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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 52

  • Pathological mTOR mutations impact cortical development

    Tarkowski, Bartosz   Kuchcinska, Kinga   Blazejczyk, Magdalena   Jaworski, Jacek  

    Several mosaic mutations of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) have recently been found in patients with cortical malformations, such as hemimegalencephaly (HME) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Although all of them should activate mTOR signaling, comparisons of the impact of different mTOR mutations on brain development have been lacking. Also it remains unknown if any potential differences these mutations may have on cortical development are directly related to a degree of mTOR signaling increase. The present study assessed levels of mTORC1 pathway activity in cell lines and rat primary neurons overexpressing several mTOR mutants that were previously found in HME, FCD, cancer patients and in vitro mutagenesis screens. Next we introduced the mutants, enhancing mTORC1 signaling most potently, into developing mouse brains and assessed electroporated cell morphology and migratory phenotype using immunofluorescent staining. We observed the differential inhibition of neuronal progenitor cortical migration, which partly corresponded with a degree of mTORC1 signaling enhancement these mutants induced in cultured cells. The most potent quadruple mutant prevented most of the progenitors from entering the cortical plate. Cells that expressed less potent, single-point, mTOR mutants entered the cortical plate but failed to reach its upper layers and had enlarged soma. Our findings suggest a correlation between the potency of mTOR mutation to activate mTORC1 pathway and disruption of cortical migration.
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  • Neural Stem Cell Dysfunction in Human Brain Disorders.

    Liszewska, Ewa   Jaworski, Jacek  

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) give rise to the entire nervous system. Animal models suggest that defects in NSC proliferation and differentiation contribute to several brain disorders (e.g., microcephaly, macrocephaly, autism, schizophrenia, and Huntington's disease). However, animal models of such diseases do not fully recapitulate all disease-related phenotypes because of substantial differences in brain development between rodents and humans. Therefore, additional human-based evidence is required to understand the mechanisms that are involved in the development of neurological diseases that result from human NSC (hNSC) dysfunction. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells provide a new model to investigate the contribution of hNSCs to various neurological pathologies. In this chapter, we review the role of hNSCs in both neurodevelopment- and neurodegeneration-related human brain pathologies, with an emphasis on recent evidence that has been obtained using embryonic stem cell- or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hNSCs and progenitors.=20
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  • GSK3beta Controls mTOR and Prosurvival Signaling in Neurons.

    Urbanska, Malgorzata   Gozdz, Agata   Macias, Matylda   Cymerman, Iwona A   Liszewska, Ewa   Kondratiuk, Ilona   Devijver, Herman   Lechat, Benoit   Van Leuven, Fred   Jaworski, Jacek  

    Glycogen synthase kinases-3beta (GSK3beta) is a key regulator of cell homeostasis. In neurons, GSK3beta contributes to control of neuronal transmission and plasticity. Despite extensive studies in non-neuronal cells, crosstalk between GSK3beta and other signaling pathways remains not well defined in neurons. In the present study, we report that GSK3beta positively affected the activity of effectors of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and complex 2 (mTORC2), in mature neurons in vitro and in vivo. GSK3beta also promoted prosurvival signaling and attenuated kainic acid-induced apoptosis. Our study identified GSK3beta as a positive regulator of prosurvival signaling, including the mTOR pathway, and indicates the possible neuroprotective role of GSK3beta in models of pharmacologically induced excitotoxicity.=20
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  • GSK3 alpha and GSK3 beta Phosphorylate Arc and Regulate its Degradation

    Gozdz, Agata   Nikolaienko, Oleksii   Urbanska, Malgorzata   Cymerman, Iwona A.   Sitkiewicz, Ewa   Blazejczyk, Magdalena   Dadlez, Michal   Bramham, Clive R.   Jaworski, Jacek  

