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    Methods and devices for adding hyperlink to text are disclosed: generating hyperlink word list and characteristic word list in advance, and to each characteristic word, determining respectively co-occurrence frequency with each hyperlink word; to each text X which to be added the hyperlink, words segmentation processing them respectively, extracting the hyperlink word occurred in the hyperlink word list and the characteristic word occurred in the characteristic word list from results of word segmentation, determining weights of each extracted hyperlink word and extracted characteristic word, and getting respectively final weights of each extracted hypertext link word according to the co-occurrence frequency of each extracted characteristic word and each extracted hyperlink word and the weights; descendingly sorting each extracted hyperlink word according to the final weights, adding hyperlink to first k hyperlink words which after sorting, and K is positive integer. Applying the solution, it can improve the relativity of the added hyperlink and the text, and it is easy to implement.
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  • Effects of insect-infested kernels on bulk flow properties of wheat

    Bian, Qi   Ambrose, R.P. Kingsly   Subramanyam, Bhadriraju  

    Highlights • Moisture content had significant effect on bulk physical properties of wheat. • Presence of insect infested kernels affects the physical and flow properties of bulk wheat. • Insect infested kernels increase the angle of repose of bulk wheat. • Dust produced from insect activity increases the chances of localized compaction of wheat in grain bins. Abstract Insect damage to kernels during storage affects the processing quality of wheat and as well as bulk wheat properties, which in turn causes hopper flow problems such as funnel flow, ratholing, arching, or flushing. This study focused on kernel damage by Rhyzopertha Dominica F. (lesser grain borer), one of the most commonly found insects in wheat, and resulting changes in physical properties, such as bulk density, tapped density, true density, and angle of repose, and in flow properties, such as basic flowability energy, stability, aeration, compressibility, and permeability. Bulk and tapped densities of sound hard red winter wheat kernels and infested wheat kernels were about 720 kg/m3 and 775 kg/m3, respectively. Compressibility index (CI), Hausner ratio (HR), and angle of repose of infested wheat kernels were higher than for sound hard red winter wheat kernels, indicating decreased flowability. Grain dust and insect-infested kernels could form localized compacted areas within the grain bins, resulting in uneven flow during discharge. Results from this study indicate that the presence of insect-infested kernels could lead to arching and bridge formation in grain bins, thus affecting the flow characteristics of bulk wheat.
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  • Bulk flow properties of hard and soft wheat flours

    Bian, Qi   Sittipod, Sichaya   Garg, Anubha   Ambrose, R.P. Kingsly  

    Highlights • Flour from soft wheat was cohesive than hard wheat flour. • Wheat flour do not agglomerate during handling. • Hard wheat flour has higher air permeability compared to soft wheat flour. • The tests indicated soft winter wheat flour flowability is lesser than hard red winter wheat flour. Abstract Hard red winter (HRW) and soft white winter (SWW) wheat flours are commonly used in bakeries, preparation of snacks, cereals, and ready-to-eat food. The quality of the end product depends on the wheat and flour processing conditions which, in turn, depend significantly on the flow properties of the ingredients. This study describes a comparative evaluation of the flow properties of a HRW and a SWW flour. The average particle size of HRW and SWW wheat flours was 48.77 and 48.20 μm, respectively. The bulk and tapped density of HRW flour was significantly higher than SWW flour. The aeration ratios for HRW and SWW were found to be 16.69 and 12.67, respectively. The wall friction angle for SWW flour was higher than that of HRW flour. HRW and SWW flour had distinctly different flow properties due to their difference in intrinsic physical and chemical composition. The results indicate that SWW flour had higher cohesiveness than HRW flour and has lesser flowability than HRW flour.
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  • Effect of chaff on bulk flow properties of wheat

    Bian, Qi   Ambrose, R.P. Kingsly   Subramanyam, Bhadriraju  

    Highlights • Flowability of bulk wheat reduces with increase in moisture content and percent chaff. • Energy required to initiate flow of wheat with chaff is higher than for clean wheat. • Compressibility of wheat increases with chaff percentage. • During handling, there exists minimum segregation potential of chaff from clean wheat. Abstract Consistent and reliable flow of bulk wheat from hoppers and silos is vital in handling, processing, and storing wheat. The presence of impurities in bulk wheat might influence the discharge of wheat from hoppers and storage vessels. Chaff is one common impurity, amounting to about 2–7% (weight basis) in bulk wheat. This study focused on measuring the bulk and flow properties of bulk wheat in the presence of chaff at different moisture content levels. Bulk density, tapped density, and true density varied from 805.50 to 718.36 kg/m3, 831.52 to 746.31 kg/m3, and 1404.63 to 1367.13 kg/m3, respectively, with varying chaff proportions and moisture contents. The stability of bulk wheat samples remained the same, indicating that sample properties did not change during repeated handling. Compressibility ranged from 4.84 to 7.99%. The unconfined yield strength (UYS) of chaff was approximately 3 times higher than clean wheat samples. High UYS values indicate that arching could occur during bin discharge of bulk wheat containing impurities.
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  • High beam quality narrow linewidth microsecond pulse Ti:sapphire laser operating at 819.710 nm

