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    A home monitoring service robot, comprising: a horizontally arranged supporting body (1); a floating body (2) which is a centrally symmetrical structure, is arranged on the supporting body (1) in suspension by means of a buoyancy action, and rotates around a central axis thereof under control, which is perpendicular to a horizontal face; and a monitoring device which is fixedly arranged on the floating body (2), rotates with the floating body (2), and is used to monitor predetermined status information around the floating body (2). In the home monitoring service robot, the monitoring device can rotate with the floating body (2), and thus can monitor the predetermined status information around the floating body (2), such that a monitoring range becomes broader, and the security performance becomes higher; in addition, there is no need to manually control the rotation and monitoring, such that this type of omnidirectional monitoring method becomes more intelligent.
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  • Inhibition of Shigella sonnei-induced epithelial barrier disruption by surface-layer associated proteins of lactobacilli from Chinese fermented food.

    Zhang, Yingchun   Shi, Xiaolu   Hao, Siqi   Lu, Qianhui   Zhang, Lanwei   Han, Xue   Lu, Weihong  

    Surface-layer associated proteins (SLAP) of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei M5-L and Lactobacillus casei Q8-L were examined to identify the functional basis for their protection within intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that SLAP of M5-L and Q8-L remained active in a trypsin solution and retained a 45-kDa protein band, similar to that observed in controls. In contrast, under conditions of simulated gastric juice, the SLAP were partially degraded. Inhibitory effects of SLAP on adherence of Shigella sonnei to HT-29 cells were assessed with use of exclusion, competition, and replacement assays. In response to M5-L at 50 mug/mL SLAP, an inhibition ratio of 33% was obtained, while for Q8-L at 400 mug/mL SLAP, the inhibition ratio was 48%. Hoechst 33258 test results showed that cells infected with S. sonnei and co-incubated with SLAP of M5-L and Q8-L were only partially apoptotic, with apoptosis rates of 37.67 and 43.67%, respectively. These levels of apoptosis were substantially lower than that observed with cells infected with S. sonnei alone. In addition, the SLAP of Q8-L and M5-L reduced downstream caspase-1 activity and further modified apoptotic cell damage. Finally, SLAP of M5-L and Q8-L were also able to prevent S. sonnei-induced membrane damage by inhibiting delocalization of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and reducing the amount of occludin produced by S. sonnei. Copyright =C2=A9 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • A modified molecular beacons-based multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of eight foodborne pathogens in a single reaction and its application.

    Hu, Qinghua   Lyu, Dongyue   Shi, Xiaolu   Jiang, Yixiang   Lin, Yiman   Li, Yinghui   Qiu, Yaqun   He, Lianhua   Zhang, Ran   Li, Qingge  

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are often caused by one of the major pathogens. Early identification of the causal pathogen is crucial for disease control and prevention. We describe a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) assay that can identify, in a single reaction, up to eight common foodborne bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Shigella spp. This multiplex rtPCR assay takes advantage of modified molecular beacons and the multicolor combinational probe coding strategy to discriminate each pathogen and the homo-tag assisted non-dimer (HAND) system to prevent dimer formation. The detection limits of the assay ranged from 1.3*10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/g stool (L. monocytogenes) to 1.6*10(4) CFU/g stool (Shigella spp.). The target genes were 100% specific as assessed on 986 reference strains covering 41 species since no cross-reactions were observed. The assay was applied to the detection of foodborne pathogens in 11,167 clinical samples and the results were compared with culture methods for further validation. The sensitivity and specificity of the rtPCR were 100% and 99%, respectively. When performed in a 96-well rtPCR system, more than 90 samples could be analyzed within 3h. Given the high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and short turn-around time, the established assay could be used for the rapid and reliable identification of the causative pathogens responsible for a certain foodborne disease outbreak and rapid screening of these major foodborne pathogens in laboratory-based surveillance of outpatient clinical samples or even food samples.=20
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  • Rapid genetic typing of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli using a two-tube modified molecular beacon based multiplex real-time PCR assay and its clinical application.

