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Now showing items 1 - 3 of 3

  • Breaking the Boundaries in Heterogeneous-ISA Datacenters

    Barbalace, Antonio   Lyerly, Robert   Jelesnianski, Christopher   Carno, Anthony   Chuang, Ho-Ren   Legout, Vincent   Ravindran, Binoy  

    Energy efficiency is one of the most important design considerations in running modern datacenters. Datacenter operating systems rely on software techniques such as execution migration to achieve energy efficiency across pools of machines. Execution migration is possible in datacenters today because they consist mainly of homogeneous-ISA machines. However, recent market trends indicate that alternate ISAs such as ARM and PowerPC are pushing into the datacenter, meaning current execution migration techniques are no longer applicable. How can execution migration be applied in future heterogeneous-ISA datacenters? In this work we present a compiler, runtime, and an operating system extension for enabling execution migration between heterogeneous-ISA servers. We present a new multi-ISA binary architecture and heterogeneous-OS containers for facilitating efficient migration of natively-compiled applications. We build and evaluate a prototype of our design and demonstrate energy savings of up to 66% for a workload running on an ARM and an x86 server interconnected by a high-speed network.
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  • A Distributed Operating System Network Stack and Device Driver for Multicores

    Ansary, Saif   Barbalace, Antonio   Chuang, Ho-Ren   Lazor, Thomas   Ravindran, Binoy  

    With the advances in network speeds a single processor cannot cope anymore with the growing number of data streams from a single network card. Multicore processors come at a rescue but traditional SMP OSes, which integrate the software network stack, scale only to a certain extent, limiting an application's ability to serve more connections while increasing the number of cores. On the other hand, kernel bypass solutions seem to scale better, but limit resource flexibility and control. We propose attacking these problems with a distributed OS design, using multiple network stacks (one per kernel) and relying on multi-queue hardware and hardware flow steering. This creates a single-socket abstraction among kernels while minimizing inter-core communication. We introduce our design, consisting of a distributed network stack, a distributed device driver, and a load-balancing algorithm. We compare our prototype, NetPopcorn, with Linux, Affinity Accept, FastSocket. NetPopcorn accepts between 5 to 8 times more connections and reduces the tail latency compared to these competitors. We also compare NetPopcorn with mTCP and observe that for high core counts, mTCP accepts only 18% more connections yet with higher tail latency than NetPopcorn.
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  • Transparent Fault-Tolerance using Intra-Machine Full-Software-Stack Replication on Commodity Multicore Hardware

    Losa, Giuliano   Barbalace, Antonio   Wen, Yuzhong   Sadini, Marina   Chuang, Ho-Ren   Ravindran, Binoy  

    As the number of processors and the size of the memory of computing systems keep increasing, the likelihood of CPU core failures, memory errors, and bus failures increases and can threaten system availability. Software components can be hardened against such failures by running several replicas of a component on hardware replicas that fail independently and that are coordinated by a State-Machine Replication protocol. One common solution is to replicate the physical machine to provide redundancy, and to rewrite the software to address coordination. However, a CPU core failure, a memory error, or a bus error is unlikely to always crash an entire machine. Thus, full machine replication may sometimes be an overkill, increasing resource costs. In this paper, we introduce full software stack replication within a single commodity machine. Our approach runs replicas on fault-independent hardware partitions (e.g., NUMA nodes), wherein each partition is software-isolated from the others and has its own CPU cores, memory, and full software stack. A hardware failure in one partition can be recovered by another partition taking over its functionality. We have realized this vision by implementing FT-Linux, a Linux-based operating system that transparently replicates race-free, multi-threaded POSIX applications on different hardware partitions of a single machine. Our evaluations of FT-Linux on several popular Linux applications show a worst case slowdown (due to replication) by approximate to 20%.
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