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Now showing items 65 - 80 of 89

  • Molecular cloning and functional characterisation of NLRX1 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Chu, Pengfei   He, Libo   Li, Yangyang   Huang, Rong   Liao, Lanjie   Li, Yongming   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

    The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins regulate innate immunity. Although the positive regulatory impact of NLRs is clear, their inhibitory roles are not well defined. In the present study, the NLR family gene NLRX1 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was cloned and characterised. NLRX1 was widely expressed in all tissues examined, albeit at varying levels. After exposure to the grass carp reovirus (GCRV), NLRX1 mRNA expression levels were altered in immune organs, and dramatically altered in liver. Subcellular localisation indicated that NLRX1 protein co-localised with the mitochondria in the transfected cells. Additionally, the bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system was introduced to detect the interaction between tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and NLRX1. Moreover, deficient of NLRX1 in CIK cells with small interference RNA (siRNA) promoted polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C))-induced IFN-related genes production, including IRF3, IRF7, and IFN-I, which reveals that NLRX1 is a negative regulator of IFN. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NLRX1 gene plays an important role in innate immune regulation and provide new insights into understanding the functional characteristics of the NLRX1 in teleosts.
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  • Production, characterization, and applications of mouse monoclonal antibodies against gonadotropin, somatolactin, and prolactin from common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Xu, Zhuwei   Li, Qi   Wang, Yun   Song, Chaojun   Zhang, Tao   Chen, Lihua   Ji, Jianguo   Yang, Angang   Zhu, Zuoyan  

    The gonadotropin alpha subunit (cGTH alpha), gonadotropinII beta subunit (cGTHII beta), somatolactin (cSL), and prolactin (cPRL) were isolated from the pituitaries of common carps, purified by traditional chromatographic analysis, identified by mass-chromatographic analysis, and used as immunogens in the B-lymphocyte hybridoma technique. Totally, 7, 11, 17, and 8 hybridoma cell lines were established, which were able to stably secrete monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against cGTH alpha, cGTHII beta, cSL, and cPRL, and designated as FMU-cGTH alpha 1-7, FMU-cGTHII beta 1-11, FMU-cSL 1-17, and FMU-cPRL 1-8, respectively. The isotype, titer, and specificity were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, and application of these mAbs in the aforementioned tests has been proved. Furthermore, sensitive sandwich-ELISA systems for quantitative detection of the hormones mentioned above were also developed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • Grass carp ATG5 and ATG12 promote autophagy but down-regulate the transcriptional expression levels of IFN-I signaling pathway

    Chu, Pengfei   He, Libo   Yang, Cheng   Zeng, Wencheng   Huang, Rong   Liao, Lanjie   Li, Yongming   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

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  • Transcriptomics Sequencing Provides Insights into Understanding the Mechanism of Grass Carp Reovirus Infection

    Chen, Geng   He, Libo   Luo, Lifei   Huang, Rong   Liao, Lanjie   Li, Yongming   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

    Grass carp is an important aquaculture fish species in China that is affected by severe diseases, especially haemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). However, the mechanisms of GCRV invasion and infection remain to be elucidated. In the present study, Ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney (CIK) cells were infected with GCRV, harvested at 0, 8, 24, and 72 h post infection, respectively, and then subjected to transcriptomics sequencing. Each sample yielded more than 6 Gb of clean data and 40 million clean reads. To better understand GCRV infection, the process was divided into three phases: the early (0-8 h post infection), middle (8-24 h post infection), and late (24-72 h) stages of infection. A total of 76 (35 up-regulated, 41 down-regulated), 553 (463 up-regulated, 90 down-regulated), and 284 (150 up-regulated, 134 down-regulated) differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified during the early, middle, and late stages of infection, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis, transport, and endocytosis in the early stage, phagocytosis and lysosome pathways were mainly enriched in the middle stage, and programmed cell death, apoptosis, and inflammation were largely associated with the late stage. These results suggest GCRV infection is a gradual process involving adsorption on the cell surface, followed by endocytosis into cells, transport by lysosomes, and eventually resulted in cell necrosis and/or apoptosis. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of grass carp reovirus infection.
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  • Characterisation and function of TRIM23 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Chu, Pengfei   He, Libo   Yang, Cheng   Li, Yangyu   Huang, Rong   Liao, Lanjie   Li, Yongming   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

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  • Molecular characterization, tissue distribution and functional analysis of galectin 1-like 2 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Zhu, Denghui   Fu, Peipei   Huang, Rong   Xiong, Lv   Wang, Yumeng   He, Libo   Liao, Lanjie   Li, Yongming   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

