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    Methods and devices for adding hyperlink to text are disclosed: generating hyperlink word list and characteristic word list in advance, and to each characteristic word, determining respectively co-occurrence frequency with each hyperlink word; to each text X which to be added the hyperlink, words segmentation processing them respectively, extracting the hyperlink word occurred in the hyperlink word list and the characteristic word occurred in the characteristic word list from results of word segmentation, determining weights of each extracted hyperlink word and extracted characteristic word, and getting respectively final weights of each extracted hypertext link word according to the co-occurrence frequency of each extracted characteristic word and each extracted hyperlink word and the weights; descendingly sorting each extracted hyperlink word according to the final weights, adding hyperlink to first k hyperlink words which after sorting, and K is positive integer. Applying the solution, it can improve the relativity of the added hyperlink and the text, and it is easy to implement.
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  • Effects of insect-infested kernels on bulk flow properties of wheat

    Bian, Qi   Ambrose, R.P. Kingsly   Subramanyam, Bhadriraju  

    Highlights • Moisture content had significant effect on bulk physical properties of wheat. • Presence of insect infested kernels affects the physical and flow properties of bulk wheat. • Insect infested kernels increase the angle of repose of bulk wheat. • Dust produced from insect activity increases the chances of localized compaction of wheat in grain bins. Abstract Insect damage to kernels during storage affects the processing quality of wheat and as well as bulk wheat properties, which in turn causes hopper flow problems such as funnel flow, ratholing, arching, or flushing. This study focused on kernel damage by Rhyzopertha Dominica F. (lesser grain borer), one of the most commonly found insects in wheat, and resulting changes in physical properties, such as bulk density, tapped density, true density, and angle of repose, and in flow properties, such as basic flowability energy, stability, aeration, compressibility, and permeability. Bulk and tapped densities of sound hard red winter wheat kernels and infested wheat kernels were about 720 kg/m3 and 775 kg/m3, respectively. Compressibility index (CI), Hausner ratio (HR), and angle of repose of infested wheat kernels were higher than for sound hard red winter wheat kernels, indicating decreased flowability. Grain dust and insect-infested kernels could form localized compacted areas within the grain bins, resulting in uneven flow during discharge. Results from this study indicate that the presence of insect-infested kernels could lead to arching and bridge formation in grain bins, thus affecting the flow characteristics of bulk wheat.
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  • Bulk flow properties of hard and soft wheat flours

    Bian, Qi   Sittipod, Sichaya   Garg, Anubha   Ambrose, R.P. Kingsly  

    Highlights • Flour from soft wheat was cohesive than hard wheat flour. • Wheat flour do not agglomerate during handling. • Hard wheat flour has higher air permeability compared to soft wheat flour. • The tests indicated soft winter wheat flour flowability is lesser than hard red winter wheat flour. Abstract Hard red winter (HRW) and soft white winter (SWW) wheat flours are commonly used in bakeries, preparation of snacks, cereals, and ready-to-eat food. The quality of the end product depends on the wheat and flour processing conditions which, in turn, depend significantly on the flow properties of the ingredients. This study describes a comparative evaluation of the flow properties of a HRW and a SWW flour. The average particle size of HRW and SWW wheat flours was 48.77 and 48.20 μm, respectively. The bulk and tapped density of HRW flour was significantly higher than SWW flour. The aeration ratios for HRW and SWW were found to be 16.69 and 12.67, respectively. The wall friction angle for SWW flour was higher than that of HRW flour. HRW and SWW flour had distinctly different flow properties due to their difference in intrinsic physical and chemical composition. The results indicate that SWW flour had higher cohesiveness than HRW flour and has lesser flowability than HRW flour.
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  • Effect of chaff on bulk flow properties of wheat

    Bian, Qi   Ambrose, R.P. Kingsly   Subramanyam, Bhadriraju  

    Highlights • Flowability of bulk wheat reduces with increase in moisture content and percent chaff. • Energy required to initiate flow of wheat with chaff is higher than for clean wheat. • Compressibility of wheat increases with chaff percentage. • During handling, there exists minimum segregation potential of chaff from clean wheat. Abstract Consistent and reliable flow of bulk wheat from hoppers and silos is vital in handling, processing, and storing wheat. The presence of impurities in bulk wheat might influence the discharge of wheat from hoppers and storage vessels. Chaff is one common impurity, amounting to about 2–7% (weight basis) in bulk wheat. This study focused on measuring the bulk and flow properties of bulk wheat in the presence of chaff at different moisture content levels. Bulk density, tapped density, and true density varied from 805.50 to 718.36 kg/m3, 831.52 to 746.31 kg/m3, and 1404.63 to 1367.13 kg/m3, respectively, with varying chaff proportions and moisture contents. The stability of bulk wheat samples remained the same, indicating that sample properties did not change during repeated handling. Compressibility ranged from 4.84 to 7.99%. The unconfined yield strength (UYS) of chaff was approximately 3 times higher than clean wheat samples. High UYS values indicate that arching could occur during bin discharge of bulk wheat containing impurities.
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  • High beam quality narrow linewidth microsecond pulse Ti:sapphire laser operating at 819.710 nm