    The selective and neuronal activity-dependent degradation of synaptic proteins appears to be crucial for long-term synaptic plasticity. One such protein is activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), which regulates the synaptic content of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR), excitatory synapse strength and dendritic spine morphology. The levels of Arc protein are tightly regulated, and its removal occurs via proteasome-mediated degradation that requires prior ubiquitination. Glycogen synthase kinases alpha and beta (GSK3 alpha, GSK beta; collectively named GSK3 alpha/beta) are serine-threonine kinases with abundant expression in the central nervous system. Both GSK3 isozymes are tonically active under basal conditions, but their activity is regulated by intra- and extracellular factors, intimately involved in neuronal activity. Similar to Arc, GSK3 a and GSK3 b contribute to synaptic plasticity and the structural plasticity of dendritic spines. The present study identified Arc as a GSK3 alpha/beta substrate and showed that GSK beta promotes Arc degradation under conditions that induce de novo Arc synthesis. We also found that GSK3 alpha/beta inhibition potentiated spine head thinning that was caused by the prolonged stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Furthermore, overexpression of Arc mutants that were resistant to GSK3 beta-mediated phosphorylation or ubiquitination resulted in a stronger reduction of dendritic spine width than wildtype Arc overexpression. Thus, GSK3 beta terminates Arc expression and limits its effect on dendritic spine morphology. Taken together, the results identify GSK3 alpha/beta-catalyzed Arc phosphorylation and degradation as a novel mechanism for controlling the duration of Arc expression and function.
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  • GSK3 beta activity alleviates epileptogenesis and limits GluA1 phosphorylation

    Urbanska, Malgorzata   Kazmierska-Grebowska, Paulina   Kowalczyk, Tomasz   Caban, Bartosz   Nader, Karolina   Pijet, Barbara   Kalita, Katarzyna   Gozdz, Agata   Devijver, Herman   Lechat, Benoit   Jaworski, Tomasz   Grajkowska, Wieslawa   Sadowski, Krzysztof   Jozwiak, Sergiusz   Kotulska, Katarzyna   Konopacki, Jan   Van Leuven, Fred   van Vliet, Erwin A.   Aronica, Eleonora   Jaworski, Jacek  

    Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3 beta) is a key regulator of cellular homeostasis. In neurons, GSK3 beta contributes to the control of neuronal transmission and plasticity, but its role in epilepsy remains to be defined. Methods: Biochemical and electrophysiological methods were used to assess the role of GSK3 beta in regulating neuronal transmission and epileptogenesis. GSK3 beta activity was increased genetically in GSK3 beta[S9A] mice. Its effects on neuronal transmission and epileptogenesis induced by kainic acid were assessed by field potential recordings in mice brain slices and video electroencephalography in vivo. The ion channel expression was measured in brain samples from mice and followed by analysis in samples from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy or focal cortical dysplasia in correlation to GSK3 beta phosphorylation. Findings: Higher GSK3 beta activity decreased the progression of kainic acid induced epileptogenesis. At the biochemical level, higher GSK3 beta activity increased the expression of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel 4 under basal conditions and in the epileptic mouse brain and decreased phosphorylation of the glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA1 at Serine 831 under basal conditions. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between higher inhibitory-GSK3 beta phosphorylation at Serine 9 and higher activating GluA1 phosphorylation at Serine 845 in brain samples from epileptic patients. Interpretation: Our data imply GSK3 beta activity in the protection of neuronal networks from hyper-activation in response to epileptogenic stimuli and indicate that the anti-epileptogenic function of GSK3 beta involves modulation of HCN4 level and the synaptic AMPA receptors pool. (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  • GSK3β activity alleviates epileptogenesis and limits GluA1 phosphorylation

    Urbanska, Malgorzata   Kazmierska-Grebowska, Paulina   Kowalczyk, Tomasz   Caban, Bartosz   Nader, Karolina   Pijet, Barbara   Kalita, Katarzyna   Gozdz, Agata   Devijver, Herman   Lechat, Benoit   Jaworski, Tomasz   Grajkowska, Wieslawa   Sadowski, Krzysztof   Jozwiak, Sergiusz   Kotulska, Katarzyna   Konopacki, Jan   Van Leuven, Fred   van Vliet, Erwin A.   Aronica, Eleonora   Jaworski, Jacek  

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  • Kainic Acid Induces mTORC1-Dependent Expression of Elmo1 in Hippocampal Neurons

    Blazejczyk, Magdalena   Macias, Matylda   Korostynski, Michal   Firkowska, Marcelina   Piechota, Marcin   Skalecka, Agnieszka   Tempes, Aleksandra   Koscielny, Alicja   Urbanska, Malgorzata   Przewlocki, Ryszard   Jaworski, Jacek  

