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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 555

  • Biodegradation and Composting of Nameko (Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito) Cultural Wastes

    YOKOTA Shinso   YAMAYA Hanako   ISHIGURI Futoshi   OKU Takeshi   IIZUKA Kazuya   YOSHIZAWA Nobuo  

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  • Electrical Properties of New Brounmillerite-type Ba2In2-x(Zn, Zr)xO5 System

    S. Ito   M. Watanabe   M. Saito   H. Yamamura  

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  • Genotype analysis in a patient with oculocutaneous albinism 1 minimal pigment type

    M. Kono   T. Kondo   S. Ito   T. Suzuki   K. Wakamatsu   S. Ito and Y. Tomita  

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  • Characterization of the anomalous second junction in Mo/CuInSe2/(CdZn)S/ITO solar cells

    J.W. Bowron   S.D. Damaskinos   A.E. Dixon  

    In general any analysis of Mo/CuInSe 2/(CdZn)S/ITO thin film solar cells assumes that the contacts to CuInSe 2 and to (CdZn)S are ohmic. Current-voltage analysis has shown the presence of a second junction in these devices. The Mo/CuInSe 2 interface was investigated as the possible location for this second junction. A scanning laser microscope with a cold stage was used to probe different regions of these devices as a function of temperature. Special devices with a transparent molybdenum back contact 400 Aring thick were used to allow direct probing of the Mo/CuInSe 2 interface through the molybdenum. The results show that a second junction exists at the Mo/CuInSe 2 interface. The J- V curves for this junction as a function of temperature have been extracted from the characteristic curves of the complete device and have been accurately modeled using theory developed for quasi-ohmic contacts
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  • Development of preset-type sample stage in three-dimensional atom probe

    S. Ito   T. Kaneko   C. Yamashita   T. Kaito   T. Adachi   T. Iwata   N. Mayama   M. Nojima   M. Taniguchi   M. Owari  

    Three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) equipped with a newly designed preset-type sample stage has been developed. This new type of sample stage can reduce the costs of constructing a 3DAP instrument, and this instrument consists of quite simple components because the complicated mechanism to make any desired adjustment is no longer required to be done in a vacuum. These advantages are expected to lead to the wider distribution of 3DAP. In addition, a wider range of applications is also expected in our equipment because the atoms can be field-evaporated by means of either high-voltage pulses or femto-second laser pulses. In this article, the performance of the pulse voltage mode and pulse laser mode are described and illustrated through the investigation of metals. Copyright copy 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • Lithium battery having a large capacity using Fe3O4 as a cathode material

    S. Ito   K. Nakaoka   M. Kawamura   K. Ui   K. Fujimoto   N. Koura  

    The lithium battery using Fe 3O 4 fine particles has been constructed. The discharge characteristics were improved by the addition of India ink or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The discharge potential at 60degC maintained 2.5V versus Li/Li + up to 500mAhg -1 and was 1.8V at a large capacity of 926mAhg -1. The possibility of secondary battery was discussed from the result of cycling test with 926mAhg -1. Similar potential curve was obtained in the second cycle. Although degradation was observed in the third cycle, cyclability was maintained. However, the test cell stopped in fourth discharge. It is concluded that a large capacity was achieved at 60degC using fine particles of Fe 3O 4 with PVA additive. According to the cycling test, it is expected to be a secondary battery by further development in nanostructure of the cathode. [All rights reserved Elsevier]
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  • Effect of ambient gas on pulsed laser deposition of group III nitrides

    S. Ito   H. Fujioka   J. Ohta   A. Kobayashi   T. Honke   H. Miki   M. Oshima  

    We have investigated the effect of hydrogen atoms on the pulsed laser deposition of GaN using a nitrogen-hydrogen forming gas with a hydrogen content of 4 mol% for the first time. We have found that the near-band-edge photo-luminescence emission of GaN is considerably increased and the width of X-ray rocking curve is reduced by the addition of hydrogen. These improvements probably stem from reduction of the dislocation density in the GaN films caused by the enhanced migration of Ga atoms on the GaN surface during the growths
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  • Long Term Operation of Superfluid-Cooled Cryostat for 920 MHz NMR Spectrometer

    S. Ito   T. Miki   M. Hamada   A. Sato   T. Kiyoshi   M. Yoshikawa   F. Matsumoto   H. Nagai   H. Wada   S. Fukui   T. Noguchi  

    The 920 MHz NMR magnet which successfully generated its designed magnetic field on April 2001 was installed at Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory (TML) of the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS). The magnet again generated 920 MHz without a quench, and has been in continuous operation for over one and a half years up to the present time. The cryostat, which houses the superconducting magnet, employs a pressurized superfluid helium cooling process. Its operating temperature is below 1.55 K. The consumption rates of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are 0.98 L/h and 0.76 L/h, respectively. Liquid helium is manually supplied every week and liquid nitrogen is automatically supplied every week. Although the cryostat has experienced earthquakes more than 70 times and power failure 3 times, there has been no serious trouble related to the cryostat and the cooling operation is still continuing without interruption
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  • Low-temperature growth of AlN on nearly lattice-matched MnO substrates