    Zong, Qing-Shuang   Bian, Qi   Xu, Chang   Chang, Jin-Quan   He, Li-Jiao   Bo, Yong   Zuo, Jun-Wei   Xu, Yi-Ting   Cui, Da-Fu   Peng, Qin-Jun   Xu, Zu-Yan  

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  • High-power QCW microsecond-pulse solid-state sodium beacon laser with spiking suppression and D_2b re-pumping

    Bian, Qi   Bo, Yong   Zuo, Jun-wei   Guo, Chuan   Xu, Chang   Tu, Wei   Shen, Yu   Zong, Nan   Yuan, Lei   Gao, Hong-wei   Peng, Qin-jun   Chen, Hong-bin   Feng, Lu   Jin, Kai   Wei, Kai   Cui, Da-fu   Xue, Sui-jian   Zhang, Yu-dong   Xu, Zu-yan  

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  • Narrow-Linewidth 100-W-Level Microsecond TEM\r 00\r Nd:YAG Twisted-Mode Laser

    Bian, Qi   Zong, Qing-Shuang   Chang, Jin-Quan   Feng, Lu   Bo, Yong   Zuo, Jun-Wei   Shen, Yu   Zong, Nan   Zhang, Shen-Jin   Peng, Qin-Jun   Chen, Hong-Bin   Cui, Da-Fu   Xu, Zu-Yan  

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  • High-power, kHz-repetition-rate, long-pulse-duration, narrow-linewidth 1319-nm Nd:YAG solid-state laser for a guide star laser system

    Bian, Qi   Zong, Qing-Shuang   Chang, Jin-Quan   Zuo, Jun-Wei   Bo, Yong   Cui, Dafu   Peng, Qinjun   Chen, Hong-Bin   Xu, Zuyan  

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  • Preparation of poly{styene-co-4-(4-vinylphenoxy) phthalonitrile} nicrospheres by a new approach of “co-dissolution” and its function development

    Bian, Qi   Qiu, Kai   Liu, Jiaojian   Niu, Yancun   Liu, Yancui   Hu, Jianghuai   Zeng, Ke   Yang, Gang  

    Solid vinyl monomer with functional group “phthalonitrile” was successfully introduced into microspheres to make poly{styene-co-4-(4-vinylphenoxy) phthalonitrile} microspheres (PSPMs) with uniform (UPSPMs) and core-shell (core-shell PSPMs) structure using soap-free emulsion polymerization by the new approach of “codissolution”. The core-shell PSPMs then were used as the design platform to make metallophthalocyanine-containing microspheres. EA, FTIR, SEM, TEM, UV-vis, TGA, XPS, solid 1H NMR and XRD techniques were employed to analyze the formation and morphology of PSPMs and metallophthalocyanine-containing microspheres. The results showed that UPSPMs and core-shell PSPMs were both realized and they were regular sphericities with diameters of around 370 nm. The percentages of reacting weight of 4-(4-vinylphenoxy) phthalonitrile were close to 50%. Based on the design platform of core-shell PSPMs, metallophthalocyanine-containing microspheres could be obtained and the content of metallophthalocyanine was close to 19%.
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  • High-power narrow-linewidth QCW diode-pumped TEM\r 00\r 1319?nm Nd:YAG oscillator using twisted-mode technique

    Bian, Qi   Zhong, Qing-Shuang   Chang, Jin-Quan   Guo, Chuan   Bo, Yong   Zuo, Jun-Wei   Shen, Yu   Zong, Nan   Zhang, Shen-Jin   Yuan, Lei   Cui, Da-Fu   Peng, Qin-Jun   Chen, Hong-Bin   Xu, Zu-Yan  

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  • Interleukin-22 ameliorated acetaminophen-induced kidney injury by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory responses

    Shen, Yilan   Jin, Xin   Chen, Wei   Gao, Congrong   Bian, Qi   Fan, Jiajun   Luan, Jingyun   Cao, Zhonglian   Guo, Zhiyong   Gu, Yuting   Liu, Hongrui   Ju, Dianwen   Mei, Xiaobin  

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  • High-power QCW microsecond-pulse solid-state sodium beacon laser with spiking suppression and D-2b re-pumping

    Bian, Qi   Bo, Yong   Zuo, Jun-wei   Guo, Chuan   Xu, Chang   Tu, Wei   Shen, Yu   Zong, Nan   Yuan, Lei   Gao, Hong-wei   Peng, Qin-jun   Chen, Hong-bin   Feng, Lu   Jin, Kai   Wei, Kai   Cui, Da-fu   Xue, Sui-jian   Zhang, Yu-dong   Xu, Zu-yan  