    Chen, Qingliang   Shi, Xiaolu   Li, Yinghui   Jiang, Yixiang   Lin, Yiman   Qiu, Yaqun   Li, Qingge   Hu, Qinghua  

    BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC), including Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC), Enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC), Enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC), Enterohemolysin E.coli (EHEC) and Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC) causes diarrhea or hemolytic uremic syndromes among infants and travelers around the world. A rapid, reliable and repeatable method is urgent for identifying DEC so as to provide the reference for responding to diarrheal disease outbreak and the treatment of the diarrheal patients associated with DEC.; METHODS: In this study, specific primers and modified molecular beacon probes of nine specific virulence genes, whose 5'end were added with homo tail sequence, were designed; and a two-tube modified molecular beacon based multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay for the identification of five Escherichia coli pathotypes, including ETEC, EAEC, EPEC, EHEC and EIEC was developed and optimized. Totally 102 bacterial strains, including 52 reference bacterial strains and 50 clinical strains were detected to confirm whether the target genes selected were specific. Then detection limits of the assay were tested. Lastly, the assay was applied to the detection of 11860 clinical samples to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the developed assay compared with the conventional PCR.; RESULTS: The target genes were 100% specific as assessed on 102 bacterial strains since no cross-reactions were observed. The detection limits ranged from 88 CFU/mL (EHEC) to 880 CFU/mL (EPEC). Compared with the conventional PCR, the specificity and sensitivity of the multiplex rtPCR was 100% and over 99%, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) for each target gene ranged from 0.45% to 1.53%. 171 positive clinical samples were mostly identified as ETEC (n=3D111, 64.9%) and EPEC (n=3D38, 22.2%), which were the dominating pathotypes of DEC strains.; CONCLUSION: The developed multiplex rtPCR assay for the identification of DEC was high sensitive and specific and could be applied to the rapid identification of DEC in clinical and public health laboratories.=20
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  • The Rho kinase inhibitor,fasudil,ameliorates diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by improving calcium clearance and actin remodeling

    Lai, Dongwu   Gao, Jing   Bi, Xukun   He, Hong   Shi, Xiaolu   Weng, Shaoxiang   Chen, Yu   Yang, Ying   Ye, Yang   Fu, Guosheng  

    Previous study showed inhibition of RhoA and Rho kinase (ROCK) activity with fasudil could alleviate diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction partially due to improvement of myocardial fibrosis. However, the effect of fasudil on intracellular calcium cycling and actin remodeling, both of which are important to regulate excitation-contract coupling, is still not fully elucidated. In this study, a diabetic cardiomyopathy model was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetic rats were treated with fasudil or placebo for 8 weeks. We found that long-term administration of fasudil, a specific Rho kinase inhibitor, significantly ameliorated diabetesinduced contractile dysfunction both at cellular and whole organ levels. Fasudil-treated rats displayed improved diastolic intracellular calcium([Ca2+] i) removal and rescued expression of protein responsible for [Ca2+] i clearance. Furthermore, our study indicated that fasudil treatment normalized the phosphorylation of the PKC2/Akt pathway in the diabetic heart, which might be the underlying mechanism accounting for the protective effect of fasudil on [Ca2+] i clearance. In addition, compared to the diabetes group, fasudil also normalized the G/F-actin ratio by preventing cofilin phosphorylation and promoted F-actin organization, suggesting a beneficial effect on actin remodeling. These findings indicate the protective effect of fasudil against diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction via modulation of Ca2+ handling and actin remodeling. Overactivation of RhoA/ROCK plays a key role in the development of DCM. Inhibition of ROCK activity with fasudil improved [Ca2+] i removal in diabetic cardiomyocytes. Fasudil normalized the G/F-actin ratio and promoted F-actin organization. ROCK may be an excellent therapeutic target for the treatment of DCM.
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  • Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning in Shenzhen, China.

