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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 22

  • Performance and building integration of all-ceramic solar collectors

    Xiao-Yu Sun   Xiao-Dan Sun   Xin-Gang Li   Zhen-Qing Wang   Jian He   Bin-Sheng Wang  

    Highlights • All-ceramic solar collectors are made from ceramics. • The solar absorptance is in the range of 0.93–0.97 and no attenuation. • All-ceramic solar system has a value of thermal efficiency more than 50%. • All-ceramic solar system can integrate well with building roof. Abstract In this paper, a type of all-ceramic solar collector from cheap materials is introduced. The all-ceramic solar collectors are made from ordinary ceramic and vanadium-titanium black ceramic. The ordinary ceramic raw materials mean mainly porcelain clay, quartz, feldspar, etc. The material of the solar absorber coating is vanadium-titanium black ceramic, which has a stable value of solar absorptance in the range of 0.93–0.97. Some characteristics and performance analysis of all-ceramic solar system are given. For the purpose of comparison, three solar systems consisting of all-glass evacuated tube solar collectors, metal-flat-plat solar collectors, and all-ceramic solar collectors were built. The all-ceramic solar system has the highest thermal efficiency. The heating-rate trends of three solar systems are different in the test period. The all-ceramic solar system can integrate well with building roof. The appropriate approach for the integration between the all-ceramic solar system and building roof is given. When using the integrated approach, the pitched building roof only need basic concrete structural layer, insulating layer, waterproof layer, and leveling course.
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  • Total Synthesis of Plakortide E and Biomimetic Synthesis of Plakortone?B

    Xiao-Yu Sun   Xiang-Yin Tian   Dr. Zhen-Wu Li   Dr. Xiao-Shui Peng   Prof. Henry N. C. Wong  

    The total synthesis of plakortide E (1a) is reported. A novel palladium-catalyzed approach towards 1,2-dioxolanes as well as an alternative substrate-controlled route leading exclusively to cis-highly substituted 1,2-dioxolanes have been developed. A lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution was employed to provide optically pure 1,2-dioxolane central cores. Coupling of the central cores and side chains was achieved by a modified Negishi reaction. All four isomeric structures of plakortide E methyl ester, namely, 26a-d were synthesized. One of the structures, 26d, was shown to be identical with the natural plakortide E methyl ester on the basis of (1)H, (13)C NMR spectra and specific rotation comparisons. With the plakortide E methyl ester (4S,6R,10R)-(-)-cis-26d and its other three isomers in hand, we successfully converted them into (3S,4S,6R,10R)-plakortone B (2a), and its isomers ent-2a, 2b and ent-2b via an intramolecular oxa-Michael addition/lactonization cascade reaction. Finally, saponification converted 1,2-dioxolane 26d into plakortide E (1a) whose absolute configuration (4S,6R,10R) was confirmed by comparison of spectral and physical data with those reported. Copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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  • Association between B vitamins and schizophrenia: A population-based case-control study

    Bing Cao   Xiao-Yu Sun   Chuan-Bo Zhang   Jing-Jing Yan   Qian-Qian Zhao   Si-Yu Yang   Lai-Lai Yan   Ning-hua Huang   Jing Zeng   Jie-Ying Liao   Jing-Yu Wang  

    Abstract To explore the association between schizophrenia and six types of B vitamins, including choline, biotin, riboflavin, pyridoxamine, pyridoxine and nicotinamide, based on the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC) Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) platform. We conducted the case-control study between November 2015 and September 2016 in Weifang, Shandong Province, China. Blood samples from 128 cases of schizophrenia and 101 controls were collected, and B vitamin were measured by LC-MS coupled with HILIC. The HILIC UPLC-MS based analysis of serum B vitamins levels from 128 cases (30 cases with first-episode, 98 cases with relapse) and 101 controls were performed. The results indicated that lower pyridoxine level and schizophrenia was related. (total cases versus controls: β = −0.215, 95% CI: −0.271, −0.125, p < 0.001; first-episode cases versus controls: β = −0.190, 95% CI: −0.277, −0.103, p < 0.001). Higher nicotinamide level was also associated with schizophrenia after adjusting confounders ( β = 0.343, 95% CI: 0.022 , 0.664, p = 0.036). Other four B vitamins, including biotin, riboflavin, pridoxamine and choline, were showed no statistically difference in cases versus controls, first episode cases versus relapse cases. Two types of B Vitamins , pyridoxine and nicotinamide, show significant association with the schizophrenia. Highlights • The aim of this study is to investigate the potential association between B vitamins levels and schizophrenia. • For better retention and separation of B vitamins, this study was performed based on the HILIC LC-MS platform. • The study adjusted the confounding factors that might influence the results including age, sex, BMI, FBG, TG and TC.
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  • Ecological adaptation ofEupatorium adenophorumpopulations to light intensity