    A 65 W quasi-continuous-wave microsecond-pulse solid-state sodium beacon laser tuned to the sodium D-2a line has been developed with a linewidth of 0.3 GHz, beam quality of M-2 = 1.38, and pulse width of 120 mu s at a repetition rate of 500 Hz by sum-frequency mixing 1319 and 1064 nm diode-pumped Nd:YAG master-oscillator power-amplifier systems. The laser wavelength stability is less than +/- 0.15 GHz through feedback controlling. The laser spiking due to relaxation oscillations is suppressed by inserting frequency doublers in both 1319 and 1064 nm oscillators. Sodium D-2b re-pumping is accomplished by tuning the frequency of the electro-optic modulator with the right D-2a -D-2b offset. A bright sodium laser guide star with a photon return of 1820 photons/cm(2)/s was achieved with the laser system when a 32 W circular polarized beam was projected to the sky during our field test at the Xinglong Observatory. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America
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  • A modified bacterial-foraging tuning algorithm for multimodal optimization of the flight control system

    Bian, Qi   Nener, Brett   Wang, Xinmin  

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  • Ulinastatin reduces the resistance of liver cancer cells to epirubicin by inhibiting autophagy.

    Song, Bin   Bian, Qi   Shao, Cheng Hao   Li, Gang   Liu, An An   Jing, Wei   Liu, Rui   Zhang, Yi-Jie   Zhou, Ying-Qi   Hu, Xian-Gui   Jin, Gang  

    During chemotherapy, drug resistance caused by autophagy remains a major challenge to successful treatment of cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to show that ulinastatin (UTI), a trypsin inhibitor, could reduce the resistance of liver cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agent epirubicin (EPI). We achieved this conclusion by analyzing the effect of EPI alone or UTI plus EPI on SMMC-7721 and MHCC-LM3 liver cancer cells. We also generated an EPI-resistant liver cancer cell line (MHCC-LM3er cells), and found that UTI could sensitize the LM3er cells to EPI. Autophagy usually functions to protect cancer cells during chemotherapy. Our study showed that UTI inhibited the autophagy induced by EPI in liver cancer cells, which promoted apoptosis, and therefore, reduced the resistance of the cancer cells to EPI. Further studies showed that the UTI-mediated inhibition on autophagy was achieved by inhibiting transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. To verify our results in vivo, we injected MHCC-LM3 liver cancer cells or EPI-resistant LM3er cells into mice, and found that EPI could only effectively inhibit the growth of tumor in MHCC-LM3 cell-injected mice, but not in LM3er cell-injected mice. However, when UTI was also administered, the growth of tumor was inhibited in the MHCC-LM3er cell-injected mice as well. Our results suggest that UTI may be used in combination with anti-cancer drugs, such as EPI, to improve the outcome of cancer therapy. =20
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  • Effect of the particular temperature field on a National Ignition Facility deformable mirror

    Bian, Qi   Huang, Lei   Ma, Xingkun   Xue, Qiao   Gong, Mali  

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  • Interleukin-22 ameliorated renal injury and fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation

    Wang, Shaofei   Li, Yubin   Fan, Jiajun   Zhang, Xuyao   Luan, Jingyun   Bian, Qi   Ding, Tao   Wang, Yichen   Wang, Ziyu   Song, Ping   Cui, Daxiang   Mei, Xiaobin   Ju, Dianwen  

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most lethal complications of diabetes mellitus with metabolic disorders and chronic inflammation. Although the cytokine IL-22 was initially implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, recent studies suggested that IL-22 could suppress inflammatory responses and alleviate tissue injury. Herein, we examined the role of IL-22 in DN. We found that serum levels of IL-22 were significantly downregulated in both patients and mice with DN. The expression of IL-22 was further decreased with the progression of DN, whereas IL-22 gene therapy significantly ameliorated renal injury and mesangial matrix expansion in mice with established nephropathy. IL-22 could also markedly reduce high glucose-induced and TGF-beta 1-induced overexpression of fibronectin and collagen IV in mouse renal glomerular mesangial cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting the potential role of IL-22 to inhibit the overproduction of ECM in vitro. Simultaneously, IL-22 gene therapy drastically alleviated renal fibrosis and proteinuria excretion in DN. In addition, IL-22 gene therapy markedly attenuated hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic mice. Notably, IL-22 drastically reversed renal activation of NLRP3, cleavage of caspase-1, and the maturation of IL-1 beta in DN, suggesting unexpected anti-inflammatory function of IL-22 via suppressing the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Moreover, IL-22 markedly downregulated high glucose-induced activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in renal mesangial cells in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that the effects of IL-22 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation was independent of improved glycemic control. These results suggested that nephroprotection by IL-22 in DN was most likely associated with reduced activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. In conclusion, our finding demonstrated that IL-22 could exert favorable effects on DN via simultaneously alleviating systemic metabolic syndrome and downregulating renal NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1 beta pathway, suggesting that IL-22 might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of DN.
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