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    Provided are a polarizing plate and an optical display device including same, the polarizing plate comprising a polarizing film and a contrast ratio enhancement layer formed on a light-emitting surface of the polarizing film, wherein the contrast ratio enhancement layer comprises: a first resin layer including a pattern unit having one or more engraved patterns and a flat portion formed between the engraved patterns; and a second resin layer directly formed on the pattern unit, wherein the engraved patterns have a base angle of approximately 75° to approximately 90°, the pattern unit satisfies formula 1, the first resin layer has a refractive index larger than that of the second resin layer, and the first resin layer includes a dye of which the maximum absorption wavelength is approximately 550 nm to approximately 620 nm.
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    The present invention relates to modular signal conversion apparatus and method, and in particular, disclosed is a signal conversion apparatus which is modularized for digital content playback to allow combining and using with other electronic apparatuses.
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    The present invention relates to a conductive flexible element. The conductive flexible element (1) of the present invention comprises: a substrate unit (10); and an electrode unit (20) disposed on at least one surface of the substrate unit (10), wherein an auxetic structure (30) is inserted into the substrate unit (10).
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    A polarizer and optical display device comprising the same are disclosed. Specifically, the polarizer comprises: a polarizing film; and a contrast ratio improving film formed on one surface of the polarizing film, wherein the contrast ratio improving film comprises a contrast ratio improving layer consisting of a first protective layer, and first and second resin layers facing each other, and the first resin layer has: pattern parts having two or more optical patterns on one surface thereof that faces the second resin layer and a flat part between the optical pattern and another immediately adjacent optical pattern.
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    An optical sheet of the present invention comprises: a protective part which includes a light incident surface and a light emission surface facing the light incident surface; an optical pattern layer formed on the light incident surface; and a polarizer formed on the light emission surface, wherein the light incident on the light incident surface forms an angle (θ1) of about 50 ° to about 85 ° with respect to the normal of the light incident surface, the light emitted from the light emission surface forms an angle (θ2) of about ± 30 ° or more with respect to the normal of the light emission surface, and the luminance at the emission angle of the side-lobe is 10% or less of the luminance emitted in the normal direction of the light emission surface.
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    Provided are an optical sheet and an optical display device comprising the same, the optical sheet comprising: a substrate layer; an optical pattern layer formed on the light incident surface of the substrate layer and comprising one or more first optical patterns; and a composite layer formed on the light emission surface of the substrate layer, wherein the composite layer comprises a first refractive index pattern layer and second refractive index pattern layer formed right on top of the first refractive index pattern layer, the refractive index of the first refractive index pattern layer is different from that of the second refractive index pattern layer, and the first refractive index pattern layer comprises one or more second optical patterns.
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    The present invention relates to a cover for a motor housing, in a motor comprising: a motor housing having a cooling fin installed on the outer circumferential surface thereof; a cover installed in one side of the motor housing; a rotation shaft installed so as to penetrate through the motor housing and the cover; a bearing installed between the rotation shaft and the cover; and a fan hood having a cooling fan therein and installed in the other side of the motor housing, the cover for a motor housing comprising: a first main body unit having a first hollow hole formed in the central portion thereof; a second main body unit installed in the inner side surface of the first main body unit; and a plurality of cooling flow paths, formed between the first main body unit and the second main body unit, for cooling the bearing by means of air discharged by the cooling fan.
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    The present invention relates to an apparatus for cooling a motor, the apparatus comprising: a fan hood which has an air inlet through which external air is introduced and forms, together with a motor housing, an air outlet to discharge air to the outer surface of the motor housing; and a blowing fan for introducing air into the air inlet of the fan hood to forcibly discharge the air to the air outlet, wherein the fan hood has a bent portion extending from a distal end of the air outlet toward the motor housing, thereby increasing the speed of air supplied to the outer surface of the motor housing, and thus remarkably reducing the surface temperature of the motor housing.
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  • Global Analysis of Intercellular Homeodomain Protein Transfer

    Lee, Eun Jung   Kim, Namsuk   Park, Jun Woo   Kang, Kyung Hwa   Kim, Woo-il   Sim, Nam Suk   Jeong, Chan-Seok   Blackshaw, Seth   Vidal, Marc   Huh, Sung-Oh   Kim, Dongsup   Lee, Jeong Ho   Kim, Jin Woo  

    The homeodomain is found in hundreds of transcription factors that play roles in fate determination via cell-autonomous regulation of gene expression. However, some homeodomain-containing proteins (HPs) are thought to be secreted and penetrate neighboring cells to affect the recipient cell fate. To determine whether this is a general characteristic of HPs, we carried out a large-scale validation for intercellular transfer of HPs. Our screening reveals that intercellular transfer is a general feature of HPs, but it occurs in a cell-context-sensitive manner. We also found the secretion is not solely a function of the homeodomain, but it is supported by external motifs containing hydrophobic residues. Thus, mutations of hydrophobic residues of HPs abrogate secretion and consequently interfere with HP function in recipient cells. Collectively, our study proposes that HP transfer is an intercellular communication method that couples the functions of interacting cells.
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  • -Amyloid-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Kim, Ju Eun   Shrestha, Abinash Chandra   Kim, Hyo Shin   Ham, Ha Neul   Kim, Jun Hyeong   Kim, Yeong Jee   Noh, Yun Jeong   Kim, Su Jin   Kim, Dae Keun   Jo, Hyung Kwon   Kim, Dae Sung   Moon, Kwang Hyun   Lee, Jeong Ho   Jeong, Kyung Ok   Leem, Jae Yoon  