    Xiao-yu Sun   Zhao-hua Lu   Peng-hui Li   Qi-shan Jiang   Zhen Lang  

    Eupatorium adenophorum is one of main invasive plants in China and has caused great economic losses. A study was conducted to determine the biomass allocation, leaf morphology and growth response of E. adenophorum seedlings that grew under five different intensities (relative irradiances RI 10%, 20 %, 30%, 55%, 100%) for 14 months. Results reveal that the species shows typical leaf morphological adaptation to different light conditions. The total biomass of seedlings increased with the increase of light intensity from 10% to 55% RI but decreased at RI 100% (full sunlight). Height growth increased with the increase of light intensity from 10% to 30% RI but decreased when light intensity was over 30% RI. At low light levels, plants enhanced light availability by means of increasing biomass allocation to leaves and formation of larger, thinner leaves with high specific leaf area (SLA), leading to a high leaf area ratio (LAR) and high stem strips length (SSL). The mean relative growth rate (RGR) of the plant increased with the light intensity increase and attained the maximum at 55% RI. The growth of seedlings at 30%-55% RI was much better than that at full light condition. This might be an adaptive strategy that supports the vigorous invasiveness of this species, because a high-shaded canopy could prevent other plant species from surviving and growing. This study indicates that E. adenophorum could adapt to different light conditions, especially to low light habit. This can explain its greater invasiveness.
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  • Field-Driven Surface Segregation of Biofunctional Species on Electrospun PMMA/PEO Microfibers

    Xiao-Yu Sun   Larrisha R. Nobles   Hans G. B?rner   Richard J. Spontak  

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  • The deep red emission of Mn4+ doped SrLaMgNbO6 flower-like microsphere phosphors

    Xuan Gu   Zheng He   Xiao-Yu Sun  

    Graphical abstract Highlights • Synthesis of Mn 4+ doped SrLaMgNbO 6 flower-like microsphere phosphors. • Deep red emission of Mn 4+ doped SrLaMgNbO 6 phosphors. • Tunability of light emitted by WLEDs by addition of Mn 4+ doped SrLaMgNbO 6 phosphors. Abstract We synthesized Mn 4+ doped SrLaMgNbO 6 phosphors by a solvothermal method. The influence of Mn 4+ concentration on emission of SrLaMgNbO 6 :Mn 4+ phosphor was investigated. The synthesized phosphors have a single phase and flower-like microstructure. Under the excitation at 321 nm, SrLaMgNbO 6 :Mn 4+ phosphors show intense red emission with three peaks, which come from the 2 E g , 2 T 2g  →  4 A 2g transitions of the 3d 3 electrons in the octahedral MnO 6 8− complex. SrLaMgNbO 6 :Mn 4+ phosphors have potential applications in WLEDs. The addition of SrLaMgNbO 6 :Mn 4+ phosphor can decrease the CCT value and increase R a value of white lights emitted by WLEDs.
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  • New insights for risks of chlorophenols (CPs) exposure: Inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)

    Kai Yang   Zhi-Wei Fu   Yun-Feng Cao   Sai-Nan Li   Zuo Du   Xiao-Yu Sun   Yong-Zhe Liu   Kun Yang   Zhong-Ze Fang  

