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Now showing items 1 - 7 of 7

  • Diversity, economic development and new migrant entrepreneurs

    Jones, Trevor   Ram, Monder   Villares-Varela, Maria  

    How do migrant entrepreneurs contribute to economic development? The growing attention to the contribution that migrants make tends to be skewed towards their economic role. Drawing on interviews with 49 new migrant business owners and 60 workers in the West Midlands, UK, we argue that benefits of diversity should be explored beyond the economic dividend. We engage with key theoretical developments in the fields of migrant entrepreneurship and diversity economics, and show that migrant entrepreneurs are characterised by the polarisation of their performance between high fliers and survival entrepreneurs. Despite their overall resource poverty, migrant entrepreneurs on the lower level create employment for their locality, cater to community needs and cushion the social incorporation of new communities in British society. We argue that debates around the benefits of diversity should incorporate not only economic growth, but also its impact on social processes. ?? ????????????????????????????,???????????????????????????????????49????????60?????????????????,??????,??????????????????????????????????????????????,?????????????????,????????????,?????????????????,?????????????????????,???????,???????????????????,???????????????????,??????????????
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  • The Global Evolution of Travel Visa Regimes (vol 44, pg 589, 2018)

    Czaika, Mathias   de Haas, Hein   Villares-Varela, Maria  

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  • Migrant entrepreneurship: Reflections on research and practice

    Ram, Monder   Jones, Trevor   Villares-Varela, Maria  

    This article assesses recent developments in the research and practice of migrant entrepreneurship by examining the powerful contribution that the perspective of mixed embeddedness' has provided to this field. We identify key themes emerging from mixed embeddedness, particularly in relation to the role of the institutional and market contexts, and highlight areas that could strengthen the perspective, such as (1) the role of regulation, (2) the incorporation of racist exclusion and (3) gendered structures of migration and labour market processes, (4) market ghettoisation and (5) greater sensitivity to historical context. We also consider the extent to which growing interest among practitioners in supporting migrant enterprise has been influenced by developments in the academic domain.
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  • Negotiating class,femininity and career:Latin American migrant women entrepreneurs in Spain

    Villares-Varela, Maria  

    This article analyses how the gendered and classed positions of migrant women explain the meanings of becoming an entrepreneur and the role of their spouses in their occupational trajectories. Using a translocational positionality approach, the article challenges the claim that women escape patriarchal domination by establishing their own businesses. The narratives of 35 Latin American women entrepreneurs in Spain reveal that becoming an entrepreneur is conditioned by class-based ideas of masculinity and femininity. I argue that middle-class Latin American immigrant women become entrepreneurs to promote their spouse's career advancement while conforming to class-based norms of femininity. In contrast, lower class Latin American women view the business as a space of autonomy and occupational upward mobility that nevertheless also complies with working-class definitions of femininity. The policy implications of these findings relate to making class aspirations central to the support of labour market integration and empowerment of migrant women.
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  • Women in the migrant economy. A positional approach to contextualize gendered transnational trajectories

    Villares-Varela, Maria   Essers, Caroline  

    Drawing on the life histories of migrant women entrepreneurs in the Netherlands and Spain, this article explores the influence of transnational trajectories on their social positions and business strategies. A translocational positional approach enables us to research the transnational strategies of women entrepreneurs more effectively in addition to examining the changes in social positions and gendered identities between the country of origin and the country of destination. This approach contributes to scholarship on context' by offering a transnational gendered dimension in relation to the effects of social, spatial and institutional factors. Our findings demonstrate how female migrant entrepreneurs redefine their social status in different contexts by establishing a business and challenge, contest or comply with gender relations in their transnational entrepreneurial journeys.
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  • The Role of Migration Policies in the Attraction and Retention of International Talent:The Case of Indian Researchers

    Toma, Sorana   Villares-Varela, Maria  

    Governments are increasingly implementing policies aimed at attracting or retaining highly skilled migrants. While a growing number of studies examine the effectiveness of these efforts, the actual mechanisms through which migration policies may operate have not been questioned. Drawing on an aspirations-capability framework for mobility, this article explores the role of migration policies in the geographic mobility decisions of researchers, a highly skilled group that has been specifically targeted by such policies. Focusing on Indian researchers and using qualitative methodology (N =3D 40), we examine their decisions to study and/or work abroad, to stay or move elsewhere. The article shows that while migration policies do not seem to be influential in the attraction of students and researchers, they do play a role in the retention and subsequent moves of international talent.
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  • International Migration: Trends, Determinants, and Policy Effects

    de Haas, Hein   Czaika, Mathias   Flahaux, Marie-Laurence   Mahendra, Edo   Natter, Katharina   Vezzoli, Simona   Villares-Varela, Maria  

    This paper synthesizes insights from new global data on the effectiveness of migration policies. It investigates the complex links between migration policies and migration trends to disentangle policy effects from structural migration determinants. The analysis challenges two central assumptions underpinning the popular idea that migration restrictions have failed to curb migration. First, post-WWII global migration levels have not accelerated, but remained relatively stable while most shifts in migration patterns have been directional. Second, post-WWII migration policies have generally liberalized despite political rhetoric suggesting the contrary. While migration policies are generally effective, "substitution effects" can limit their effectiveness, or even make them counterproductive, by geographically diverting migration, interrupting circulation, encouraging unauthorized migration, or prompting "now or never" migration surges. These effects expose fundamental policy dilemmas and highlight the importance of understanding the economic, social, and political trends that shape migration in sometimes counterintuitive, but powerful, ways that largely lie beyond the reach of migration policies.
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