We consider the effect of modified gravity on the growth of large-scale structures at second order in perturbation theory. We show that modified gravity models changing the linear growth rate of fluctuations are also bound to change, although mildly, the mode coupling amplitude in the density and reduced velocity fields. We present explicit formulae which describe this effect. We then focus on models of modified gravity involving a scalar field coupled to matter, in particular chameleons and dilatons, where it is shown that there exists a transition scale around which the existence of an extra scalar degree of freedom induces significant changes in the coupling properties of the cosmic fields. We obtain the amplitude of this effect for realistic dilaton models at the tree-order level for the bispectrum, finding them to be comparable in amplitude to those obtained in the DGP and f(R) models.

Brax, Philippe
van de Bruck, Carsten
Mota, David F.
Nunes, Nelson J.
Winther, Hans A.

Certain scalar-tensor theories exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, whereby observational signatures of scalar fields are hidden by a combination of self-interactions and interactions with ambient matter. Not all scalar-tensor theories exhibit such a chameleon mechanism, which has been originally found in models with inverse power runaway potentials and field-independent couplings to matter. In this paper we investigate field theories with field-dependent couplings and a power-law potential for the scalar field. We show that the theory indeed is a chameleon field theory. We find the thin-shell solution for a spherical body and investigate the consequences for Eoumlt-Wash experiments, fifth-force searches and Casimir-force experiments. Requiring that the scalar field evades gravitational tests, we find that the coupling is sensitive to a mass scale which is of order of the Hubble scale today.

Brax, Philippe
Bruck, Carsten van de
Davis, Anne-Christine
Shaw, Douglas

We consider the growth of cosmological perturbations in modified gravity models where a scalar field mediates a non-universal Yukawa force between different matter species. The growth of the density contrast is altered for scales below the Compton wave-length of the scalar field. As the universe expands, the Compton wave-length varies in time in such a way that scales which were outside the range of the scalar field force may feel it at a lower redshift. In this case, both the exponent gamma measuring the growth of Cold Dark Matter perturbations and the slip function representing the ratio of the two Newtonian potentials psi and phi may differ from their values in General Relativity at low redshift.

Brax, Philippe
van de Bruck, Carsten
Davis, Anne-Christine
Shaw, Douglas

We consider the dilaton in the strong string-coupling limit and elaborate on the original idea of Damour and Polyakov whereby the dilaton coupling to matter is minimized and vanishes at a finite value of the dilaton field. Combining this type of coupling with an exponential potential, the effective potential of the dilaton becomes matter density dependent. We study the background cosmology, showing that the dilaton can play the role of dark energy. We also analyze the constraints imposed by the absence of violation of the equivalence principle. Imposing these constraints and assuming that the dilaton plays the role of dark energy, we consider the consequences of the dilaton on large scale structures and, in particular, the behavior of the slip functions and the growth index at low redshift.

Brax, Philippe
Burrage, Clare
Davis, Anne-Christine
Seery, David
Weltman, Amanda

In this paper we study various particle physics effects of a light, scalar dark energy field with chameleon-like couplings to matter. We show that a chameleon model with only matter couplings will induce a coupling to photons. In doing so, we derive the first microphysical realization of a chameleonic dark energy model coupled to the electromagnetic field strength. This analysis provides additional motivation for current and near-future tests of axion like and chameleon particles. We find a new bound on the coupling strength of chameleons in uniformly coupled models. We also study the effect of chameleon fields on Higgs production, which is relevant for hadron colliders. These are expected to manufacture Higgs particles through weak boson fusion, or associated production with a Z or W plusmn. We show that, like the Tevatron, the LHC will not be able to rule out or observe chameleons through this mechanism, because gauge invariance of the low energy Lagrangian suppresses the corrections that may arise.

The chameleon is a scalar field whose mass depends on the density of its environment. Chameleons are necessarily coupled to matter particles and will excite transitions between atomic energy levels in an analogous manner to photons. When created inside an optical cavity by passing a laser beam through a constant magnetic field, chameleons are trapped between the cavity walls and form a standing wave. This effect will lead to an afterglow phenomenon even when the laser beam and the magnetic field have been turned off, and could be used to probe the interactions of the chameleon field with matter.

We consider a supersymmetric model of dark energy coupled to cold dark matter: the supersymmetron. In the absence of cold dark matter, the supersymmetron converges to a supersymmetric minimum with a vanishing cosmological constant. When cold dark matter is present, the supersymmetron evolves to a matter dependent minimum where its energy density does not vanish. In the early Universe until the recent past of the Universe, the energy density of the supersymmetron is negligible compared to the cold dark matter energy density. Away from the supersymmetric minimum, the equation of state of the supersymmetron is constant and negative. When the supersymmetron reaches the neighbourhood of the supersymmetric minimum, its equation of state vanishes rapidly. This leads to an acceleration of the Universe which is transient unless supersymmetry breaking induces a pure cosmological constant and acceleration of the Universe does not end. Moreover, we find that the mass of supersymmetron is always greater than the gravitino mass. As a result, the supersymmetron generates a short ranged fifth force which evades gravitational tests. On the other hand, we find that the supersymmetron may lead to relevant effects on large scale structures. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

We analyze the creation of chameleons deep inside the Sun (R~0.7R sun) and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetized surface of the Sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft X-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarizations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft X-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft X-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling, the chameleons emitted by the Sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST magnetic pipes, which could be within the reach of CAST with upgraded detector performance. Then, axion helioscopes have thus the potential to detect and identify particle candidates for the ubiquitous dark energy in the Universe.

