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Now showing items 49 - 64 of 94

  • Global gene expression patterns of grass carp following compensatory growth.

    He, Libo   Pei, Yongyan   Jiang, Yao   Li, Yongming   Liao, Lanjie   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

    BACKGROUND: Compensatory growth is accelerated compared with normal growth and occurs when growth-limiting conditions are overcome. Most animals, especially fish, are capable of compensatory growth, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Further investigation of the mechanism of compensatory growth in fish is needed to improve feeding efficiency, reduce cost, and explore growth-related genes.; RESULTS: In the study, grass carp, an important farmed fish in China, were subjected to a compensatory growth experiment followed by transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing. Samples of fish from starved and re-feeding conditions were compared with the control. Under starved conditions, 4061 and 1988 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in muscle and liver tissue when compared the experimental group with control group, respectively. After re-feeding, 349 and 247 DEGs were identified in muscle and liver when the two groups were compared. Moreover, when samples from experimental group in starved and re-feeding conditions were compared, 4903 and 2444 DEGs were found in muscle and liver. Most of these DEGs were involved in metabolic processes, or encoded enzymes or proteins with catalytic activity or binding functions, or involved in metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. A number of the more significant DEGs were subjected to further analysis. Under fasting conditions, many up-regulated genes were associated with protein ubiquitination or degradation, whereas many down-regulated genes were involved in the metabolism of glucose and fatty acids. Under re-feeding conditions, genes participating in muscle synthesis and fatty acid metabolism were up-regulated significantly, and genes related to protein ubiquitination or degradation were down-regulated. Moreover, Several DEGs were random selected for confirmation by real-time quantitative PCR.; CONCLUSIONS: Global gene expression patterns of grass carp during compensatory growth were determined. To our knowledge, this is a first reported for a teleost fish. The results will enhance our understanding of the mechanism of compensatory growth in teleost fish.=20
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  • Different responses in one-year-old and three-year-old grass carp reveal the mechanism of age restriction of GCRV infection

    Chen, Geng   Xiong, Lv   Wang, Yumeng   He, Libo   Huang, Rong   Liao, Lanjie   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

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  • Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin (VHb) Overexpression Increases Hypoxia Tolerance in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Guan, Bo   Ma, Hong   Wang, Yaping   Lin, Zhongping   Zhu, Zuoyan  

    Aquaculture farming may benefit from genetically engineering fish to tolerate environmental stress. Here, we used the vector pCVCG expressing the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vhb) gene driven by the common carp beta-actin promoter to create stable transgenic zebrafish. The survival rate of the 7-day-old F-2 transgenic fish was significantly greater than that of the sibling controls under 2.5% O-2 (dissolved oxygen (DO), 0.91 mg/l). Meanwhile, we investigated the relative expression levels of several marker genes (hypoxia-inducible factor alpha 1, heat shock cognate 70-kDa protein, erythropoietin, beta and alpha globin genes, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) of transgenic fish and siblings after hypoxia exposure for 156 h. The expression profiles of the vhb transgenic zebrafish revealed that VHb could partially alleviate the hypoxia stress response to improve the survival rate of the fish. These results suggest that that vhb gene may be an efficient candidate for genetically modifying hypoxia tolerance in fish.
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  • Efficient genome-wide mutagenesis of zebrafish genes by retroviral insertions

    Wang, Dongmei   Jao, Li-En   Zheng, Naizhong   Dolan, Kyle   Ivey, Jessica   Zonles, Seth   Wul, Xiaolin   Wu, Kangmai   Yang, Hongbo   Meng, Qingchao   Zhu, Zuoyan   Zhang, Bo   Lin, Shuo   Burgess, Shawn M.  

