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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 16

  • Etomidate and propylene glycol activate nociceptive TRP ion channels

    Niedermirtl, Florian   Eberhardt, Mirjam   Namer, Barbara   Leffler, Andreas   Nau, Carla   Reeh, Peter W.   Kistner, Katrin  

    Background Etomidate is a preferred drug for the induction of general anesthesia in cardiovascular risk patients. As with propofol and other perioperatively used anesthetics, the application of aqueous etomidate formulations causes an intensive burning pain upon injection. Such algogenic properties of etomidate have been attributed to the solubilizer propylene glycol which represents 35% of the solution administered clinically. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms which lead to injection pain of aqueous etomidate formulations. Results Activation of the nociceptive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels TRPA1 and TRPV1 was studied in a transfected HEK293t cell line by whole-cell voltage clamp recordings of induced inward ion currents. Calcium influx in sensory neurons of wild-type and trp knockout mice was ratiometrically measured by Fura2-AM staining. Stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide release from mouse sciatic nerves was detected by enzyme immunoassay. Painfulness of different etomidate formulations was tested in a translational human pain model. Etomidate as well as propylene glycol proved to be effective agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1 ion channels at clinically relevant concentrations. Etomidate consistently activated TRPA1, but there was also evidence for a contribution of TRPV1 in dependence of drug concentration ranges and species specificities. Distinct N-terminal cysteine and lysine residues seemed to mediate gating of TRPA1, although the electrophile scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not prevent its activation by etomidate. Propylene glycol-induced activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 appeared independent of the concomitant high osmolarity. Intradermal injections of etomidate as well as propylene glycol evoked severe burning pain in the human pain model that was absent with emulsification of etomidate. Conclusions Data in our study provided evidence that pain upon injection of clinical aqueous etomidate formulations is not an unspecific effect of hyperosmolarity but rather due to a specific action mediated by activated nociceptive TRPA1 and TRPV1 ion channels in sensory neurons.
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  • TRPA1 and Substance P Mediate Colitis in Mice RID A-6694-2008

    Engel, Matthias A.   Leffler, Andreas   Niedermirtl, Florian   Babes, Alexandru   Zimmermann, Katharina   Filipovic, Milos R.   Izydorczyk, Iwona   Eberhardt, Mirjam   Kichko, Tatjana I.   Mueller-Tribbensee, Sonja M.   Khalil, Mohammad   Siklosi, Norbert   Nau, Carla   Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana   Neuhuber, Winfried L.   Becker, Christoph   Neurath, Markus F.   Reeh, Peter W.  

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P, and calcium channels, which control their release from extrinsic sensory neurons, have important roles in experimental colitis. We investigated the mechanisms of colitis in 2 different models, the involvement of the irritant receptor transient receptor potential of the ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1), and the effects of CGRP and substance P. METHODS: We used calcium-imaging, patch-clamp, and neuropeptide-release assays to evaluate the effects of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS) and dextran-sulfate-sodium-salt on neurons. Colitis was induced in wild-type, knockout, and desensitized mice. RESULTS: TNBS induced TRPA1-dependent release of colonic substance P and CGRP, influx of Ca2+, and sustained ionic inward currents in colonic sensory neurons and transfected HEK293t cells. Analysis of mutant forms of TRPA1 revealed that TNBS bound covalently to cysteine (and lysine) residues in the cytoplasmic N-terminus. A stable sulfinic acid transformation of the cysteine-SH group, shown by mass spectrometry, might contribute to sustained sensitization of TRPA1. Mice with colitis had increased colonic neuropeptide release, mediated by TRPA1. Endogenous products of inflammatory lipid peroxidation also induced TRPA1-dependent release of colonic neuropeptides; levels of 4-hydroxytrans-2-nonenal increased in each model of colitis. Colitis induction by TNBS or dextran-sulfate-sodium-salt was inhibited or reduced in TRPA1-/- mice and by 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isoprop ylphenyl)-acetamide, a pharmacologic inhibitor of TRPA1. Substance P had a proinflammatory effect that was dominant over CGRP, based on studies of knockout mice. Ablation of extrinsic sensory neurons prevented or attenuated TNBS-induced release of neuropeptides and both forms of colitis. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroimmune interactions control intestinal inflammation. Activation and sensitization of TRPA1 and release of substance P induce and maintain colitis in mice.
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  • CGRP and NO in the Trigeminal System: Mechanisms and Role in Headache Generation

    Messlinger, Karl   Lennerz, Jochen K.   Eberhardt, Mirjam   Fischer, Michael J. M.  

