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    A method by which a sound event detecting apparatus operates may comprise the steps of: receiving a sound input; extracting the frequency characteristic of the sound input; determining, by analyzing the extracted frequency characteristic, whether a first sound event has occurred; when it is determined that the first sound event has occurred, acquiring data relating to at least one from among sound, an image, and a video, from outside of the sound event detecting apparatus; and transmitting the acquired data to a first device.
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  • Rewritable, Printable Conducting Liquid Metal Hydrogel

    Park, Jung-Eun   Kang, Han Sol   Baek, Jonghyek   Park, Tae Hyun   Oh, Seunghee   Lee, Hyungsuk   Koo, Min   Park, Cheolmin  

    The development of high-performance printable electrical circuits, particularly based on liquid metals, is fundamental for device interconnection in flexible electronics, motivating numerous attempts to develop a variety of alloys and their composites. Despite their great potential, rewritable and printable electronic circuits based on liquid metals are still manufactured on demand. In this study, we demonstrate liquid metal-based hydrogels suitable for rewritable, printable electrical circuits. Our liquid metal hydrogels are based on sedimentation-induced composites of eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) particles in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The EGaIn particles are vertically phase-segregated in the PEGDA. When a composite surface with high EGaIn content is gently scratched, the surface covering PEGDA is removed, followed by the rupture of the native oxide layers of the particles, and the exposed EGaIn becomes conductive. The subsequent water-driven swelling of PEGDA on the scratched surface completely erases the conductive circuit, causing the system to reset. Our friction-responsive liquid metal hydrogel exhibits writing erasing endurance for 20 cycles, with a dramatic change in the electrical resistance from metal (similar to 1 Omega) to insulator (similar to 10(7) Omega). By employing surface friction pen printing, we demonstrate mechanically flexible, rewritable, printable electrical conductors suitable for displays.
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  • Shape-Adaptable 2D Titanium Carbide (MXene) Heater

    Park, Tae Hyun   Yu, Seunggun   Koo, Min   Kim, Hyerim   Kim, Eui Hyuk   Park, Jung-Eun   Ok, Byeori   Kim, Byeonggwan   Noh, Sung Hyun   Park, Chanho   Kim, Eunkyoung   Koo, Chong Min   Park, Cheolmin  

    Prior to the advent of the next-generation heater for wearable/on-body electronic devices, various properties are required, including conductivity, transparency, mechanical reliability, and conformability. Expansion to two-dimensional (2D) structure of metallic nanowires based on network- and mesh-type geometries has been widely exploited for realizing these heaters. However, the routes led to many drawbacks such as the low density cross-bar linking, self-aggregation of wire, and high junction resistance. Although 2D carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have shown their potentials for the purpose, CVD-grown graphene with sufficiently high conductivity was limited due to its poor processability for large-area applications, while rGO fabricated with a complex reduction process involving the use of toxic chemicals suffered from a low electrical conductivity. In this study, we demonstrate a simple and robust process, utilizing electrostatic assembling of negatively charged MXene flakes on a positively treated surface of substrate, for fabricating a metal-like 2D MXene thin film heater (TFH). Our TFH showed a high optical property (>65%), low sheet resistance (215 Omega/sq), fast electrothermal response (within dozens of seconds) with an intrinsically high electrical conductivity, and mechanical flexibility (up to 180 degrees bending). Its capability for forming a firm and stable ionic-type interface with a counterpart surface allows us to develop a shape-adaptable and patchable thread heater (TH) that can be shaped on diverse substrates even under harsh conditions of conventional sewing or weaving processes. This work suggests that our shape-adaptable MXene heaters are potentially suitable not only for wearable devices for local heating and defrosting but also for a variety of emerging applications of soft actuators and wearable/flexible healthcare monitoring and thermotherapy.
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    A composition for increasing stability of milk cream is provided. The composition can be useful in improving functionalities and physical properties such as foam stability, shape retention capacity and water retention efficacy without affecting the flavor during whipping the milk cream. The composition can be prepared by mixing 0.4 to 0.5 parts by weight of a stabilizer, 0.4 to 0.5 parts by weight of a protein, and 5 to 7 parts by weight of a saccharide, based on 100 parts by weight of the milk cream. The stabilizer includes at least two selected from the group consisting of dextrin, guar gum, sodium alginate, microcrystalline cellulose, carrageenan, and locust bean gum, the protein includes at least one selected from the group consisting of a milk protein, a soybean protein, and a corn protein, and the saccharide includes at least one selected from the group consisting of saccharose, glucose, fructose, sorbitol, and maltitol.
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  • Molecular architecture of a cylindrical self-assembly at human centrosomes

    Kim, Tae-Sung   Zhang, Liang   Il Ahn, Jong   Meng, Lingjun   Chen, Yang   Lee, Eunhye   Bang, Jeong Kyu   Lim, Jung Mi   Ghirlando, Rodolfo   Fan, Lixin   Wang, Yun-Xing   Kim, Bo Yeon   Park, Jung-Eun   Lee, Kyung S.  