    Yan, Xiaomei   Wang, Bing   Tao, Xiaoxia   Hu, Qinghua   Cui, Zhigang   Zhang, Jianzhong   Lin, Yiman   You, Yuanhai   Shi, Xiaolu   Grundmann, Hajo  

    To characterize isolates of Staphylococcus aureus that were associated with staphylococcal food poisoning between 2006 and 2009 in Shenzhen, Southern China, a total of 52 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 11 outbreaks were analyzed by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR analysis was used to analyze the staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes sea to sei, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was also performed. ST6 was the most dominant sequence type (ST), constituting 63.5% (34/52) of all of the isolates in 7 outbreaks. The next most common ST was ST943, which constituted 23.1% (12/52) of the isolates that were collected from 3 outbreaks. t701, t091, and t2360 were the most predominant spa types, constituting 67.3% (35/52) of the isolates that were collected from 11 outbreaks. Three PFGE types, (types A, B, and C) were the most frequently observed types, constituting 84.6% (44/52) of all of the isolates. The enterotoxin gene that we detected most frequently was sea (45/52; 86.5%). Four SE gene profiles were observed, including sea (n =3D 45), sec-seh (n =3D 3), seb (n =3D 2), and seg-sei (n =3D 2). With respect to antibiotic resistance, penicillin resistance was the most common (96.2%; 50/52), followed by resistance to tetracycline (28.8%; 15/52). Approximately 30.8% (16/52) of the isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, and 7.7% (4/52) of the isolates were resistant to three or more drugs. The two predominant S. aureus lineages, (i) PFGE types A and B with ST6 and (ii) PFGE type C with ST943, were identified in the outbreaks.=20
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  • The numerical classification and grading standards of daylily (Hemerocallis) flower color

    Cui, Huliang   Zhang, Yanan   Shi, Xiaolu   Gong, Feifei   Xiong, Xiong   Kang, Xiuping   Xing, Guoming   Li, Sen  

    This study collected 183 Hemerocallis varieties to conduct numerical classification of flower color and provide valuable baseline data and foundational theory for normalization and precision of Hemerocallis. The color CIELab phenotypes were collected via colorimeter (CR-10 Plus), which separately measured three sepal and petal parts (throat, eye and limb). The colors of experimental samples were artificially named by the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart (RHSCC). All the data were analyzed using R software. The results showed that the throat was predominantly green-yellow, light yellow and yellow; green-yellow accounted for the largest proportion of sepals (67.76%) and petals (69.40%). The eye was more abundant, and there were significant differences between sepals and petals. The limb was clustered into five color groups (orange, yellow, pink, red and purple); the yellow group had the most varieties for both sepals and petals, containing 57.38% and 55.74%, respectively. Both sepals and petals had significant differences (p<0.0001) in color (LE), redness (a*) and color angle (h) for the throat, eye and limb. However, the difference in CIELab phenotypes between the eye and limb were not significant. According to "Dual Classification", the color classification standard was proposed as a 3-level standard. The color of sepal and petal consistency served as the first standard, and the color of limb was the second standard. The color pattern types of pure, gradual change, watermark and eye spot, served as the third standard. It has been proposed that all the 183 experimental varieties were divided into two categories, five groups and finally four types. This study provides a classification basis and reference for numeric and standardized color phenotype description for Hemerocallis.
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  • The Rho kinase inhibitor,fasudil,ameliorates diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by improving calcium clearance and actin remodeling (vol 95,pg 155,2017)

    Gao, Jing   Bi, Xukun   He, Hong   Shi, Xiaolu   Weng, Shaoxiang   Chen, Yu   Yang, Ying   Ye, Yang  

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  • Assessment of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Reserve and Intracellular Diastolic Calcium Removal in Isolated Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    Gao, Jing   Shi, Xiaolu   He, Hong   Zhang, Juhong   Lin, Ding   Fu, Guosheng   Lai, Dongwu  