    Using a combination of techniques we developed, we infected zebrafish embryos using pseuclotyped retroviruses and mapped the genomic locations of the proviral integrations in the F, offspring of the infected fish. From F, fish, we obtained 2,045 sequences representing 933 unique retroviral integrations. A total of 599 were mappable to the current genomic assembly (Zv6), and 233 of the integrations landed within genes. By inbreeding fish carrying proviral integrations in 25 different genes, we were able to demonstrate that in approximate to 50% of the gene "hits," the mRNA transcript levels were reduced by >= 70%, with the highest probability for mutation occurring if the integration was in an exon or first intron. Based on these data, the mutagenic frequency for the retrovirus is nearly one in five integrations. In addition, a strong mutagenic effect is seen when murine leukemia virus integrates specifically in the first intron of genes but not in other introns. Three of 19 gene inactivation events had embryonic defects. Using the strategy we outlined, it is possible to identify 1 mutagenic event for every 30 sequencing reactions done on the F, fish. This is a 20- to 30-fold increase in efficiency when compared with the current resequencing approach [targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING)] used in zebrafish for identifying mutations in genes. Combining this increase in efficiency with cryopreservation of sperm samples from the F, fish, it is now possible to create a stable resource that contains mutations in every known zebrafish gene.
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  • Genome segment S8 of grass carp hemorrhage virus encodes a virion protein

    Qiu, Tao   Zhang, Jing   Lu, Renhou   Zhu, Zuoyan  

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome segment S8 of grass carp hemorrhage virus (GCHV) was determined from cDNA corresponding to the viral genomic RNA. It is 1,287 nucleotides in length and contains a large open reading frame that could encode a protein of 409 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 44 kD. The S8 was expressed using the pET fusion protein vector and detected by Western blotting analysis using the chicken egg IgY against intact GCHV particles, indicating that S8 encodes a virion protein. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that the protein encoded by S8 is closely related to protein sigma2 of mammalian reovirus, suggesting that the deduced protein of S8 is an inner capsid protein.
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  • Hybrid cytomegalovirus-U6 promoter-based plasmid vectors improve efficiency of RNA interference in zebrafish

    Su, Jianguo   Zhu, Zuoyan   Xiong, Feng   Wang, Yaping  

    Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) directed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) or Pol II promoter was shown to be capable of silencing gene expression, which should permit analyses of gene functions or as a potential therapeutic tool. However, the inhibitory effect of shRNA remains problematic in fish. We demonstrated that silencing efficiency by shRNA produced from the hybrid construct composed of the CMV enhancer or entire CMV promoter placed immediately upstream of a U6 promoter. When tested the exogenous gene, silencing of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) target gene was 89.18 +/- 5.06% for CMVE-U6 promoter group and 88.26 +/- 6.46% for CMV-U6 promoter group. To test the hybrid promoters driving shRNA efficiency against an endogenous gene, we used shRNA against no tail (NTL) gene. When vectorized in the zebrafish, the hybrid constructs strongly repressed NTL gene expression. The NTL phenotype occupied 52.09 +/- 3.06% and 51.56 +/- 3.68% for CMVE-U6 promoter and CMV-U6 promoter groups, respectively. The NTL gene expression reduced 82.17 +/- 2.96% for CMVE-U6 promoter group and 83.06 +/- 2.38% for CMV-U6 promoter group. We concluded that the CMV enhancer or entire CMV promoter locating upstream of the U6-promoter could significantly improve inhibitory effect induced by the shRNA for both exogenous and endogenous genes compared with the CMV promoter or U6 promoter alone. In contrast, the two hybrid promoter constructs had similar effects on driving shRNA.
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  • Antisense for gonadotropin-releasing hormone reduces gonadotropin synthesis and gonadal development in transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Hu, Wei   Li, Shuangfei   Tang, Bin   Wang, Yaping   Lin, Haoran   Liu, Xiaochun   Zou, Jun   Zhu, Zuoyan  