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and metabolic products of nitric oxide (NO) are increased in jugular venous plasma during migraine attacks and other primary headaches. Patients suffering from primary headaches are particularly sensitive to CGRP and NO donors responding with delayed headaches to an infusion of either of these substances. Accordingly, both CGRP and NO are considered as key mediators in migraine, and clinical trials have shown that inhibitors of CGRP receptors and NO synthase are effective in treating migraine. There is an implicit understanding that CGRP and NO systems interact, and here, we review the body of preclinical work on these systems focusing on the trigeminovascular system in migraine. NO derives from various cell types via 3 isoforms of NO synthase, whereas CGRP is produced from a subset of trigeminal afferents. In rodents, NO donors cause activity alterations on different levels of the trigeminal system including enhancement of CGRP release, which in turn results in arterial vasodilatation and possibly mast cell degranulation in the meninges. The activity of spinal trigeminal neurons, which is a sensitive integrative measure for trigeminal activity, is partly under the control of CGRP and NO. Both mediators facilitate nociceptive transmission, possibly via presynaptic mechanisms. These functions are supported by immunolocalization of CGRP receptor components on 3 trigeminovascular levels: cranial dura mater, trigeminal ganglion, and spinal trigeminal nucleus. Current data support a relationship of CGRP and NO actions on all levels of the trigeminovascular system and emphasize central CGRP receptors as possible therapeutic targets.
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  • Ciguatoxins activate specific cold pain pathways to elicit burning pain from cooling

    Vetter, Irina   Touska, Filip   Hess, Andreas   Hinsbey, Rachel   Sattler, Simon   Lampert, Angelika   Sergejeva, Marina   Sharov, Anastasia   Collins, Lindon S.   Eberhardt, Mirjam   Engel, Matthias   Cabot, Peter J.   Wood, John N.   Vlachova, Viktorie   Reeh, Peter W.   Lewis, Richard J.   Zimmermann, Katharina  

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channel activator toxins that cause ciguatera, the most common form of ichthyosarcotoxism, which presents with peripheral sensory disturbances, including the pathognomonic symptom of cold allodynia which is characterized by intense stabbing and burning pain in response to mild cooling. We show that intraplantar injection of P-CTX-1 elicits cold allodynia in mice by targeting specific unmyelinated and myelinated primary sensory neurons. These include both tetrodotoxin-resistant, TRPA1-expressing peptidergic C-fibres and tetrodotoxin-sensitive A-fibres. P-CTX-1 does not directly open heterologously expressed TRPA1, but when co-expressed with Na-v channels, sodium channel activation by P-CTX-1 is sufficient to drive TRPA1-dependent calcium influx that is responsible for the development of cold allodynia, as evidenced by a large reduction of excitatory effect of P-CTX-1 on TRPA1-deficient nociceptive C-fibres and of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia in TRPA1-null mutant mice. Functional MRI studies revealed that ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia enhanced the BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal, an effect that was blunted in TRPA1-deficient mice, confirming an important role for TRPA1 in the pathogenesis of cold allodynia. The EMBO Journal (2012) 31, 3795-3808. doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.207; Published online 31 July 2012
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  • HCN2 channels account for mechanical (but not heat) hyperalgesia during long-standing inflammation.

    Schnorr, Sabine   Eberhardt, Mirjam   Kistner, Katrin   Rajab, Hamsa   KaSSer, Johannes   Hess, Andreas   Reeh, Peter   Ludwig, Andreas   Herrmann, Stefan  