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  • Detection of intergenic non-coding RNAs expressed in the main developmental stages in Drosophila melanogaster

    Li, Zheng   Liu, Min   Zhang, Li   Zhang, Wenxia   Gao, Ge   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wei, Liping  

    How many intergenically encoded non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are expressed during various developmental stages in Drosophila? Previous analyses in one or a few developmental stages indicated abundant expression of intergenic ncRNAs. However, some reported that ncRNAs have been recently falsified, and, in general, the false positive rate for ncRNA detection is unknown. In this report, we used reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), a more robust method, to detect ncRNAs from the intergenic regions that are expressed in four major developmental stages (6-8 h embryo, 20-22 h embryo, larvae and adult). We tested 1027 regions, similar to 10% of all intergenic regions, and detected transcription by RT-PCR. The results from 18 342 RT-PCR experiments revealed evidence for transcription in 72.7% of intergenic regions in the developmental process. The early developmental stage appears to be associated with more abundant ncRNAs than later developmental stages. In the early stage, we detected 43.6% of intergenic regions that encode transcripts in the triplicate RT-PCR experiments, yielding an estimate of 5006 intergenic regions in the entire genome likely encoding ncRNAs. We compared the RT-PCR-related approach with previous tiling array-based approach and observed that the latter method is insensitive to short ncRNAs, especially the molecules less than 120 bp. We measured false positive rates for the analyzed genomic approaches including the RT-PCR and tiling array method.
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  • Timing of gonadal development and dimorphic expression of sex-related genes in gonads during early sex differentiation in the Yellow River carp

    Jiang, Mouyan   Jia, Shaoting   Chen, Ji   Chen, Kuangxin   Ma, Wenge   Wu, Xingxing   Luo, Hongrui   Li, Yongming   Zhu, Zuoyan   Hu, Wei  

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  • Identification, characterization and the interaction of Tollip and IRAK-1 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Huang, Rong   Lv, Jianjian   Luo, Daji   Liao, Lanjie   Zhu, Zuoyan  

    Tollip and IRAK-1 are key components of the TLR/IL-1R signaling pathway in mammals, which play crucial roles as mediators of the TLR/IL-1R signal transduction pathways. Although several TLRs have been found in fish, molecular associations, protein protein interactions or the role of the TLR signaling pathway in infection-induced immunity in fish has received little attention. In this study. Tollip and IRAK-1 sequences of grass carp were isolated from a head kidney cDNA library. Full length transcripts and sequences of promoter regions were obtained by 3' and 5' RACE and genome walking, respectively. Reporter gene-promoter constructs and real-time RT-PCR analysis was used to determine grass carp Tollip and IRAK-1 transcription pattern in tissues. Recombinant proteins were used for antibodies production. Phylogenetically, the grass carp loci clustered with previously reported Tollip and IRAK-1genes, respectively, and their sequences shared the highest identity with the genes of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The promoter region of grass carp Tollip and IRAK-1 proved to be active. After viral infection transcript levels of both loci were upregulated in most immune-related tissues in a time-dependent manner. Using antibodies produced in this study, immunofluorescence analysis indicated that Tollip and IRAK-1 were uniformly distributed and co-localized in the cytoplasm of CIK cells. After viral infection, however, Tollip and IRAK-1 both trended toward the cell membrane. Our results demonstrate the existence of Tollip and IRAK-1 proteins in teleost species, and suggest that Tollip-IRAK-1 complexes are being recruited to receptor complexes after stimulation with virus. These results provide novel insights into the role of the TLR signaling pathway in teleosts, especially the action of teleost Tollip and IRAK-1 and the interaction of these molecules as part of this pathway. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • EENdb: a database and knowledge base of ZFNs and TALENs for endonuclease engineering

    Xiao, An   Wu, Yingdan   Yang, Zhipeng   Hu, Yingying   Wang, Weiye   Zhang, Yutian   Kong, Lei   Gao, Ge   Zhu, Zuoyan   Lin, Shuo   Zhang, Bo  

    We report here the construction of engineered endonuclease database (EENdb) (, a searchable database and knowledge base for customizable engineered endonucleases (EENs), including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). EENs are artificial nucleases designed to target and cleave specific DNA sequences. EENs have been shown to be a very useful genetic tool for targeted genome modification and have shown great potentials in the applications in basic research, clinical therapies and agricultural utilities, and they are specifically essential for reverse genetics research in species where no other gene targeting techniques are available. EENdb contains over 700 records of all the reported ZFNs and TALENs and related information, such as their target sequences, the peptide components [zinc finger protein-/transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-binding domains, FokI variants and linker peptide/framework], the efficiency and specificity of their activities. The database also lists EEN engineering tools and resources as well as information about forms and types of EENs, EEN screening and construction methods, detection methods for targeting efficiency and many other utilities. The aim of EENdb is to represent a central hub for EEN information and an integrated solution for EEN engineering. These studies may help to extract in-depth properties and common rules regarding ZFN or TALEN efficiency through comparison of the known ZFNs or TALENs.
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  • Alternative splicing of GnRH2 and GnRH2-associated peptide plays roles in gonadal differentiation of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus.