    Generating transgenic fish with desirable traits (e.g., rapid growth, larger size, etc.) for commercial use has been hampered by concerns for biosafety and competition if these fish are released into the environment. These obstacles may be overcome by producing transgenic fish that are sterile, possibly by inhibiting hormones related to reproduction. In vertebrates, synthesis and release of gonadotropin (GtH) and other reproductive hormones is mediated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Recently two cDNA sequences encoding salmon-type GnRH (sGnRH) decapeptides were cloned from common carp (Cyprinus carpio). This study analyzed the expression of these two genes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in different tissues carp at varying developmental stages. Transcripts of both genes were detected in ovary and testis in mature and regressed, but not in juvenile carp. To evaluate the effects of sGnRH inhibition, the recombinant gene CAsGnRHpc-antisense, expressing antisense sGnRH RNA driven by a carp beta-actin promoter, was constructed. Blocking sGnRH expression using antisense sGnRH significantly decreased GtH in the blood of male transgenic carp. Furthermore, some antisense transgenic fish had no gonadal development and were completely sterile. These data demonstrate that sGnRH is important for GtH synthesis and development of reproductive organs in carp. Also, the antisense sGnRH strategy may prove effective in generating sterile transgenic fish, eliminating environmental concerns these fish may raise. (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  • CasOT: a genome-wide Cas9/gRNA off-target searching tool

    Cheng, Zhenchao   Kong, Lei   Zhu, Zuoyan   Lin, Shuo   Gao, Ge  

    The CRISPR/Cas or Cas9/guide RNA system is a newly developed, easily engineered and highly effective tool for gene targeting; it has considerable off-target effects in cultured human cells and in several organisms. However, the Cas9/guide RNA target site is too short for existing alignment tools to exhaustively and effectively identify potential off-target sites. CasOT is a local tool designed to find potential off-target sites in any given genome or user-provided sequence, with user-specified types of protospacer adjacent motif, and number of mismatches allowed in the seed and non-seed regions.
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  • Sequence of genome segments 1, 2, and 3 of the grass carp reovirus (genus Aquareovirus, family Reoviridae)

    Fang, Qin   Attoui, Houssam   Biagini, Jean Francois Philippe   Zhu, Zuoyan   de Micco, Philippe   de Lamballerie, Xavier  

    The genome segments 1, 2, and 3 of the grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a tentative species assigned to genus Aquareovirus, family Reoviridae, were sequenced. The respective segments 1, 2, and 3 were 3949, 3877, and 3702 nucleotides long. Conserved motifs 5' (GUUAUUU) and 3' (UUCAUC) were found at the ends of each segment. Each segment contains a single ORF and the negative strand does not permit identification of consistent ORFs. Sequence analysis revealed that VP2 is the viral polymerase, while VP1 might represent the viral guanylyl/methyl transferase (involved in the capping process of RNA transcripts) and VP3 the NTPase/helicase (involved in the transcription and capping of viral RNAs). The highest amino acid identities (26-41%) were found with orthoreovirus proteins. Further genomic characterization should provide insight about the genetic relationships between GCRV, aquareoviruses, and orthoreoviruses. It should also permit to precise the taxonomic status of these different viruses.
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  • Secretogranin-II plays a critical role in zebrafish neurovascular modeling.

    Tao, Binbin   Hu, Hongling   Mitchell, Kimberly   Chen, Ji   Jia, Haibo   Zhu, Zuoyan   Trudeau, Vance L   Hu, Wei  

    Secretoneurin (SN) is a neuropeptide derived from specific proteolytic processing of the precursor secretogranin II (SgII). In zebrafish and other teleosts, there are two paralogs named sgIIa and sgIIb. Our results showed that neurons expressing sgIIb were aligned with central arteries in the hindbrain, demonstrating a close neurovascular association. Both sgIIb-/- and sgIIa-/-/sgIIb-/- mutant embryos were defective in hindbrain central artery development due to impairment of migration and proliferation of central artery cells. Further study revealed that sgIIb is non-cell autonomous and required for central artery development. Hindbrain arterial and venous network identities were not affected in sgIIb-/- mutant embryos, and the mRNA levels of Notch and VEGF pathway-related genes were not altered. However, the activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways was inhibited in sgIIb-/- mutant embryos. Reactivation of MAPK or PI3K/AKT in endothelial cells could partially rescue the central artery developmental defects in the sgIIb mutants. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that sgIIb plays a critical role in neurovascular modeling of the hindbrain. Targeting the SgII system may, therefore, represent a new avenue for the treatment of vascular defects in the central nervous system.=20
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  • Fish genome manipulation and directional breeding.