    There is emerging evidence that hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channels are involved in the development of pathological pain, including allodynia and hyperalgesia. Mice lacking the HCN isoform 2 display reduced heat but unchanged mechanical pain behavior, as recently shown in preclinical models of acute inflammatory pain. However, the impact of HCN2 to chronic pain conditions is less clear and has not been examined so far. In this report, we study the role of HCN2 in the complete Freund's adjuvant inflammation model reflecting chronic pain conditions. We used sensory neuron-specific as well as inducible global HCN2 mutants analyzing pain behavior in persistent inflammation and complemented this by region-specific administration of an HCN channel blocker. Our results demonstrate that the absence of HCN2 in primary sensory neurons reduces tactile hypersensitivity in chronic inflammatory conditions but leaves heat hypersensitivity unaffected. This result is in remarkable contrast to the recently described role of HCN2 in acute inflammatory conditions. We show that chronic inflammation results in an increased expression of HCN2 and causes sensitization in peripheral and spinal terminals of the pain transduction pathway. The contribution of HCN2 to peripheral sensitization mechanisms was further supported by single-fiber recordings from isolated skin-nerve preparations and by conduction velocity measurements of saphenous nerve preparations. Global HCN2 mutants revealed that heat hypersensitivity-unaffected in peripheral HCN2 mutants-was diminished by the additional disruption of central HCN2 channels, suggesting that thermal hyperalgesia under chronic inflammatory conditions is mediated by HCN2 channels beyond primary sensory afferents. Copyright =C2=A9 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Epigenetic divergence in the TRPA1 promoter correlates with pressure pain thresholds in healthy individuals

    Gombert, Sara   Rhein, Mathias   Eberhardt, Mirjam   Muenster, Tino   Bleich, Stefan   Leffler, Andreas   Frieling, Helge  

    The expression pattern of important transduction molecules in nociceptive sensory neurons is likely to dictate pain sensitivity. While this notion is well established for increased pain sensitivities under conditions like inflammation and neuropathy, less is known as to which molecules are defining interindividual differences in pain sensitivity in healthy subjects. A genome-wide methylation analysis on monozygotic twins found that methylation of a CpG dinucleotide in the promoter of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is inversely associated with the threshold for heat-induced pain. Several in vitro studies also suggest that TRPA1 mediates mechanical sensitivity of sensory afferents, thus potentially mediating pressure-evoked pain. In the present study, we therefore investigated the epigenetic predisposition for pressure pain by analyzing the methylation status of 47 CpG sites in the promoter region of TRPA1. Using DNA from whole-blood samples of 75 healthy volunteers, we found that the same CpG site previously found to affect the threshold for heat-evoked pain is hypermethylated in subjects with a low threshold for pressure pain. We also found gender differences, with females displaying higher methylation rates combined with higher pressure pain sensitivities as compared with males. In conclusion, our findings support the notion that epigenetic regulation of TRPA1 seems to regulate thermal and mechanical pain sensitivities.
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  • Local-anesthetic like inhibition of the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 alpha-subunit by 5-HT3 receptor antagonists

    van't Klooster, Mariet P.   Foadi, Nilufar   Hage, Axel   Stoetzer, Carsten   Wegner, Florian   Eberhardt, Mirjam   Leffler, Andreas  

    5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3 receptor) antagonists are administered for prevention and therapy of nausea and vomiting. Although regarded as safe therapeutics, they can also provoke arrhythmias by prolonging the QRS interval. However, the mechanisms mediating this cardiotoxicity are poorly understood. Here we investigated effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on the cardiac Na+ channel Nav1.5. We explored the interaction of dolasetron, tropisetron, granisetron and ondansetron on the human cc subunit Nav1.5 heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Sodium currents were explored by means of whole-cell patch clamp recordings. All four substances inhibited the Nav1.5 in a concentration and state dependent manner. Dolasetron displayed the lowest blocking efficacy, and tropisetron was the most potent. blocker with a half maximum blocking concentration of 18 mu M for tonic block of inactivated channels. Tropisetron was also the most potent use-dependent inhibitor, and it also induced a strong open-channel block. Both tonic and use-dependent block by tropisetron were abbreviated on the local anesthetic insensitive mutant Nav1.5-F1760A. Co-administration of tropisetron and the local anesthetic bupivacaine or the hypnotic propofol augmented inhibition of Nav1.5. Our data demonstrate that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists induce a local-anesthetic like inhibition of Nav1.5, and that they display different blocking efficacies. Reports on a relevant cardiotoxicity of dolasetron as opposed to other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists do not seem to correlate with a block of Nav1.5. As inhibition of Nav1.5 was enhanced by propofol and bupivacaine however, it is possible that a combined administration of Na+ channel blockers and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists can provoke arrhythmias. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Propacetamol-Induced Injection Pain Is Associated with Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Channels