    S. Ito   H. Fujioka   J. Ohta   A. Sasaki   J. Liu   M. Yoshimoto   H. Koinuma   M. Oshima  

    We have investigated low-temperature epitaxial growths of AlN on nearly lattice-matched MnO(111) with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Coaxial impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (CAICISS) analysis has revealed that the surface of MnO(111) just before the growth consists of both the Mn-plane and the O-plane with a coverage ratio of 1:1. We have confirmed that the epitaxial growth temperature for AlN on MnO can be reduced down to 400degC by the use of PLD. The roughness of the AlN/MnO interface decreased from 1.3 to 2.1 nm by the reduction of the growth temperature, which is probably due to the suppression of the intermixing reactions at the interface. On the contrary, the surface morphology of the AlN films was degraded by the reduction of the growth temperature probably due to the stress buildup caused by the suppression of the interface reactions
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  • Growth of AlN on lattice-matched MnO substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    S. Ito   H. Fujioka   J. Ohta   H. Takahashi   M. Oshima  

    We have grown AlN on MnO (111) substrates with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and characterized their structural properties using various techniques. We have found that hexagonal AlN successfully grows epitaxially on MnO with the use of PLD. Grazing incidence-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXD) measurements have revealed that the epitaxial relationship between MnO and AlN is [0001] AlN//[111] MnO and [11-20] AlN//[1-10] MnO, which minimizes the lattice mismatch (0.8%). We have also found that the heterointerface for AlN/MnO is less abrupt than that for AlN/Al 2O 3 due to the chemical vulnerability of MnO
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  • Characterization of heterointerfaces in GaAs/MnAs/MnZn-ferrite structures

    S. Ito   H. Fujioka   M. Oshima  

    We have grown GaAs epitaxial films on MnZn-ferrite substrates using MnAs buffer layers and investigated their heterointerfaces with glazing incidence-angle X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the heterointerfaces for this structure are quite abrupt and the roughness at the GaAs/MnAs and MnAs/ MnZn-ferrite interfaces are 1.1 and 0.2 nm, respectively. We also found that the diffusion of atoms through the GaAs/MnAs interface into the GaAs film is negligible. These results indicate that the MnAs buffer layer for the GaAs/ferrite structure is chemically stable and promising for the application to the future magnetic electronics
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  • Characterization of GaAs on MnZn ferrite with a MnAs buffer layer

    S. Ito   H. Fujioka   H. Kiwata   T. Ikeda   M. Oshima  

    We have investigated the effect of an MnAs buffer layer for the epitaxial growth of GaAs on MnZn ferrite substrates using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and glazing incidence-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The RHEED and XRD observation have shown that the crystal quality of the GaAs layer is dramatically improved by inserting the MnAs buffer layer in spite of its large lattice mismatch. AFM observation has revealed that the use of the MnAs buffer also leads to the improvement in surface morphology. The epitaxial relationship for GaAs/MnAs/ferrite structure turned out to be [111]GaAs//[0001]MnAs//[111] ferrite and [112macr]GaAs//[11macr00]MnAs//[112macr] ferrite. These improvements can be attributed to the efficient relaxation of the lattice strain due to the softness of the MnAs metal bonding
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  • Effect of AlN Buffer Layers on GaN/MnO Structure

    S. Ito   H. Fujioka   J. Ohta   H. Takahashi   M. Oshima  

    We have investigated the effect of AlN buffer layers on characteristics of GaN films grown on nearly lattice matched MnO (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). We have found that the polarity of the GaN films grown on the MnO substrates changes from the N-polarity to the Ga-polarity with the use of AlN buffer layers. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations and photoluminescence (PL) measurements have revealed that the surface morphology and the optical properties of the GaN films on MnO can be improved by the AlN buffer layers.
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  • General process for transparent porous electrodes using metal-oxides nanoparticles

    S. Ito   Y. Yamada   M. Kuze   K. Tabata   T. Yashima  

    This paper discusses about the general method to fabricate transparent porous electrodes of SnO 2, TiO 2 and WO 3 from the commercially available powers by the uses of a hot-stirrer, an evaporator, and an oven. Surface morphologies of SnO 2 films were studied by using scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Optical properties of porous SnO 2 films were characterised by visible spectra. Transparent porous electrodes are useful for new optoelectronic devices
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  • General process for transparent porous electrodes using metal-oxides nanoparticles

    S. Ito   Y. Yamada   M. Kuze   K. Tabata and T. Yashima  

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  • Overview of fundamental study on remountable HTS magnet

    S. Ito   H. Hashizume  

    A remountable HTS (high temperature superconducting) magnet was proposed for one of the future designs of fusion reactors. It can facilitate the fabrication of the magnet itself and the replacement of failed parts and of the inner structural material components in the maintenance phase. The butt joint of HTS cable was investigated for the concept. At first, performance of the butt joint of BSCCO 2223 tape was evaluated by experiments and numerical analyses to clarify the basic property of the butt joint. Then experimental evaluation of the butt joint of laminated BSCCO 2223 cable was carried out to prove robustness against heat generation at jointing parts at liquid nitrogen temperature and several hundred amperes. Based on the proof, the prototype of the remountable HTS magnet by using the butt joint was fabricated and the performance was evaluated to suggest some issues for the future development. The above fundamental studies on the remountable HTS magnet are summarized in this paper. [All rights reserved Elsevier]
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