    Abstract Chlorophenols (CPs) are important pollutants extensively utilized in industry, agriculture and forestry. The present study aims to determine the inhibition of CPs on the activity of the important phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). 100 μM of fourteen CPs were used for preliminary screening using in vitro incubation. Furthermore, half inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) and inhibition kinetics were determined for CPs with significant inhibition towards UGT isoforms. In silico docking was used to explain the inhibition difference among CPs. Multiple UGT isoforms were inhibited by CPs. In silico docking showed that higher free binding energy due to hydrophobic interactions of 2.4-Dichlorophenol (2.4-DCP) or 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol (4C3MP) with UGT1A9 contributed to stronger inhibition potential of 2.4-Dichlorophenol (2.4-DCP) or 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol (4C3MP) towards UGT1A9 than 4-CP. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was chosen as the representative CPs to determine the IC 50 value towards UGT1A6, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. IC 50 was calculated to be 0.33 μM, 0.24 μM and 31.35 μM for the inhibition of PCP towards UGT1A6, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. PCP was demonstrated to show competitive inhibition towards UGT1A6, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7, and the inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki) was calculated to be 0.18 μM, 0.01 μM and 5.37 μM for the inhibition of PCP towards UGT1A6, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. All these information will be beneficial for elucidating the risk of CPs exposure from a new perspective. Graphical abstract Image 1 Highlights • Chlorophenols (CPs) showed inhibition on UGTs. • Methyl group introduction significantlyincreased inhibition towards UGT1A6, -1A7, and -1A9. • The numbers of chloride atoms affect the inhibition potential.
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  • Glycyrrhetinic Acid Exhibits Strong Inhibitory Effects Towards UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A3 and 2B7

    Yin-Peng Huang   Yun-Feng Cao   Zhong-Ze Fang   Yan-Yan Zhang   Cui-Min Hu   Xiao-Yu Sun   Zhen-Wen Yu   Xu Zhu   Mo Hong   Lu Yang and Hong-Zhi Sun  

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory effects of liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) by glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid, which are the bioactive ingredients isolated from licorice. The results showed that glycyrrhetinic acid exhibited stronger inhibition towards all the tested UGT isoforms, indicating that the deglycosylation process played an important role in the inhibitory potential towards UGT isoforms. Furthermore, the inhibition kinetic type and parameters were determined for the inhibition of glycyrrhetinic acid towards UGT1A3 and UGT2B7. Data fitting using Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that the inhibition of UGT1A3 and UGT2B7 by glycyrrhetinic acid was best fit to competitive and noncompetitive type, respectively. The second plot using the slopes from Lineweaver-Burk plots versus glycyrrhetinic acid concentrations was employed to calculate the inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki), and the values were calculated to be 0.2 and 1.7 μM for UGT1A3 and UGT2B7, respectively. All these results remind us the possibility of UGT inhibition-based herb–drug interaction. However, the explanation of these in vitro parameters should be paid more caution due to complicated factors, including the probe substrate-dependent UGT inhibition behaviour, environmental factors affecting the abundance of herbs' ingredients, and individual difference of pharmacokinetic factors. Copyright
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  • Synthesis, deep red emission and warm WLED applications of K2SiF6:Mn4+ phosphors

    Xiao-Yu Sun   Zheng He   Xuan Gu  

    Graphical abstract Highlights • Successful fabrication of K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ red phosphors. • Improved emission intensity of K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ by the addition of H 2 O 2 in the synthesis. • Potential applications of K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ in warm WLEDs. Abstract K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ phosphors were synthesized by using different materials and methods The influence of synthesis parameters on the luminescent properties was investigated. The phase and composition of three K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ phosphors were determined by X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The microstructure and morphology of three K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ phosphors were observed by a field emission scanning electron microscope. The excitation spectrum of K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ phosphor consists of excitation bands in ultraviolet and blue regions originating from 4 A 2g → 4 T 1gand 4 A 2g → 4 T 2g transitions of Mn 4+ . The emission spectrum of K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ phosphor shows emission bands in red region resulting from the 2 E g → 4 A 2g transitions of Mn 4+ ions. The addition of H 2 O 2 in the synthesis favors the doping of Mn 4+ in K 2 SiF 6 host and thus increases the emission intensity of K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ phosphor. The luminescent properties of K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ phosphor suggests that it is a suitable candidate for warm white light emitting diodes. By combining blue chip, YAG:Ce yellow and K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ phosphors, white light emitting diodes were fabricated. They exhibit ‘warm’ white light that suitable use as indoor light.
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  • The characteristics of coherent structures in the rapid expansion flow of the supercritical carbon dioxide

    Xiao-Yu Sun   Ting-Jie Wang   Zhi-Wen Wang   Yong Jin  

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  • Bile acid metabolites in early pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes in Chinese women: A nested case-control study