    Schillers, Florian   Eberhardt, Esther   Leffler, Andreas   Eberhardt, Mirjam  

    Propacetamol (PPCM) is a prodrug of paracetamol (PCM), which was generated to increase water solubility of PCM for intravenous delivery. PPCM is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to PCM and diethylglycine and shares some structural and metabolic properties with lidocaine. Although PPCM is considered to be comparable to PCM regarding its analgesic properties, injection pain is a common side effect described for PPCM but not PCM. Injection pain is a frequent and unpleasant side effect of numerous drugs in clinical use, and previous reports have indicated that the ligand gated ion channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) can mediate this effect on sensory neurons. This study aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms by which PPCM, in contrast to PCM, causes injection pain. Therefore, human TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp and ratiometric calcium imaging. PPCM (but not PCM) activated TRPV1, sensitized heat-induced currents, and caused an increase in intracellular calcium. In TRPA1-expressing cells however, both PPCM and PCM evoked calcium responses but failed to induce inward currents. Intracutaneous injection of PPCM, but not of PCM, in human volunteers induced an intense and short-lasting pain and an increase in superficial blood flow, indicating activation of nociceptive C fibers and subsequent neuropeptide release. In conclusion, activation of human TRPV1 by PPCM seems to be a relevant mechanism for induction of pain upon intracutaneous injection and thus also for pain reported as an adverse side effect upon intravenous administration.
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  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide release from intact isolated dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia RID F-7976-2010

    Eberhardt, Mirjam   Hoffmann, Tal   Sauer, Susanne K.   Messlinger, Karl   Reeh, Peter W.   Fischer, Michael J. M.  

    Neuropeptides like calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P are found in significant proportions of primary afferent neurons. Release of these neuropeptides as well as prostaglandin E(2) is an approved index for the activation of these primary afferents. Previous studies have used cultures of enzyme-treated and mechanically dissociated primary afferent neurons, fresh tissue slices or cubes. In the present study we demonstrate CGRP and prostaglandin E2 release from intact isolated dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Stimulation with noxious heat, low pH, inflammatory mediators and high potassium concentration increased CGRP release. In conclusion, neuropeptide release from intact isolated ganglia is a reliable method to study the responsiveness of sensory neurons in situ in comparison with neuronal cell cultures. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • H2S and NO cooperatively regulate vascular tone by activating a neuroendocrine HNO–TRPA1–CGRP signalling pathway

    Eberhardt, Mirjam   Dux, Maria   Namer, Barbara   Miljkovic, Jan   Cordasic, Nada   Will, Christine   Kichko, Tatjana I.   de la Roche, Jeanne   Fischer, Michael   Suárez, Sebastián A.   Bikiel, Damian   Dorsch, Karola   Leffler, Andreas   Babes, Alexandru   Lampert, Angelika   Lennerz, Jochen K.   Jacobi, Johannes   Martí, Marcelo A.   Doctorovich, Fabio   H?gest?tt, Edward D.   Zygmunt, Peter M.   Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana   Messlinger, Karl   Reeh, Peter   Filipovic, Milos R.  

    Nitroxyl (HNO) is a redox sibling of nitric oxide (NO) that targets distinct signalling pathways with pharmacological endpoints of high significance in the treatment of heart failure. Beneficial HNO effects depend, in part, on its ability to release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) through an unidentified mechanism. Here we propose that HNO is generated as a result of the reaction of the two gasotransmitters NO and H2S. We show that H2S and NO production colocalizes with transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1), and that HNO activates the sensory chemoreceptor channel TRPA1 via formation of amino-terminal disulphide bonds, which results in sustained calcium influx. As a consequence, CGRP is released, which induces local and systemic vasodilation. H2S-evoked vasodilatatory effects largely depend on NO production and activation of HNO-TRPA1-CGRP pathway. We propose that this neuroendocrine HNO-TRPA1-CGRP signalling pathway constitutes an essential element for the control of vascular tone throughout the cardiovascular system.
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  • H2S and NO cooperatively regulate vascular tone by activating a neuroendocrine HNO-TRPA1-CGRP signalling pathway.

    Eberhardt, Mirjam   Dux, Maria   Namer, Barbara   Miljkovic, Jan   Cordasic, Nada   Will, Christine   Kichko, Tatjana I   de la Roche, Jeanne   Fischer, Michael   Suarez, Sebastian A   Bikiel, Damian   Dorsch, Karola   Leffler, Andreas   Babes, Alexandru   Lampert, Angelika   Lennerz, Jochen K   Jacobi, Johannes   Marti, Marcelo A   Doctorovich, Fabio   Hogestatt, Edward D   Zygmunt, Peter M   Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana   Messlinger, Karl   Reeh, Peter   Filipovic, Milos R  