    Ye, Ding   Zhu, ZuoYan   Sun, YongHua  

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest developing agricultural industries worldwide. One of the most important factors for sustainable aquaculture is the development of high performing culture strains. Genome manipulation offers a powerful method to achieve rapid and directional breeding in fish. We review the history of fish breeding methods based on classical genome manipulation, including polyploidy breeding and nuclear transfer. Then, we discuss the advances and applications of fish directional breeding based on transgenic technology and recently developed genome editing technologies. These methods offer increased efficiency, precision and predictability in genetic improvement over traditional methods. =20
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  • Genomic organization and expression analysis of Toll-like receptor 3 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Su, Jianguo   Jang, Songhun   Yang, Chunrong   Wang, Yaping   Zhu, Zuoyan  

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) participates in the innate immune response by recognizing viral pathogens. To investigate grass carp immune system responding to GCRV (grass carp reovirus) infection, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic organization of grass carp TLR3 (CiTLR3) was identified and characterized. The full-length genome sequence of CiTLR3 is composed of 5668 nucleotides, including five exons and four introns. The full-length of CiTLR3 cDNA is 3681 bp in length and encodes a polypeptide of 904 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 102,765 Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 8.35. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that CiTLR3 has four main structural domains, including a signal peptide sequence, 14 LRR (leucine-rich repeat) motifs, a transmembrane region and a TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain. It is most similar to the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) TLR3 amino acid sequence with an identity of 99%. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that CiTLR3 transcripts were significantly up-regulated starting at day 1 and continued through day 7 following GCRV infection (P < 0.05). These data implied that CiTLR3 is involved in antiviral defense, provide molecular and functional information for grass carp TLR3, and implicate their role in mediating immune protection against grass carp viral diseases. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Computational identification of Y-linked markers and genes in the grass carp genome by using a pool-and-sequence method

    Zhang, Aidi   Huang, Rong   Chen, Liangming   Xiong, Lv   He, Libo   Li, Yongming   Liao, Lanjie   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

    The molecular analysis of sex in vertebrates is important, as it has the potential to provide vital information for theoretical and applied research alike. Teleost fish are the ancient vertebrates that present a broad sex chromosome system but lack differentiated sex chromosomes in most species. Hence understanding the sex in fish would not only illuminate the sex determination evolution in vertebrates but also shed light on fish farming. In the present study, we used grass carp as a teleost fish model, studied the Y chromosome by using a pool-and-sequence strategy in combination with fragment-ratio method. In total, we identified five Y-linked scaffolds (totaling 347 Kb) and six Y-specific sequences that could be used as sex-specific markers, demonstrating the suitability of NGS-based re-sequencing of pooled DNAs for the identification of sex markers in fish. Moreover, 14 putative Y-linked genes were described for the first time. All the genes, except for un-y1, un-y2, and ubq-y, showed high similarity to their female homologs. RT-PCR revealed that ubq-y was only expressed in the male hypothalamus and pituitary. These findings provided an abundant resource for the Y chromosome of grass carp, and may help elucidate sex chromosome evolution in cyprinid fish.
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  • Expression and localization of grass carp pkc-θ (protein kinase C theta) gene after its activation

    Mehjabin, Rumana   Chen, Liangming   Huang, Rong   Zhu, Denghui   Yang, Cheng   Li, Yongming   Liao, Lanjie   He, Libo   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