    Epileptogenesis is a process triggered by initial environmental or genetic factors that result in epilepsy and may continue during disease progression. Important parts of this process include changes in transcriptome and the pathological rewiring of neuronal circuits that involves changes in neuronal morphology. Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is upregulated by proconvulsive drugs, e.g., kainic acid, and is needed for progression of epileptogenesis, but molecular aspects of its contribution are not fully understood. Since mTOR can modulate transcription, we tested if rapamycin, an mTOR complex 1 inhibitor, affects kainic acid-evoked transcriptome changes. Using microarray technology, we showed that rapamycin inhibits the kainic acid-induced expression of multiple functionally heterogeneous genes. We further focused on engulfment and cell motility 1 (Elmo1), which is a modulator of actin dynamics and therefore could contribute to pathological rewiring of neuronal circuits during epileptogenesis. We showed that prolonged overexpression of Elmo1 in cultured hippocampal neurons increased axonal growth, decreased dendritic spine density, and affected their shape. In conclusion, data presented herein show that increased mTORC1 activity in response to kainic acid has no global effect on gene expression. Instead, our findings suggest that mTORC1 inhibition may affect development of epilepsy, by modulating expression of specific subset of genes, including Elmo1, and point to a potential role for Elmo1 in morphological changes that accompany epileptogenesis.
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  • Role of adaptor complex AP2 in dendritic arbor formation

    Jaworski, Jacek   Malik, Anna  

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  • Sources of breathing pattern variability in the respiratory feedback control loop

    Jaworski, Jacek   Bates, Jason H. T.  

    The variability of the breath-to-breath breathing pattern, and its alterations in disease, may hold information of physiologic and/or diagnostic value. We hypothesized that this variability arises from the way that noise is processed within the respiratory feedback control loop, and that pathologic alterations to specific components within the system give rise to characteristic alterations in breathing pattern variability. We explored this hypothesis using a computational model of the respiratory control system that integrates mechanical factors, gas exchange processes, and chemoreceptor signals to simulate breathing patterns subject to the influences of random variability in each of the system components. We found that the greatest changes in the coefficient of variation (CV) of both breathing amplitude and timing were caused by increases in lung resistance and impairments in gas exchange, both common features of pulmonary disease. This suggests that breathing pattern variability may reflect discernible deterministic processes involved in the control of breathing. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Sources of breathing pattern variability in the respiratory feedback control loop

    Jaworski, Jacek   Bates, Jason H.T.  

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  • Tuberous sclerosis complex neuropathology requires glutamate-cysteine ligase

    Malik, Anna R.   Liszewska, Ewa   Skalecka, Agnieszka   Urbanska, Malgorzata   Iyer, Anand M.   Swiech, Lukasz J.   Perycz, Malgorzata   Parobczak, Kamil   Pietruszka, Patrycja   Zarebska, Malgorzata M.   Macias, Matylda   Kotulska, Katarzyna   Borkowska, Julita   Grajkowska, Wieslawa   Tyburczy, Magdalena E.   Jozwiak, Sergiusz   Kwiatkowski, David J.   Aronica, Eleonora   Jaworski, Jacek  

    Introduction: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease resulting from mutation in TSC1 or TSC2 and subsequent hyperactivation of mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). Common TSC features include brain lesions, such as cortical tubers and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). However, the current treatment with mTOR inhibitors has critical limitations. We aimed to identify new targets for TSC pharmacotherapy. Results: The results of our shRNA screen point to glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), a key enzyme in glutathione synthesis, as a contributor to TSC-related phenotype. GCLC inhibition increased cellular stress and reduced mTOR hyperactivity in TSC2-depleted neurons and SEGA-derived cells. Moreover, patients' brain tubers showed elevated GCLC and stress markers expression. Finally, GCLC inhibition led to growth arrest and death of SEGA-derived cells. Conclusions: We describe GCLC as a part of redox adaptation in TSC, needed for overgrowth and survival of mutant cells, and provide a potential novel target for SEGA treatment.
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  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex:From Molecular Biology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches

    Switon, Katarzyna   Kotulska, Katarzyna   Janusz-Kaminska, Aleksandra   Zmorzynska, Justyna   Jaworski, Jacek  

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multi-system disorder, primary manifestations of which are benign tumors and lesions in various organs of the body, including the brain. TSC patients often suffer from epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, TSC serves as a model of epilepsy, ASD, and tumorigenesis. TSC is caused by the lack of functional Tsc1-Tsc2 complex, which serves as a major cellular inhibitor of mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 is a kinase controlling most of anabolic processes in eukaryotic cells. Consequently, mTORC1 inhibitors, such as rapamycin, serve as experimental or already approved drugs for several TSC symptoms. However, rapalogs, although quite effective, need to be administered chronically and likely for a lifetime, since therapy discontinuation results in tumor regrowth and epilepsy recurrence. Recent studies revealed that metabolism and excitability (in the case of neurons) of cells lacking Tsc1-Tsc2 complex are changed, and these features may potentially be used to treat some of TSC symptoms. In this review, we first provide basic facts about TSC and its molecular background, to next discuss the newest findings in TSC cell biology that can be used to improve existing therapies of TSC and other diseases linked to mTORC1 hyperactivation. (C) 2016 The Authors IUBMB Life published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 68(12): 955-962, 2016
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  • Adaptor Complex 2 Controls Dendrite Morphology via mTOR-Dependent Expression of GluA2