    Nitroxyl (HNO) is a redox sibling of nitric oxide (NO) that targets distinct signalling pathways with pharmacological endpoints of high significance in the treatment of heart failure. Beneficial HNO effects depend, in part, on its ability to release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) through an unidentified mechanism. Here we propose that HNO is generated as a result of the reaction of the two gasotransmitters NO and H2S. We show that H2S and NO production colocalizes with transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1), and that HNO activates the sensory chemoreceptor channel TRPA1 via formation of amino-terminal disulphide bonds, which results in sustained calcium influx. As a consequence, CGRP is released, which induces local and systemic vasodilation. H2S-evoked vasodilatatory effects largely depend on NO production and activation of HNO-TRPA1-CGRP pathway. We propose that this neuroendocrine HNO-TRPA1-CGRP signalling pathway constitutes an essential element for the control of vascular tone throughout the cardiovascular system. =20
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  • TRPA1 and TRPV1 are required for lidocaine-evoked calcium influx and neuropeptide release but not cytotoxicity in mouse sensory neurons

    Eberhardt, Mirjam   Stueber, Thomas   de la Roche, Jeanne   Herzog, Christine   Leffler, Andreas   Reeh, Peter W.   Kistner, Katrin  

    Background Local anaesthetics (LA) reduce neuronal excitability by inhibiting voltage-gated Na+ channels. When applied at high concentrations in the direct vicinity of nerves, LAs can also induce relevant irritation and neurotoxicity via mechanisms involving an increase of intracellular Ca2+. In the present study we explored the role of the Ca2+-permeable ion channels TRPA1 and TRPV1 for lidocaine-induced Ca2+-influx, neuropeptide release and neurotoxicity in mouse sensory neurons. Methods Cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wildtype and mutant mice lacking TRPV1, TRPA1 or both channels were explored by means of calcium imaging, whole-cell patch clamp recordings and trypan blue staining for cell death. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from isolated mouse peripheral nerves was determined with ELISA. Results Lidocaine up to 10 mM induced a concentration-dependent reversible increase in intracellular Ca2+ in DRG neurons from wildtype and mutant mice lacking one of the two receptors, but not in neurons lacking both TRPA1 and TRPV1. 30 mM lidocaine also released Ca2+ from intracellular stores, presumably from the endoplasmic reticulum. While 10 mM lidocaine evoked an axonal CGRP release requiring expression of either TRPA1 or TRPV1, CGRP release induced by 30 mM lidocaine again mobilized internal Ca2+ stores. Lidocaine-evoked cell death required neither TRPV1 nor TRPA1. Summary Depending on the concentration, lidocaine employs TRPV1, TRPA1 and intracellular Ca2+ stores to induce a Ca2+-dependent release of the neuropeptide CGRP. Lidocaine-evoked cell death does not seem to require Ca2+ influx through TRPV1 or TRPV1.
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  • Methylglyoxal modification of Na(v)1.8 facilitates nociceptive neuron firing and causes hyperalgesia in diabetic neuropathy (vol 18, pg 926, 2012)

    Bierhaus, Angelika   Fleming, Thomas   Stoyanov, Stoyan   Leffler, Andreas   Babes, Alexandru   Neacsu, Cristian   Sauer, Susanne K.   Eberhardt, Mirjam   Schnoelzer, Martina   Lasischka, Felix   Neuhuber, Winfried L.   Kichko, Tatjana I.   Konrade, Ilze   Elvert, Ralf   Mier, Walter   Pirags, Valdis   Lukic, Ivan K.   Morcos, Michael   Dehmer, Thomas   Rabbani, Naila   Thornalley, Paul J.   Edelstein, Diane   Nau, Carla   Forbes, Josephine   Humpert, Per M.   Schwaninger, Markus   Ziegler, Dan   Stern, David M.   Cooper, Mark E.   Haberkorn, Uwe   Brownlee, Michael   Reeh, Peter W.   Nawroth, Peter P.  