    Feng, Ke   Luo, Hongrui   Hou, Mingxi   Li, Yongming   Chen, Ji   Zhu, Zuoyan   Hu, Wei  

    The rice field eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish, in which the gonads are initially female ovaries which then transform into male testes. The exact mechanisms governing sex reversal in the rice field eel are unknown. In this study, a novel alternative splicing variant of GnRH2 (GnRH2-SV), retaining the second intron, was discovered in the gonad of the rice field eel. Compared to GnRH2, GnRH2-SV may give rise to a novel truncated GnRH2-associated peptide (New GAP2). The normal transcript of GnRH2 was primarily expressed in the brain, and could also be detected in the liver, spleen, ovary, and testis. However, GnRH2-SV was only expressed in the ovary and testis. During sex reversal, GnRH2 expression levels increased significantly at late stages; however, expression levels of GnRH2-SV were lower in ovary than in ovotestis and testis. We also examined the effect of three peptides (GnRHa, GAP2, and New GAP2) on gonadal sex differentiation during the third stage of ovarian development of the rice field eel. Compared to the control group, the expression of amh increased significantly following incubation with each of the three peptides. However, only New GAP2 stimulated the expression of sox9a1 mRNA in vitro. After intraperitoneal injection of GAP2, the expression of amh, foxl2, and cyp19a1a increased significantly after 12=E2=80=AFh; the concentration of serum 11-KT was also significantly increased at the 12=E2=80=AFh time point. Treatment with New GAP2 significantly increased the expression of amh, dmrt1a, and sox9a1, and also increased the concentration of serum 11-KT. After treated with GnRHa, the expression of amh, dmrt1a, sox9a1, cyp19a1a, and foxl2 increased significantly, as did the level of serum E2. These results indicated that both GAP2 and New GAP2 play a crucial role in inducing expression changes of sex-differentiation related genes, and may be involved in the gonadal development and sex reversal in the rice field eel. Copyright =C2=A9 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • Cloning and sequencing of a grass carp growth hormone gene and construction of an all-fish recombinant growth hormone gene

    Zhu, Zuoyan   He, Ling   Xie, Yuefeng   Lo, Guohua  

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  • Selection of growth-related genes and dominant genotypes in transgenic Yellow River carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Luo, Lifei   Huang, Rong   Zhang, Aidi   Yang, Cheng   Chen, Liangming   Zhu, Denghui   Li, Yongming   He, Libo   Liao, Lanjie   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

    Transgenic Yellow River carp is characterized by rapid growth rate and high feed-conversion efficiency and exhibits a great application prospect. However, there is still a significant separation of growth traits in the transgenic Yellow River carp family; as such, growth-related genotypes must be screened for molecular marker-assisted selection. In this study, 23 growth-related candidate genes containing 48 SNP markers were screened through bulked segregant analysis (BSA) among transgenic Yellow River carp family members showing significant separation of growth traits. Then, two growth-related genes (Nos. 17 and 14 genes) were identified through combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of candidate genes and validation of the full-sibling family approach. Nos. 17 and 14 genes encode BR serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (BRSK2) and eukaryotic translation-initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 (Eif2ak3), respectively. The average body weight of three subgroups carrying the genotypes 17GG, 17GG+14CC, and 17GG+14TT of these two genes increased by 27.96, 38.28, and 33.72%, respectively, compared with the controls. The proportion of individuals with body weight >500g in these subgroups increased by 19.22, 26.82, and 30.92%, respectively. The results showed that appropriate genotype carriers can be selected from the progeny population through BSA sequencing combined with simplified GWAS analysis. Hence, basic population for breeding can be constructed and transgenic Yellow River carp strains with stable production performance and uniform phenotypic properties can be bred.=20
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  • Growth Hormone Overexpression Disrupts Reproductive Status Through Actions on Leptin

    Chen, Ji   Cao, Mengxi   Zhang, Aidi   Shi, Mijuan   Tao, Binbin   Li, Yongming   Wang, Yaping   Zhu, Zuoyan   Trudeau, Vance L.   Hu, Wei  