    Koscielny, Alicja   Malik, Anna R.   Liszewska, Ewa   Zmorzynska, Justyna   Tempes, Aleksandra   Tarkowski, Bartosz   Jaworski, Jacek  

    The formation of dendritic arbors in neurons is a highly regulated process. Among the regulators of dendritogenesis are numerous membrane proteins that are eventually internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. AP2 is an adaptor complex that is responsible for recruiting endocytic machinery to internalized cargo. Its direct involvement in dendritogenesis in mammalian neurons has not yet been tested. We found that the knockdown of AP2b1 (beta 2-adaptin), an AP2 subunit, reduced the number of dendrites in developing rat hippocampal neurons and decreased alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA2 levels by inhibiting mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The dendritic tree abruption that was caused by AP2b1 knockdown was rescued by the overexpression of GluA2 or restoration of the activity of the mTOR effector p70S6 kinase (S6K1). Altogether, this work provides evidence that the AP2 adaptor complex is needed for the dendritogenesis of mammalian neurons and reveals that mTOR-dependent GluA2 biosynthesis contributes to this process.
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  • Production and Properties of Composite Material Comprising Gd Multiscale Particles

    Jaworski, Jacek   Gaw?owski, Grzegorz  

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  • Functional anatomy of neural circuits regulating fear and extinction

    Knapska, Ewelina   Macias, Matylda   Mikosz, Marta   Nowak, Aleksandra   Owczarek, Dorota   Wawrzyniak, Marcin   Pieprzyk, Marcelina   Cymerman, Iwona A.   Werka, Tomasz   Sheng, Morgan   Maren, Stephen   Jaworski, Jacek   Kaczmarek, Leszek  

    The memory of fear extinction is context dependent: fear that is suppressed in one context readily renews in another. Understanding of the underlying neuronal circuits is, therefore, of considerable clinical relevance for anxiety disorders. Prefrontal cortical and hippocampal inputs to the amygdala have recently been shown to regulate the retrieval of fear memories, but the cellular organization of these projections remains unclear. By using anterograde tracing in a transgenic rat in which neurons express a dendritically-targeted PSD-95: Venus fusion protein under the control of a c-fos promoter, we found that, during the retrieval of extinction memory, the dominant input to active neurons in the lateral amygdala was from the infralimbic cortex, whereas the retrieval of fear memory was associated with greater hippocampal and prelimbic inputs. This pattern of retrieval-related afferent input was absent in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Our data show functional anatomy of neural circuits regulating fear and extinction, providing a framework for therapeutic manipulations of these circuits.
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  • CLIP-170 and IQGAP1 Cooperatively Regulate Dendrite Morphology

    Swiech, Lukasz   Blazejczyk, Magdalena   Urbanska, Malgorzata   Pietruszka, Patrycja   Dortland, Bjorn R.   Malik, Anna R.   Wulf, Phebe S.   Hoogenraad, Casper C.   Jaworski, Jacek  

    Dendritic arbors are compartments of neurons dedicated to receiving synaptic inputs. Their shape is an outcome of both the intrinsic genetic program and environmental signals. The microtubules and actin cytoskeleton are both crucial for proper dendritic morphology, but how they interact is unclear. The present study demonstrates that microtubule plus-end tracking protein CLIP-170 and actin-binding protein IQGAP1 regulate dendrite morphology of rat neurons by coordinating the interaction between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, we show that mTOR kinase interacts with CLIP-170 and is needed for efficient formation of a protein complex containing CLIP-170 and IQGAP1. Dynamic microtubules, CLIP-170, and IQGAP1 are required for proper dendritic arbor morphology and PI3K-mTOR-induced increase in dendritic arbor complexity. Moreover, CLIP-170 and IQGAP1 knockdown modulates dendritic arbor growth via regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We postulate that mTOR controls dendritic arbor morphology by enhancing cross talk between dynamic microtubules and actin through CLIP-170 and IQGAP1.
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