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    The present invention provides a stud type fastener having a structure capable of performing a stud type fastener fixing operation even with relatively small impact force and capable of forming and maintaining a firmer fixed state in a base member. Therefore, the present invention relates to a metal stud type fastener comprising: a stud body having a rod shape, which has a spiral combination part formed at the upper part thereof and having a male screw or a female screw so as to be spirally combined with a nut or a bolt, and has a root part formed at the lower part thereof to be forcibly wedged into and fixed to a fixing hole of a base member; and a plate type cover part located between the spiral combination part and the root part and spread to the outside at the circumference of the stud body so as to cover the fixing hole above the fixing hole when the root part is fixed to the fixing hole, wherein the root part having a cylindrical rod shape has a fluid discharge passage formed at the outer surface thereof in a continuously notched form in the vertical direction and of which the lower end is open toward the bottom of the root part.
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  • Severe Hypocalcemia in a Patient with Recurrent Chondrosarcoma

    Eun, Jung Nam   Choi, Yoo Duk   Lee, Jeong Ho   Jeong, Yun Ah   Yoon, Jee Hee   Kim, Hee Kyung   Kang, Ho-Cheol  

    Hypocalcemia is relatively uncommon paraneoplastic syndrome. Only one case of hypocalcemia has been reported in a patient with chondrosarcoma. We herein report a case of a 32-year-old woman with metastatic chondrosarcoma with tetany. Her imaging findings revealed multiple calcific metastatic lesions in the lungs, pancreas, left atrium, and pulmonary vein. A laboratory examination showed hypocalcemia with no evidence of any other disease that could induce hypocalcemia. On the basis of the laboratory and clinical findings, we concluded the etiology of her severe hypocalcemia to be excessive calcium consumption by the tumor itself.
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  • Somatic Mutations in TSC1 and TSC2 Cause Focal Cortical Dysplasia

    Lim, Jae Seok   Gopalappa, Ramu   Kim, Se Hoon   Ramakrishna, Suresh   Lee, Minji   Kim, Woo-il   Kim, Junho   Park, Sang Min   Lee, Junehawk   Oh, Jung-Hwa   Kim, Heung Dong   Park, Chang-Hwan   Lee, Joon Soo   Kim, Sangwoo   Kim, Dong Seok   Han, Jung Mm   Kang, Hoon-Chul   Kim, Hyongbum (Henry)   Lee, Jeong Ho  

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of the sporadic form of intractable focal epilepsies that require surgical treatment. It has recently been reported that brain somatic mutations in MTOR account for 15%-25% of FCD type II (FCDII), characterized by cortical dyslamination and dysmorphic neurons. However, the genetic etiologies of FCDII-affected individuals who lack the MTOR mutation remain unclear. Here, we performed deep hybrid capture and amplicon sequencing (read depth of 100 x-20,012 x) of five important mTOR pathway genes-PIK3CA, PIK3R2, AKT3, TSC1, and TSC2-by using paired brain and saliva samples from 40 FCDII individuals negative for MTOR mutations. We found that 5 of 40 individuals (12.5%) had brain somatic mutations in TSC1 (c.64C>T [p.Arg22Trp] and c.610C>T [p.Arg204Cys]) and TSC2 (c.4639G>A [p.Va11547I1e]), and these results were reproducible on two different sequencing platforms. All identified mutations induced hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway by disrupting the formation or function of the TSC1TSC2 complex. Furthermore, in utero CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing of Tsc1 or Tsc2 induced the development of spontaneous behavioral seizures, as well as cytomegalic neurons and cortical dyslamination. These results show that brain somatic mutations in TSC1 and TSC2 cause FCD and that in utero application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system is useful for generating neurodevelopmental disease models of somatic mutations in the brain.
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  • Tocilizumab-Alendronate Conjugate for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Lee, Hwiwon   Bhang, Suk Ho   Lee, Jeong Ho   Kim, Hyemin   Hahn, Sei Kwang  

    An autoimmune disease of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes severe inflammation on the synovial membrane, which results in the destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Here, Tocilizumab (TCZ) Alendronate (ALD) conjugate is synthesized for the early intervention of RA. A humanized monoclonal antibody of TCZ shows an immunosuppressive effect, targeting interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor in the RA pathogenesis. ALD is an anti-inflammatory bisphosphonate drug which can bind to the exposed bone surface. ALD is conjugated selectively to N-glycan on Fc region of TCZ using a chemical linker of 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionyl hydrazide (PDPH) poly(ethylene glycol) N-hydroxysuccinimide (PDPH-PEG-NHS). The successful synthesis of TCZALD conjugate is corroborated by 1H NMR, the purpald assay, mass spectrometry (MS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro binding affinity and cell viability tests confirmed the biological activity of TCZ-ALD conjugate. Furthermore, in vivo efficacy of TCZ-ALD conjugate is confirmed by microcomputed tomography (CT), histology, and Western blot analyses for the treatment of RA.
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    Provided are an apparatus for discarding power noise, and an apparatus for converting audio signals, the embodiments of the present invention discarding noise components introduced from a power terminal of an audio signal conversion apparatus in phases, and transmitting power from the power terminal to the conversion unit and amplification unit in the audio signal conversion apparatus, thereby allowing power noise to be discarded.
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  • Toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by lamotrigine treatment in a child

    Yi, Youngsuk   Lee, Jeong Ho   Suh, Eun Sook  

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