    Growth and reproduction are closely related. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit accelerated growth and delayed reproductive development, which provides an amenable model to study hormone cross talk between the growth and reproductive axes. We analyzed the energy status and reproductive development in GH-transgenic common carp by using multi-tissue RNA sequencing, real-time-PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and in vitro incubation. The expression of gys (glycogen synthase) and igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein) as well as blood glucose concentrations are lower in GH-transgenic carp. Agrp1 (agouti-related protein 1) and sla (somatolactin a), which are related to appetite and lipid catabolism, are significantly higher in GH-transgenic carp. Low glucose content and increased appetite indicate disrupted metabolic and energy deprivation status in GH-transgenic carp. Meanwhile, the expression of genes, such as gnrhr2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2), gtha (gonadotropin hormone, alpha polypeptide), fsh beta (follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide), lh beta [luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide] in the pituitary, cyp19a1a (aromatase A) in the gonad, and cyp19a1b (aromatase B) in the hypothalamus, are decreased in GH-transgenic carp. In contrast, pituitary gnih (gonadotropin inhibitory hormone), drd1 (dopamine receptor D1), drd3 (dopamine receptor D3), and drd4 (dopamine receptor D4) exhibit increased expression, which were associated with the retarded reproductive development. Leptin receptor mRNA was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the pituitary including the pars intermedia and proximal pars distalis, suggesting a direct effect of leptin on LH. Recombinant carp Leptin protein was shown to stimulate pituitary gtha, fsh beta, lh beta expression, and ovarian germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro. In addition to neuroendocrine factors, we suggest that reduced hepatic leptin signaling to the pituitary might be part of the response to overexpression of GH and the resulting delay in puberty onset.
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  • ITGB1b-Deficient Rare Minnows Delay Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) Entry and Attenuate GCRV-Triggered Apoptosis.

    Chen, Geng   Xiong, Lv   Wang, Yumeng   He, Libo   Huang, Rong   Liao, Lanjie   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

    Integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) is a transmembrane protein belonging to the integrin family and it plays an important role in viral entry. In this study, the itgb1b gene of the rare minnow, Gobiocypris rarus, was cloned and analyzed. To investigate the possible role of itgb1b on grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, we generated an ITGB1b-deficient rare minnow (ITGB1b-/-) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Following stimulation with GCRV, the survival time of the -ITGB1b-/- rare minnows was extended in comparison to the wild-type minnows. Moreover, the relative copy number of GCRV and the level of clathrin-mediated endocytosis-associated and apoptosis-related gene expression in the ITGB1b-/- rare minnows was significantly lower than that of the wild-type minnows. These results suggested that the absence of itgb1b reduced viral entry efficiency and the expression of apoptosis-related genes. Moreover, the data suggested that itgb1b played an important role in mediating the entry of viruses into the cells via clathrin. Therefore, these findings provide novel insight into the function of itgb1b in the process of GCRV infection.=20
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  • The cytomegalovirus promoter-driven short hairpin RNA constructs mediate effective RNA interference in zebrafish in vivo

    Su, Jianguo   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping   Xiong, Feng   Zou, Jun  

    The ability to utilize the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery for silencing target-gene expression has created a lot of excitement in the research community. In the present study, we used a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-driven DNA template approach to induce short hairpin RNA (shRNA) triggered RNAi to block exogenous Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) and endogenous No Tail (NTL) gene expressions. We constructed three plasmids, pCMV-EGFP-CMV-shGFP-SV40, pCMV-EGFP-CMV-shNTL-SV40, and pCMV-EGFP-CMV-shScrambled-SV40, each containing a CMV promoter driving an EGFP reporter cDNA and DNA coding for one shRNA under the control of another CMV promoter. The three shRNA-generating plasmids and pCMV-EGFP control plasmid were introduced into zebrafish embryos by microinjection. Samples were collected at 48 h after injection. Results were evaluated by phenotype observation and real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). The shGFP-generating plasmid significantly inhibited the EGFP expression viewed under fluorescent microscope and reduced by 70.05 +/- 1.26% of exogenous EGFP gene mRNA levels compared with controls by Q-PCR. The shRNA targeting endogenous NTL gene resulted in obvious NTL phenotype of 30 +/- 4% and decreased the level of their corresponding mRNAs up to 54.52 +/- 2.05% compared with nontargeting control shRNA. These data proved the feasibility of the CMV promoter-driven shRNA expression technique to be used to inhibit exogenous and endogenous gene expressions in zebrafish in vivo.
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