    Zong, Qing-Shuang   Bian, Qi   Xu, Chang   Chang, Jin-Quan   He, Li-Jiao   Bo, Yong   Zuo, Jun-Wei   Xu, Yi-Ting   Cui, Da-Fu   Peng, Qin-Jun   Xu, Zu-Yan  

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  • Raman detection of hidden phonons assisted by atomic point defects in a two-dimensional semimetal

    Yuan, Hui   Zhou, Xieyu   Cao, Yan   Bian, Qi   Zhang, Zongyuan   Sun, Haigen   Li, Shaojian   Shao, Zhibin   Hu, Jin   Zhu, Yanglin   Mao, Zhiqiang   Ji, Wei   Pan, Minghu  

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  • Spiking suppression of high power QCW pulse 1319?nm Nd:YAG laser with different intracavity doublers

    Bian, Qi   Zuo, Jun-Wei   Guo, Chuan   Xu, Chang   Shen, Yu   Zong, Nan   Bo, Yong   Peng, Qin-Jun   Chen, Hong-Bin   Cui, Da-Fu   Xu, Zu-Yan  

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  • System Identification Method for Small Unmanned Helicopter Based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Bian, Qi   Zhao, Kairui   Wang, Xinmin   Xie, Rong  

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  • High-power QCW microsecond-pulse solid-state sodium beacon laser with spiking suppression and D_2b re-pumping

    Bian, Qi   Bo, Yong   Zuo, Jun-wei   Guo, Chuan   Xu, Chang   Tu, Wei   Shen, Yu   Zong, Nan   Yuan, Lei   Gao, Hong-wei   Peng, Qin-jun   Chen, Hong-bin   Feng, Lu   Jin, Kai   Wei, Kai   Cui, Da-fu   Xue, Sui-jian   Zhang, Yu-dong   Xu, Zu-yan  

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  • Layer-stacking, defects and robust superconductivity on Mo-terminated surface of ultrathin Mo2C flakes grown by CVD

    Zhang, Zongyuan   Gedeon, Habakubaho   Cheng, Zhengwang   Xu, Chuan   Shao, Zhibin   Sun, Haigeng   Li, Shaojian   Cao, Yan   Zhang, Xin   Bian, Qi   Liu, Lijun   Liu, Zhibo   Cheng, Hui-Ming   Ren, Wencai   Pan, Minghu  

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  • Narrow-Linewidth 100-W-Level Microsecond TEM\r 00\r Nd:YAG Twisted-Mode Laser

    Bian, Qi   Zong, Qing-Shuang   Chang, Jin-Quan   Feng, Lu   Bo, Yong   Zuo, Jun-Wei   Shen, Yu   Zong, Nan   Zhang, Shen-Jin   Peng, Qin-Jun   Chen, Hong-Bin   Cui, Da-Fu   Xu, Zu-Yan  

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  • A Modified NSGA-II for Solving Control Allocation Optimization Problem in Lateral Flight Control System for Large Aircraft

    Bian, Qi   Nener, Brett   Wang, Xinmin  

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  • Multimodal control parameter optimization for aircraft longitudinal automatic landing via the hybrid particle swarm-BFGS algorithm

    Bian, Qi   Nener, Brett   Li, Ting   Wang, Xinmin  

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  • Directed co-evolution of β-carotene ketolase and hydroxylase and its application in temperature-regulated biosynthesis of astaxanthin

    Zhou, Pingping   Li, Min   Shen, Bin   Yao, Zhen   Bian, Qi   Ye, Lidan   Yu, Hongwei  

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  • High-power, kHz-repetition-rate, long-pulse-duration, narrow-linewidth 1319-nm Nd:YAG solid-state laser for a guide star laser system

    Bian, Qi   Zong, Qing-Shuang   Chang, Jin-Quan   Zuo, Jun-Wei   Bo, Yong   Cui, Dafu   Peng, Qinjun   Chen, Hong-Bin   Xu, Zuyan  

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  • Preparation of poly{styene-co-4-(4-vinylphenoxy) phthalonitrile} nicrospheres by a new approach of “co-dissolution” and its function development

    Bian, Qi   Qiu, Kai   Liu, Jiaojian   Niu, Yancun   Liu, Yancui   Hu, Jianghuai   Zeng, Ke   Yang, Gang  

    Solid vinyl monomer with functional group “phthalonitrile” was successfully introduced into microspheres to make poly{styene-co-4-(4-vinylphenoxy) phthalonitrile} microspheres (PSPMs) with uniform (UPSPMs) and core-shell (core-shell PSPMs) structure using soap-free emulsion polymerization by the new approach of “codissolution”. The core-shell PSPMs then were used as the design platform to make metallophthalocyanine-containing microspheres. EA, FTIR, SEM, TEM, UV-vis, TGA, XPS, solid 1H NMR and XRD techniques were employed to analyze the formation and morphology of PSPMs and metallophthalocyanine-containing microspheres. The results showed that UPSPMs and core-shell PSPMs were both realized and they were regular sphericities with diameters of around 370 nm. The percentages of reacting weight of 4-(4-vinylphenoxy) phthalonitrile were close to 50%. Based on the design platform of core-shell PSPMs, metallophthalocyanine-containing microspheres could be obtained and the content of metallophthalocyanine was close to 19%.
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