    Jing Li   Xiaoxu Huo   Yun-Feng Cao   Sai-Nan Li   Zuo Du   Ping Shao   Junhong Leng   Cuiping Zhang   Xiao-Yu Sun   Ronald C.W. Ma   Zhong-Ze Fang   Xilin Yang  

    Abstract Background Bile acid metabolism plays an important role in metabolism but it is uncertain whether bile acid metabolites in early pregnancy are associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods We organized a 1:1 case-control study nested in a prospective cohort of 22,302 pregnant women recruited from 2010 to 2012 in China: 243 women with GDM were matched with 243 non-GDM controls on age (±1 year). Conditional logistic regression and restricted cubic spline were used to examine full-range associations of bile acid metabolites with GDM. Findings All the 9 detectable bile acids were inversely associated with the risk of GDM, among them, 8 in nonlinear and one in largely linear manners in multivariable analysis. Glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) at ≤0.07 nmol/mL and deoxycholic acid (DCA) at ≤0.28 nmol/mL had threshold effects and their decreasing levels below the cutoff points were associated with rapid rises in the risk of GDM. In traditional risk factor model, the stepwise procedure identified that GUDCA ≤ 0.07 nmol/mL and DCA ≤ 0.280 nmol/mL were still significant (OR: 6.84, 95%CI: 1.10–42.48 & 2.06, 1.26–3.37), while other bile acids were not. Inclusion of the two bile acids in the model increased the area under operating characteristic's curve from 0.69 to 0.76 (95% CI: 0.71–0.80) ( P  < .05). Interpretation Serum GUDCA ≤ 0.07 nmol/mL and DCA ≤ 0.28 nmol/mL in early pregnancy were independently associated with increased risk of GDM in Chinese pregnant women. Funding Talent Recruitment Scheme grant of Tianjin Medical University and National Key Research and Development Program, etc.
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  • Deglycosylation of Liquiritin Strongly Enhances its Inhibitory Potential Towards UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) Isoforms

    Bin Guo   Xu-Ran Fan   Zhong-Ze Fang   Yun-Feng Cao   Cui-Min Hu   Julin Yang   Yan-Yan Zhang   Rong-Rong He   Xu Zhu   Zhen-Wen Yu   Xiao-Yu Sun   Mo Hong and Lu Yang  

    The detailed mechanisms on licorice–drug interaction remain to be unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate the inhibition of important UGT isoforms by two important ingredients of licorice, liquiritin, and liquiritigenin. The results showed that liquiritigenin exhibited stronger inhibition towards all the tested UGT isoforms than liquiritin. Data fitting using Dixon and Lineweaver–Burk plots demonstrated the competitive inhibition of liquiritigenin towards UGT1A1 and UGT1A9-mediated 4-MU glucuronidation reaction. The inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki) were calculated to be 9.1 and 3.2 μM for UGT1A1 and UGT1A9, respectively. Substrate-dependent inhibition behaviour was also observed for UGT1A1 in the present study. All these results will be helpful for understanding the deep mechanism of licorice–drug interaction. However, when translating these in vitro parameters into in vivo situations, more complex factors should be considered, such as substrate-dependent inhibition of UGT isoforms, the contribution of UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 towards the metabolism of drugs, and many factors affecting the abundance of ingredients in the licorice. Copyright
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  • Electrospinning fabrication of SrTiO3:Er3+ nanofibers and their applications of upconversion properties

    Zheng He   Xiao-Yu Sun   Xuan Gu  

    Abstract SrTiO 3 :Er 3+ nanofibers were fabricated by the electrospinning process. The phase, microstructure, Doxorubicin loading and release properties, as well as upconversion emission of the fabricated SrTiO 3 :Er 3+ nanofibers were investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the SrTiO 3 :Er 3+ nanofibers have the pure cubic phase. The images of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that nanofibers with a porous structure have been obtained. The SrTiO 3 :Er 3+ nanofibers can be used in drug delivery system, which is confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectra, results of Barrett–Emmett–Teller measurements and thermogravimetry. Under 808 nm light irradiation, the release process of Doxorubicin in SrTiO 3 :Er 3+ nanofiber shows close relation with the pH value. An acidic condition increases the solubility of the Doxorubicin for the protonated daunosamine group, which accelerates and improves the release of Doxorubicin in SrTiO 3 :Er 3+ nanofibers. In addition, the degree of Doxorubicin release can be manifested by the changing intensity of upconversion emission.
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  • Comparison of Inhibition Capability of Scutellarein and Scutellarin Towards Important Liver UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) Isoforms