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  • Beyond H2S and NO Interplay: Hydrogen Sulfide and Nitroprusside React Directly to Give Nitroxyl (HNO). A New Pharmacological Source of HNO

    Filipovic, Milos R.   Eberhardt, Mirjam   Prokopovic, Vladimir   Mijuskovic, Ana   Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana   Reeh, Peter   Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana  

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been increasingly recognized as an important signaling molecule that regulates both blood pressure and neuronal activity. Attention has been drawn to its interactions with another gasotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO). Here, we provide evidence that the physiological effects observed upon the application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and H2S can be ascribed to the generation of nitroxyl (HNO), which is a direct product of the reaction between SNP and H2S, not a consequence of released NO subsequently reacting with H2S. Intracellular HNO formation has been confirmed, and the subsequent release of calcitonin gene related peptide from a mouse heart has been demonstrated. Unlike with other thiols, SNP reacts with H2S in the same way as rhodanese, i.e, the cyanide transforms into a thiocyanate. These findings shed new light on how H2S is understood to interact with nitroprusside. Additionally, they offer a new and convenient pharmacological source of HNO for therapeutic purposes.
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  • Glyceroltrinitrate facilitates stimulated CGRP release but not gene expression of CGRP or its receptor components in rat trigeminal ganglia RID F-7976-2010

    Eberhardt, Mirjam   Neeb, Lars   Vogel, Eva-Maria   Tiegs, Gisa   Reuter, Uwe   Messlinger, Karl   Fischer, Michael J. M.  

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors induce delayed headaches in migraineurs. In a corresponding rat model NO donors cause delayed ongoing activity in central trigeminal neurons which process intracranial afferent input. Cellular models indicate that NO may increase the release or production of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a key mediator in primary headaches. CGRP release from intact isolated trigeminal ganglia of adult male Wistar rats was investigated in vitro. Exposure to high NO donor concentrations did not affect basal or stimulated CGRP release. After a two hour infusion of the NO donor glyceroltrinitrate (250 mu g/kg/h), however, inflammatory mediators-induced CGRP release was 80% higher compared to control animals. Administration of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ or the application of 8Br-cGMP revealed a cGMP-independent mechanism. In four groups of separate experiments total mRNA was extracted from rat trigeminal ganglia up to 6 h after glyceroltrinitrate or saline infusion. Gene expression of CGRP and the CGRP-receptor components, receptor activity-modifying protein 1, receptor component protein and calcitonin receptor-like receptor was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Glyceroltrinitrate infusion did not change mRNA levels of these genes compared to infusion of saline. The present data suggest that prolonged increase in NO levels facilitates stimulated CGRP release from trigeminal ganglion neurons. The underlying mechanism appears to be independent of the cGMP pathway and not to interact with CGRP in the trigeminal ganglion. Delayed headaches induced by NO may change CGRP or CGRP-receptor expression. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Childhood traumatization is associated with differences in TRPA1 promoter methylation in female patients with multisomatoform disorder with pain as the leading bodily symptom

    Achenbach, Johannes   Rhein, Mathias   Gombert, Sara   Meyer-Bockenkamp, Fiona   Buhck, Miro   Eberhardt, Mirjam   Leffler, Andreas   Frieling, Helge   Karst, Matthias  

    BackgroundThe construct of multisomatoform disorder (MSD) is a common point of reference for patients in different somatic and psychosomatic specialties and therefore useful in studying large well-characterized cohorts of a prototype of a somatoform disorder and in parallel as a functional somatic syndrome (FSS). This disorder is characterized by distressing and functionally disabling somatic symptoms with chronic pain as the most frequent and clinically relevant complaint. Pain is perceived by nociceptive nerve fibers and transferred through the generation of action potentials by different receptor molecules known to determine pain sensitivity in pathophysiological processes. Previous studies have shown that for the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), receptor methylation of a particular CpG dinucleotide in the promoter region is inversely associated with both heat pain and pressure pain thresholds. In this study, we hypothesized that TRPA1 promoter methylation regulates pain sensitivity of patients with multisomatoform disorder (MSD). A cohort of 151 patients with MSD and 149 matched healthy volunteers were evaluated using quantitative sensory testing, clinical and psychometric assessment, and methylation analysis using DNA isolated from whole blood.ResultsWe found CpG -628 to be correlated with mechanical pain threshold and CpG -411 to be correlated with mechanical pain threshold in female volunteers, i.e., higher methylation levels lead to higher pain thresholds. A novel finding is that methylation levels were significantly different between patients with no and severe levels of childhood trauma. CpG methylation also correlated with psychometric assessment of pain and pain levels rated on a visual analog scale.ConclusionOur findings support the hypothesis that epigenetic regulation of TRPA1 plays a role in mechanical pain sensitivities in healthy volunteers. They further provide evidence for the possible influence of childhood traumatic experiences on the epigenetic regulation of TRPA1 in patients with MSD.
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