    Intracellular calcium recycling plays a critical role in regulation of systolic and diastolic function in cardiomyocytes. Cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) serves as a Ca2+ reservoir for contraction, which reuptakes intracellular Ca2+ during relaxation. The SR Ca2+ reserve available for beats is determinate for cardiac contractibility, and the removal of intracellular Ca2+ is critical for cardiac diastolic function. Under some pathophysiological conditions, such as diabetes and heart failure, impaired calcium clearance and SR Ca2+ store in cardiomyocytes may be involved in the progress of cardiac dysfunction. Here, we describe a protocol to evaluate SRCa2+ reserve and diastolic Ca2+ removal. Briefly, a single cardiomyocyte was enzymatically isolated, and the intracellular Ca2+ fluorescence indicated by Fura-2 was recorded by a calcium imaging system. To employ caffeine for inducing total SR Ca2+ release, we preset an automatic perfusion switch program by interlinking the stimulation system and the perfusion system. Then, the mono-exponential curve fitting was used for analyzing decay time constants of calcium transients and caffeine-induced calcium pulses. Accordingly, the contribution of the SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) to diastolic calcium removal was evaluated.
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  • Simultaneous detection of five enteric viruses associated with gastroenteritis by use of a PCR assay: a single real-time multiplex reaction and its clinical application.

    Jiang, Yixiang   Fang, Lin   Shi, Xiaolu   Zhang, Hailong   Li, Yinghui   Lin, Yiman   Qiu, Yaqun   Chen, Qingliang   Li, Hui   Zhou, Li   Hu, Qinghua  

    We developed a highly sensitive reverse transcription and multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay that can identify five viruses, including six genogroups, in a single reaction: norovirus genogroups I and II; sapovirus genogroups I, II, IV, and V; human rotavirus A; adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41; and human astrovirus. In comparison to monoplex rtPCR assays, the sensitivities and specificities of the multiplex rtPCR ranged from 75% to 100% and from 99% to 100%, respectively, evaluated on 812 clinical stool specimens. =20
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  • Clonal Expansion of Biofilm-Forming Salmonella Typhimurium ST34 with Multidrug-Resistance Phenotype in the Southern Coastal Region of China

    Li, Wanli   Li, Yinghui   Liu, Yao   Shi, Xiaolu   Jiang, Min   Lin, Yiman   Qiu, Yaqun   Zhang, Qian   Chen, Qiongcheng   Zhou, Li   Sun, Qun   Hu, Qinghua  

    To disclose the antibiotics susceptibility and wide adaptability of commonly occurring genotypes of Salmonella Typhimurium, the antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of different multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) types of a collection of 240 S. Typhimurium isolates (33 food and 207 clinical ones) during 2010-2014 in Shenzhen were analyzed. Among these strains, 167 was ST34 (69.58%), and 57 was ST19 (23.75%), respectively. A total of 159 (95.21%) ST34 strains displayed themultidrug resistant phenotype (>=3D three classes of antibiotic), whereas only 23 (40.35%) ST19 ones did (P < 0.01). Moreover, a relative high proportion (72.46%) of ST34 isolates was classified as moderate to strong biofilm-producers, while only 15.79% of ST19 (P < 0.01) was. Among the food isolates, more than half (51.52%) were from livestock products, among which 41.18% classified as moderate to strong biofilm-producers. In summary, this study highlights the expansion of S. Typhimurium ST34 of strong biofilm-forming ability and multidrug resistance in the southern coastal region of China. Therefore, monitoring the occurrence of ST34 S. Typhimurium in food sources, especially in livestock products, and taking appropriate measures to control Salmonella spp. infections via decreasing biofilm formation should be addressed.
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  • Investigation of mechanical responses to the tactile perception of surfaces with different textures using the finite element method

    Tang, Wei   Zhang, Jiankai   Shi, Xiaolu   Zhang, Shaogang   Liu, Songyong   Zhu, Hua   Ge, Shirong  