    Guang-You Ma   Yun-Feng Cao   Cui-Min Hu   Zhong-Ze Fang   Xiao-Yu Sun   Mo Hong and Zhi-Tu Zhu  

    Scutellarin is an important bioactive flavonoid extracted from Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz, and scutellarein is the corresponding aglycone of scutellarin. The present study aims to compare the inhibition potential of scutellarin and scutellarein towards several important UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms, including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. It was demonstrated that scutellarein exerted stronger inhibition towards the tested UGT isoforms than scutellarin. Furthermore, the inhibition kinetic type and parameters (Ki) were determined for the scutellarein's inhibition towards these UGT isoforms. Competitive inhibition of scutellarein towards all these UGT isoforms was demonstrated, and the Ki values were calculated to be 0.02, 5.0, 5.8 and 35.9 μM for UGT1A1, 1A6, 1A9 and 2B7, respectively. Using in vivo maximum plasma concentration of scutellarein in rat, the in vitro–in vivo extrapolation was performed to predict in vivo situation, indicating the most possible in vivo adverse effects due to the inhibition of scutellarein towards UGT1A1. All these results remind us to monitor the utilization of scutellarin and scutellarein, and the herbs containing these two components. Copyright
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  • Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in <em>Crocidurinae</em> shrews in Zhejiang Province, China

    Xian-Dan Lin   Run-Hong Zhou   Fei-Neng Fan   Xu-Hua Ying   Xiao-Yu Sun   Wen Wang   Edward C. Holmes   Yong-Zhen Zhang  

    Highlights • A new subtype of Imjin virus is detected in one Crocidura lasiura shrew from China. • The coastal mountainous area of Zhejiang may be a hot-spot of hantavirus biodiversity. • Geographically isolated shrew populations lead to the allopatric evolution of TPMV. Abstract The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews ( Crocidura lasiura ) and 105 Asian house shrews ( Suncus murinus ) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future.
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  • Fourteen types of co-circulating recombinant enterovirus were associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease in children from Wenzhou, China

    Wen-Ping Guo   Xian-Dan Lin   Yi-Ping Chen   Qi Liu   Wen Wang   Cai-Qiao Wang   Ming-Hui Li   Xiao-Yu Sun   Mang Shi   Edward C. Holmes   Yong-Zhen Zhang  

    Highlights • Fourteen types of enteroviruses were co-circulating in Wenzhou, China. • Analysis showed multiple independent introductions of these viruses into Wenzhou. • Phylogenetic analysis revealed abundant recombination among these enteroviruses. • CV-A6 infection caused atypical clinical presentation. Abstract Background Although hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public concern in China, the prevalence and clinical symptoms associated with the different agents of HFMD in this country remain poorly understood. Objectives We investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of enteroviruses in patients with HFMD from Wenzhou, China. Study design Patients with laboratory-confirmed HFMD admitted to the Yuying Children's Hospital in Wenzhou, China during 2013 were included in this study. Viral RNA sequences were amplified using RT-PCR, determined by sequencing, and compared by phylogenetic analysis. Results A total of 955 clinically diagnosed HFMD cases were determined using PCR, with whole viral genomes obtained for each enterovirus type. 14 types of enterovirus belonging to two viral species were identified. Notably, Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was the most common species detected (77.8%), followed by EV-A71 (8.2%) and CV-A10 (8.1%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple independent introductions of these viruses into Wenzhou. In addition, the enterovirus observed in Wenzhou had a recombinant history, with two or three recombination breakpoints. Although the illness associated with CV-A6 was milder than that of EV-A71, CV-A6 infection caused more widespread rash, larger blisters, and subsequent skin peeling and/or nail shedding. Conclusion Our study revealed the co-circulation of 14 types of enteroviruses in a single location – Wenzhou, China – with CV-A6 virus the predominant agent of HFMD. This work highlights the need to perform larger-scale surveillance to fully understand the epidemiology of enteroviruses in China and the wider Asia-Pacific region.
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