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  • Molecular architecture of a cylindrical self-assembly at human centrosomes

    Kim, Tae-Sung   Zhang, Liang   Ahn, Jong Il   Meng, Lingjun   Chen, Yang   Lee, Eunhye   Bang, Jeong Kyu   Lim, Jung Mi   Ghirlando, Rodolfo   Fan, Lixin   Wang, Yun-Xing   Kim, Bo Yeon   Park, Jung-Eun   Lee, Kyung S.  

    The cell is constructed by higher-order structures and organelles through complex interactions among distinct structural constituents. The centrosome is a membraneless organelle composed of two microtubule-derived structures called centrioles and an amorphous mass of pericentriolar material. Super-resolution microscopic analyses in various organisms revealed that diverse pericentriolar material proteins are concentrically localized around a centriole in a highly organized manner. However, the molecular nature underlying these organizations remains unknown. Here we show that two human pericentriolar material scaffolds, Cep63 and Cep152, cooperatively generate a heterotetrameric alpha-helical bundle that functions in conjunction with its neighboring hydrophobic motifs to self-assemble into a higher-order cylindrical architecture capable of recruiting downstream components, including Plk4, a key regulator for centriole duplication. Mutations disrupting the self-assembly abrogate Plk4-mediated centriole duplication. Because pericentriolar material organization is evolutionarily conserved, this work may offer a paradigm for investigating the assembly and function of centrosomal scaffolds in various organisms.
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  • Combustion and Thermal Characteristics of Korean Wood Species

    Seo, Hyun Jeong   Park, Jung-Eun   Son, Dong Won  

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    The present invention relates to a thermoplastic resin composition and can provide a thermoplastic resin composition comprising: a thermoplastic resin; a modified polycarbonate; and a diene-based copolymer.
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  • Putting a bit into the polo-box domain of polo-like kinase 1

    Park, Jung-Eun   Kim, Tae-Sung   Meng, Lingjun   Bang, Jeong K.   Kim, Bo Y.   Lee, Kyung S.  

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) plays key roles in regulating various mitotic processes that are critical for cellular proliferation. A growing body of evidence suggests that Plk1 overexpression is tightly associated with the development of human cancers. Interestingly, various types of cancer cells are shown to be addicted to a high level of Plk1, and the reversal of Plk1 addiction appears to be an effective strategy for selectively killing cancer cells, but not normal cells. Therefore, Plk1 is considered an attractive anticancer drug target. Over the years, a large number of inhibitors that target the catalytic activity of Plk1 have been developed. However, these inhibitors exhibit significant levels of cross-reactivity with related kinases, including Plk2 and Plk3. Consequently, as an alternative approach for developing anti-Plk1 therapeutics, substantial effort is under way to develop inhibitors that target the C-terminal protein–protein interaction domain of Plk1, called the polo-box domain (PBD). In this communication, I will discuss the pros and cons of targeting the PBD in comparison to those of targeting the ATP-binding site within the kinase domain.
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  • Analysis of parabens in dentifrices and the oral cavity.

    Park, Yong-Duk   Jang, Jong-Hwa   Park, Jung-Eun   Kim, Ji Hyun   Kim, Eun-Cheol   Song, Yun-Jung   Kwon, Ha-Jeong  

    This study analyzed levels of parabens in commercial dentifrices and saliva. HPLC was performed using 35% acetonitrile and measuring absorbance at 254nm. Thirteen toothpastes and five mouthwashes were analyzed. Of these, volunteers used three toothpastes and two mouthwashes, and levels of parabens were analyzed in saliva and water used for mouth rinsing. In toothpastes, the highest concentrations of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP) and n-butylparaben (nBP) were 1.86, 1.42 and 1.87mg/g, respectively. In mouthwashes, the highest concentrations of MP and PP were 0.97 and 0.11mg/mL, respectively. After volunteers used 500mg toothpaste T-1, which contained 895g MP, the first and tenth mouth rinse samples contained means of 64.63 and 1.89g MP, respectively. After rinsing the mouth three or five times, 37g or 18g MP was calculated to remain in the oral cavity, respectively. After using 20mL mouthwash S-1, which contained 19mg MP, 1.53mg MP was calculated to remain in the oral cavity. Immediately after using this mouthwash, the mean salivary concentration of MP was 237g/mL. The daily intake of parabens from dentifrices was predicted to be insignificant compared with the intake from food; however, parabens can be ingested from dentifrices. Copyright =C2=A9 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • Recent Advances and New Strategies in Targeting Plk1 for Anticancer Therapy.