    Tactile perception is essential for humans to perceive the world, and it usually results in mechanical responses from the finger. In this study, a nonlinear, viscoelastic, and multilayered finite element model of the finger was developed. The relationship between the mechanical responses within the finger and tactile perception while the finger scanned different surface textures was studied. The results showed that the sensitivity of tactile perception is affected by the peak value of von Mises stress, which is itself determined by the shape and density of a given texture. The von Mises stress varies periodically with time, and this variation depends on the periodicity of the texture. Displacement signals around Pacinian corpuscles have periodic variation. The period of displacement decreases as the density of the texture increases. The spectral centroid increases as the spacing of the texture decreases. The related mechanisms are discussed in this article.
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  • Simultaneous Identification of Clinically Common Vibrio parahaemolyticus Serotypes Using Probe Melting Curve Analysis

    Li, Minxu   Jiang, Yixiang   Shi, Xiaolu   Li, Yinghui   Jiang, Min   Lin, Yiman   Qiu, Yaqun   Zuo, Le   Deng, Yinhua   Lin, Zeren   Liao, Yiqun   Li, Qingge  

    The dynamic nature of Vibrio parahaemolyticus epidemiology has presented a unique challenge for disease intervention strategies. Despite the continued rise of disease incidence and outbreaks of vibriosis, as well as the global emergence of pandemic clones and serovariants with enhanced virulence, there is a paucity of molecular methods for the serotyping of V. parahaemolyticus strains to improve disease surveillance and outbreak investigations. We describe the development of a multiplex ligation reaction based on probe melting curve analysis (MLMA) for the simultaneous identification of 11 clinically most common V. parahaemolyticus serotypes spanning a 10-year period. Through extensive sequence analyses using 418 genomes, specific primers and probes were designed for a total of 22 antigen gene targets for the O- and K- serogroups. Additionally, the toxR gene was incorporated into the assay for the confirmation of V. parahaemolyticus. All gene targets were detected by the assay and gave expected Tm values, without any cross reactions between the 11 clinically common serotypes or with 38 other serotypes. The limit of identification for all gene targets ranged from 0.1 to 1 ng/mu L. The intra- and inter-assay standard deviations and the coefficients of variation were no more than 1 degrees C and <1% respectively, indicating a highly reproducible assay. A multicenter double-blind clinical study was conducted using the traditional V. parahaemolyticus identification workflow and the MLMA assay workflow in parallel. From consecutive diarrheal stool specimens (n =3D 6118) collected over a year at 10 sentinel hospitals, a total of 153 V. parahaemolyticus isolates (2.5%) were identified by both workflows. A total agreement (kappa =3D 1.0) between the serotypes identified by the MLMA assay and conventional serological method was demonstrated. This is the first molecular assay to simultaneously identify multiple clinically important V. parahaemolyticus serotypes, which satisfies the acute need for a practical, rapid and robust identification of V. parahaemolyticus serotypes to facilitate the timely detection of vibriosis outbreaks and surveillance.
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  • CaMKII-delta 9 promotes cardiomyopathy through disrupting UBE2T-dependent DNA repair

    Zhang, Mao   Gao, Hua   Liu, Dairu   Zhong, Xiaoming   Shi, Xiaolu   Yu, Peng   Jin, Li   Liu, Yun   Tang, Yajie   Song, Yunhu   Liu, Jinghao   Hu, Xinli   Li, Chuan-Yun   Song, Lei   Qin, Jun   Wu, Fujian   Lan, Feng   Zhang, Yan   Xiao, Rui-Ping  

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase family, and its delta isoform is predominant in the heart. Excessive CaMKII activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of severe heart conditions, including myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy and heart failure. However, the identity of CaMKII splice variants and the mechanism(s) underlying CaMKII-mediated cardiac pathology remain elusive. Here, we show that CaMKII-delta 9, the most abundant CaMKII-delta splice variant in human heart, potently promotes cardiomyocyte death, cardiomyopathy and heart failure by disrupting cardiomyocyte genome stability. Mechanistically, CaMKII-delta 9, but not the previously well-studied CaMKII-delta 2 and CaMKII-delta 3, targets the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T (UBE2T) for phosphorylation and degradation, disrupting UBE2T-dependent DNA repair and leading to the accumulation of DNA damage and genome instability. These findings not only reveal a crucial role of CaMKII in the regulation of DNA repair, but also mark the CaMKII-delta 9-UBE2T-DNA damage pathway as an important therapeutic target for cardiomyopathy and heart failure.
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  • Risk Factors for Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infection in a Southern Coastal Region of China.