A model of generalized hybrid inflation in a supersymmetric QCD theory is proposed whose parameters are the gauge coupling and quark masses. Its gravitational coupling to another SQCD sector induces a metastable supersymmetry breaking vacuum of the ISS type as ISS quarks become massive at the end of inflation. Using a known mechanism with a gravitational breaking of the baryon number and the gauging of flavour symmetries, we find that gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking is compatible with the dynamics of the inflation sector. Reheating proceeds via the thermalization of the ISS messengers into the standard model states. This setup contains a single dimensionful parameter in the form of a quark mass term in the inflationary sector, i.e. all other scales involved are either related to this single mass parameter or dynamically generated.

Brax, Philippe
van de Bruck, Carsten
Davis, Anne-Christine
Martin, Jerome

We examine the embedding of dark energy in high energy models based upon supergravity and extend the usual phenomenological setting comprising an observable sector and a hidden supersymmetry breaking sector by including a third sector leading to the acceleration of the expansion of the universe. We find that gravitational constraints on the non-existence of a fifth force naturally imply that the dark energy sector must possess an approximate shift symmetry. When exact, the shift symmetry provides an example of a dark energy sector with a runaway potential and a nearly massless dark energy field whose coupling to matter is very weak, contrary to the usual lore that dark energy fields must couple strongly to matter and lead to gravitational inconsistencies. Moreover, the shape of the potential is stable under one-loop radiative corrections. When the shift symmetry is slightly broken by higher order terms in the Kahler potential, the coupling to matter remains small. However, the cosmological dynamics are largely affected by the shift symmetry breaking operators leading to the appearance of a minimum of the scalar potential such that dark energy behaves like an effective cosmological constant from very early on in the history of the universe.

We investigate the possibility of obtaining a low scale of supersymmetry breaking within the ISS framework using a metastable vacuum. This is achieved by introducing an R symmetry preserving gravitational coupling of the ISS sector to a relatively low scale inflationary sector. We find the allowed range for the supersymmetry breaking scale, 10(4) GeV less than or similar to mu less than or similar to 10(8) GeV, which is low enough to be amenable to gauge supersymmetry breaking mediation. This scenario is based upon a so-called hilltop inflation phase whose initial condition problem is also addressed. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Brax, Philippe
Burrage, Clare
Davis, Anne-Christine
Seery, David
Weltman, Amanda

We study models in which a light scalar dark energy particle couples to the gauge fields of the electroweak force, the photon, Z, and W(+/-) bosons. Our analysis applies to a large class of interacting dark energy models, including those in which the dark energy mass can be adjusted to evade fifth-force bounds by the so-called "chameleon" mechanism. We conclude that - with the usual choice of Higgs sector - electroweak precision observables are screened from the indirect effects of dark energy, making such corrections effectively unobservable at present-day colliders, and limiting the dark energy discovery potential of any future International Linear Collider. We show that a similar screening effect applies to processes mediated by flavour-changing neutral currents, which can be traced to the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism. However, Higgs boson production at the Large Hadron Collider via weak boson fusion may receive observable corrections.

Davis, Anne-Christine
Brax, Philippe
De Bruck, Carsten Van

Brane inflation and the production of topological defects at the end of the inflationary phase are discussed. After a description of the inflationary set-up, we discuss the properties of the cosmic strings produced at the end of inflation. Specific examples of brane inflation are described, such as D - (D) over bar, D3/D7 and modular inflations.

We consider the coupling of quintessence to observable matter in supergravity and study the dynamics of both supersymmetry breaking and quintessence in this context. We investigate how the quintessence potential is modified by supersymmetry breaking and analyze the structure of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms. We pay attention to their dependence on the quintessence field and to the electroweak symmetry breaking, i.e. the pattern of fermion masses at low energy within the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) coupled to quintessence. In particular, we compute explicitly how the fermion masses generated through the Higgs mechanism depend on the quintessence field for a general model of quintessence. Fifth force and equivalence principle violations are potentially present as the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs bosons become quintessence field dependent. We emphasize that equivalence principle violations are a generic consequence of the fact that, in the MSSM, the fermions couple differently to the two Higgs doublets. Finally, we also discuss how the scaling of the cold dark and baryonic matter energy density is modified and comment on the possible variation of the gauge coupling constants, among which is the fine structure constant, and of the proton-electron mass ratio

We consider models where moduli fields are not stabilized and play the role of quintessence. In order to evade gravitational tests, we investigate the possibility that moduli behave as chameleon fields. We find that, for realistic moduli superpotentials, the chameleon effect is not strong enough, implying that moduli quintessence models are gravitationally ruled out. More generally, we state a no-go theorem for quintessence in supergravity whereby models either behave like a pure cosmological constant or violate gravitational tests. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.