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  • Deep Illumina sequencing reveals conserved and novel microRNAs in grass carp in response to grass carp reovirus infection

    He, Libo   Zhang, Aidi   Chu, Pengfei   Li, Yongming   Huang, Rong   Liao, Lanjie   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

    Background: The grass carp hemorrhagic disease caused by the grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a major disease that hampers the development of grass carp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying GCRV pathogenesis and hemorrhagic symptoms is still unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators involved in various biological processes. The aim of this study was to identify conserved and novel miRNAs in grass carp in response to GCRV infection, as well as attempt to reveal the mechanism underlying GCRV pathogenesis and hemorrhagic symptoms. Results: Grass carp were infected with GCRV, and spleen samples were collected at 0 (control), 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days post-infection (dpi). These samples were used to construct and sequence small RNA libraries. A total of 1208 miRNAs were identified, of which 278 were known miRNAs and 930 were novel miRNAs. Thirty-six miRNAs were identified to exhibit differential expression when compared with the control, and 536 target genes were predicted for the 36 miRNAs. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of these target genes showed that many of the significantly enriched terms were associated with immune response, blood coagulation, hemostasis, and complement and coagulation cascades, especially the GO term "blood coagulation" and pathway "complement and coagulation cascades." Ten representative target genes involved in "complement and coagulation cascades" were selected for qPCR analysis, and the results showed that the expression patterns of these target genes were significantly upregulated at 7 dpi, suggesting that the pathway "complement and coagulation cascades" was strongly activated. Conclusion: Conserved and novel miRNAs in response to GCRV infection were identified in grass carp, of which 278 were known miRNAs and 930 were novel miRNAs. Many of the target genes involved in immune response, blood coagulation, hemostasis, and complement and coagulation cascades. Strong activation of the pathway "complement and coagulation cascades" may have led to endothelial-cell and blood-cell damage and hemorrhagic symptoms. The present study provides a new insight into understanding the mechanism underlying GCRV pathogenesis and hemorrhagic symptoms.
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  • Isolation and expression of grass carp toll-like receptor 5a (CiTLR5a) and 5b (CiTLR5b) gene involved in the response to flagellin stimulation and grass carp reovirus infection.

    Jiang, Yao   He, Libo   Ju, Changsong   Pei, Yongyan   Ji, Myonghuan   Li, Yongming   Liao, Lanjie   Jang, Songhun   Zhu, Zuoyan   Wang, Yaping  

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), a member of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) family and is responsible for the bacterial =EF=AC=82agellin recognition in vertebrates, play an important role in innate immunity. In the study, two TLR5 genes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), named CiTLR5a and CiTLR5b, were cloned and analyzed. Both CiTLR5a and CiTLR5b are typical TLR proteins, including LRR motif, transmembrane region and TIR domain. The full-length cDNA of CiTLR5a is 3054 bp long, with a 2646 bp open reading frame (ORF), 78 bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), and 330 bp 3' UTR. The full-length cDNA of CiTLR5b is 3326 bp, with a 2627 bp ORF, 95 bp 5' UTR, and 594 bp 3' UTR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CiTLR5a and CiTLR5b were closed to the TLR5 of cirrhinus mrigala, cyprinus_carpio, and danio rerio. Subcellular localization indicated that CiTLR5a and CiTLR5b shared similar localization pattern and may locate in the plasma membrane of transfected cells. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed CiTLR5a and CiTLR5b were constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, whereas the highest expressed tissue differed. Following exposure to flagellin and GCRV, CiTLR5a and CiTLR5b were up-regulated significantly. Moreover, the downstream genes of TLR5 signal pathway such as MyD88, NF-kappaB, IRF7, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha also up-regulated significantly, whereas the IkappaB gene was down-regulated, suggesting that CiTLR5a and CiTLR5b involved in response to flagellin stimulation and GCRV infection. The results obtained in the study would provide a new insight for further understand the function of TLR5 in teleost fish. Copyright =C2=A9 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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