    Liao, Yuxue   Li, Yinghui   Wu, Shuyu   Mou, Jin   Xu, Zengkang   Cui, Rilin   Klena, John D   Shi, Xiaolu   Lu, Yan   Qiu, Yaqun   Lin, Yiman   Xie, Xu   Ma, Hanwu   Li, Zhongjie   Yu, Hongjie   Varma, Jay K   Ran, Lu   Hu, Qinghua   Cheng, Jinquan  

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to identify dietary and medical risk factors for Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) infection in the coastal city Shenzhen in China.; METHODS: In April-October 2012, we conducted a case-control study in two hospitals in Shenzhen, China. Laboratory-confirmed VP cases (N=3D83) were matched on age, sex, and other social factors to healthy controls (N=3D249). Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire on medical history; contact with seawater; clinical symptoms and outcome; travel history over the past week; and dietary history 3 days prior to onset. Laboratory tests were used to culture, serotype, and genotype VP strains. We used logistic regression to calculate the odds ratios for the association of VP infection with potential risk factors.; RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, VP infection was associated with having pre-existing chronic disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-23.7), eating undercooked seafood (aOR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.3-50.4), eating undercooked meat (aOR, 29.1; 95% CI, 3.0-278.2), eating food from a street food vendor (aOR, 7.6; 95% CI, 3.3-17.6), and eating vegetable salad (aOR, 12.1; 95% CI, 5.2-28.2).; CONCLUSIONS: Eating raw (undercooked) seafood and meat is an important source of VP infection among the study population. Cross-contamination of VP in other food (e.g., vegetables and undercooked meat) likely plays a more important role. Intervention should be taken to lower the risks of cross-contamination with undercooked seafood/meat, especially targeted at people with low income, transient workers, and people with medical risk factors.=20
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  • MYH7B variants cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by activating the CaMK-signaling pathway

    Chen, Peng   Li, Zongzhe   Nie, Jiali   Wang, Hong   Yu, Bo   Wen, Zheng   Sun, Yang   Shi, Xiaolu   Jin, Li   Wang, Dao-Wen  

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common genetic disease, predominantly caused by mutations in cardiac sarcomere genes; however, whether MYH7B causes HCM is not known. In this study, 549 unrelated patients with HCM and 500 healthy-controls were screened using targeted sequencing and whole exome sequencing together. We observed seven variants in MYH7B causing HCM in 8/549 patients, which accounted for 1.46% of HCM cases. Of these seven variants, three likely pathogenic variants in MYH7B co-segregating with 5 HCM patients were identified in three HCM pedigrees without other HCM-associated variants. Myh7b knockout rats were generated and cardiac functions were detected by Millar pressure-volume catheterization and echocardiography. Spontaneous HCM phenotypes, cellular disarray and cardiac fibrosis were observed in both Myh7b(+/-)/Myh7b(-/-) rats. Transcriptome sequencing showed that calcium is the key mediator of cardiac hypertrophy in Myh7b knockout. Subsequent analysis confirmed over-activation of CaMK-signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes of Myh7b(-/-) rats. Furthermore, MYH7B expression in human and rat hearts was identified and microRNA-208a and microRNA-499 levels are unchanged in HCM patients and Myh7b(+)(/-)/Myh7b(-/-) rats. This study is the first to identifyMYH7B variants as cause of HCM, which account for 1.46% of pathogenesisin HCM patients. Activation of CaMK-signaling pathway may be involved in its pathophysiology.
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