    Lee, Kyung S   Burke, Terrence R Jr   Park, Jung-Eun   Bang, Jeong K   Lee, Eunhye  

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) plays key roles in regulating mitotic processes that are crucial for cellular proliferation. Overexpression of Plk1 is tightly associated with the development of particular cancers in humans, and a large body of evidence suggests that Plk1 is an attractive target for anticancer therapeutic development. Drugs targeting Plk1 can potentially be directed at two distinct sites: the N-terminal catalytic kinase domain (KD), which phosphorylates substrates, and the C-terminal polo-box domain (PBD) which is essential for protein-protein interactions. In this review we summarize recent advances and new challenges in the development of Plk1 inhibitors targeting these two domains. We also discuss novel strategies for designing and developing next-generation inhibitors to effectively treat Plk1-associated human disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  • Lipidation increases antiviral activities of coronavirus fusion-inhibiting peptides

    Park, Jung-Eun   Gallagher, Tom  

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    Provided are a polycarbonate resin composition and molded products using same, wherein the composition comprises: (A) a polycarbonate resin; (B) a first rubber modified vinyl-based graft copolymer including a first rubber having an average particle diameter of 6 to 20 µm and a span of 0.8 to 2.8; and (C) a second rubber modified vinyl-based graft copolymer including a second rubber having an average particle diameter of 0.1 to 0.5 µm.
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    Isolated peptide substrates of Plk1 and nucleic acids encoding these peptides are disclosed. The peptides include two to ten repeats of the amino acid sequence set forth as X1X2AX3X4X5PLHSTX6X7X8X9X10X11X12 (SEQ ID NO: 1), in which within each repeat X1, X2, X6, X7, X8, X9, X10, X11, and X12 are each independently any amino acid or no amino acid, and X3 and X4 are each independently any amino acid. Methods of using these peptides to detect Plk1 activity in a sample are also disclosed. In some examples, the method includes contacting a sample with a disclosed peptide substrate of Plk1 in the presence of adenosine triphosphate, or an analog thereof, for a period of time sufficient for Plk1 to phosphorylate the PBIPtide. The presence and/or amount of the phosphorylated and/or the unphosphorylated peptide is detected, thereby detecting and/or quatitating Plk1kinase activity in the sample.
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  • A self-propelled biological process

    Park, Jung-Eun   Erikson, Raymond L.   Lee, Kyung S.  

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  • Mouse-adapted MERS coronavirus causes lethal lung disease in human DPP4 knockin mice

    Li, Kun   Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.   Channappanavar, Rudragouda   Park, Jung-Eun   Earnest, James T.   Bair, Thomas B.   Bates, Amber M.   Brogden, Kim A.   Flaherty, Heather A.   Gallagher, Tom   Meyerholz, David K.   Perlman, Stanley   McCray, Paul B., Jr.  

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012, caused by a zoonotically transmitted coronavirus (CoV). Over 1,900 cases have been reported to date, with similar to 36% fatality rate. Lack of autopsies from MERS cases has hindered understanding of MERS-CoV pathogenesis. A small animal model that develops progressive pulmonary manifestations when infected with MERS-CoV would advance the field. As mice are restricted to infection at the level of DPP4, the MERS-CoV receptor, we generated mice with humanized exons 10-12 of the mouse Dpp4 locus. Upon inoculation withMERS-CoV, human DPP4 knockin (KI) mice supported virus replication in the lungs, but developed no illness. After 30 serial passages through the lungs of KI mice, a mouse-adapted virus emerged (MERSMA) that grew in lungs to over 100 times higher titers than the starting virus. A plaque-purified MERSMA clone caused weight loss and fatal infection. Virus antigen was observed in airway epithelia, pneumocytes, and macrophages. Pathologic findings included diffuse alveolar damage with pulmonary edema and hyaline membrane formation associated with accumulation of activated inflammatory monocyte-macrophages and neutrophils in the lungs. Relative to the parental MERS-CoV, MERSMA viruses contained 13-22 mutations, including several within the spike (S) glycoprotein gene. S-protein mutations sensitized viruses to entry-activating serine proteases and conferred more rapid entry kinetics. Recombinant MERSMA bearing mutant S proteins were more virulent than the parental virus in hDPP4 KI mice. The hDPP4 KI mouse and the MERSMA provide tools to investigate disease causes and develop new therapies.
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