to identify 181 genes with stable expression in the course of dark-induced senescence of barley leaf. From those genes, we selected 5 candidates and confirmed their invariant expression by both reverse transcription quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). We used the selected reference genes to normalize the level of the expression of the following senescence-responsive genes in ddPCR assays: SAG12, ICL, AGXT, CS and RbcS. We were thereby able to achieve a substantial reduction in the data variability. Although the use of reference genes is not considered mandatory in ddPCR assays, our results show that it is advisable in special cases, specifically those that involve the following conditions: i) a low number of repeats, ii) the detection of low-fold changes in gene expression or iii) series data comparisons (such as time-course experiments) in which large sample variation greatly affects the overall gene expression profile and biological interpretation of the data. =20
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  • Arabidopsis thaliana population analysis reveals high plasticity of the genomic region spanning MSH2,AT3G18530 and AT3G18535 genes and provides evidence for NAHR-driven recurrent CNV events occurring in this location

    Zmienko, Agnieszka   Samelak-Czajka, Anna   Kozlowski, Piotr   Szymanska, Maja  

    Background: Intraspecies copy number variations (CNVs), defined as unbalanced structural variations of specific genomic loci, >=3D 1 kb in size, are present in the genomes of animals and plants. A growing number of examples indicate that CNVs may have functional significance and contribute to phenotypic diversity. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana at least several hundred protein-coding genes might display CNV; however, locus-specific genotyping studies in this plant have not been conducted.Results: We analyzed the natural CNVs in the region overlapping MSH2 gene that encodes the DNA mismatch repair protein, and AT3G18530 and AT3G18535 genes that encode poorly characterized proteins. By applying multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and droplet digital PCR we genotyped those genes in 189 A. thaliana accessions. We found that AT3G18530 and AT3G18535 were duplicated (2-14 times) in 20 and deleted in 101 accessions. MSH2 was duplicated in 12 accessions (up to 12-14 copies) but never deleted. In all but one case, the MSH2 duplications were associated with those of AT3G18530 and AT3G18535. Considering the structure of the CNVs, we distinguished 5 genotypes for this region, determined their frequency and geographical distribution. We defined the CNV breakpoints in 35 accessions with AT3G18530 and AT3G18535 deletions and tandem duplications and showed that they were reciprocal events, resulting from non-allelic homologous recombination between 99 %-identical sequences flanking these genes. The widespread geographical distribution of the deletions supported by the SNP and linkage disequilibrium analyses of the genomic sequence confirmed the recurrent nature of this CNV.Conclusions: We characterized in detail for the first time the complex multiallelic CNV in Arabidopsis genome. The region encoding MSH2, AT3G18530 and AT3G18535 genes shows enormous variation of copy numbers among natural ecotypes, being a remarkable example of high Arabidopsis genome plasticity. We provided the molecular insight into the mechanism underlying the recurrent nature of AT3G18530-AT3G18535 duplications/deletions. We also performed the first direct comparison of the two leading experimental methods, suitable for assessing the DNA copy number status. Our comprehensive case study provides foundation information for further analyses of CNV evolution in Arabidopsis and other plants, and their possible use in plant breeding.
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