Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that increased exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) induces various human cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. Bisphenol S (BPS), an alternative to BPA, is increasingly present in various consumer products and human bodies worldwide. Recently, emerging evidence has shown that BPS might be related to cardiovascular disorders. In this review, we present striking evidence of the correlation between BPA exposure and various CVDs, and show that a nonmonotonic dose-response curve (NMDRC) was common in studies of the CV effects of BPA in vivo. The CV impairment induced by low doses of BPA should be highlighted, especially during developmental exposure or during coexposure with other risk factors. Furthermore, we explored the possible underlying mechanisms of these effects-particularly nuclear receptor signaling, ion channels, and epigenetic mechanisms-and the possible participation of lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and cell signaling. As the potential risks of BPA exposure in humans are still noteworthy, studies of BPA in CVDs should be strengthened, especially with respect to the mechanisms, prevention and treatment. Moreover, the potential CV risk of BPS reported by in vivo studies calls for immediate epidemiological investigations and animal studies to reveal the relationships of BPS and other BPA alternatives with human CVDs. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Intestine contains the body's second largest genetic information, so a relatively stable micro-biota ecosystems and interactions between intestinal micro-organisms play a pivotal role in the normal growth and development in animals. The establishment of intestinal microflora is affected by a variety of factors such as species, environmental factors, developmental stage, organizational structure and physiological characteristics of various parts of the digestive tract. Gene editing technology such as ZFN has recently been used as a new approach to replace the traditional transgenic technology and to make genetic modifications in animals. However, it is not known if genetic modification by gene editing technology will have any impact on gut microbiota. In this study, by sequencing 16S rRNA collected from rectum, we investigated the effects of ZFN-mediated myostatin (MSTN) loss-of-function mutation (MSTN-/-) on gut microbiota in Meishan pigs. Our results showed that the fecal microbial composition is very similar between MSTN-/- Meishan pigs and wild type Meishan pigs. Although significant differences in certain individual strains were observed, all the dominant microorganism species are basically the same between MSTN-/- and wild type pigs. However, these differences do not adversely affect MSTN-/- Meishan pigs. Thus, it is concluded that ZFN-mediated MSTN loss-of-function mutation did not have any adverse effect on the gut microbiota in Meishan pigs.
A new strain that produced a lipase capable of enantioselectively hydrolyzing the ethyl ester of (R)-flurbiprofen was isolated from soil samples and identified as Bacillus cereus C71. The optimal temperature and pH for the hydrolysis reaction with resting cells were 35 degrees C and 8.0, respectively. The surfactant Tween-40 enhanced the reaction rate and enantioselectivity. A small-scale production of (R)-flurbiprofen was conducted with 10 mmol L-1 substrate solution under the optimum conditions. After 36 h of reaction, 50% of the initial flurbiprofen ethyl ester was hydrolyzed to (R)-flurbiprofen with an enantiomeric excess (ee(p)) of 96%, and an enantiomeric ratio (E) of > 100. The cells could be reused and retained 60% of initial activity after recycling for six times.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of VMP regimen applied to the patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (LR-GTN) treated in Anhui provincial hospital. Materials and methods: Between 2005 and 2017, 87 patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia received VMP regimen, consisted of vincristine (VCR), methotrexate (MTX) and platinum (cisplatin, carboplatin or nedaplatin), 68 of whom received VMP as their first-line chemotherapy, and 19 methotrexate-failed patients received VMP regimen as their second-line chemotherapy. The staging and scoring system was based on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO 2000) criteria. We describe and analyze their baseline characteristics, remission/resistance/recurrence rates, adverse reactions and prognosis. Results: The first-line VMP protocol can achieve an 83.8% remission rate and it tended to develop resistance when the pretreatment beta-hCG reaches 7503.5 IU/L, and can achieve complete remission with FAV and EMA-CO as the salvage regimen. Among the 19 methotrexate-failed patients, 2 of whom were yet resistant to VMP regimen, followed by several courses of salvage chemotherapy such as FAV and EMP, and achieved 89.5% remission rate in second-line VMP group. Resistance to this regimen was obviously related with higher pre-treatment HCG whether used as primary or salvage treatment. Severe myelo-suppression (grade 3 or 4) was shown in 4 (5.9%) of 68 cases, of which none was grade 4. Conclusion: For patients diagnosed with LR-GTN VMP regimen was a safe and effective treatment with a high rate of remission. (C) 2019 Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V.
A fast and convenient analysis method based on a plant esterase reaction inhibited by organophosphorus pesticides was developed for the determination of the pesticide residues in vegetable samples. The proposed method was performed with an electrokinetic sequential injection analysis (ESIA) system, which consisted of a spectrophotometer, a homemade electro-osmosis pump, and four solenoid valves controlled by a Visual C program. The plant esterase extracted from fresh flour was adopted in the enzyme reaction. Several reaction parameters, such as the sample volume, the length of reaction coil, and the concentrations of reactants, are discussed in detail. The linear range of the calibration concentration was 0.03 - 0.5 mu g/g dimethoate, which was used as a converted concentration of total organophosphorus pesticides. The detection limit of 0.01 mu g/g dimethoate was achieved. The analytical throughput of the proposed method was about 24 samples per hour.
Dysregulated autophagy is associated with many pathological disorders such as cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that circular RNAs (circRNAs) have important roles in some biological processes. However, it remains unclear whether circRNAs participate in the regulation of autophagy. Here we report that a circRNA, termed autophagy-related circular RNA (ACR), represses autophagy and myocardial infarction by targeting Pink1-mediated phosphorylation of FAM65B. ACR attenuates autophagy and cell death in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, ACR protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and reduces myocardial infarct sizes. We identify Pink1 as an ACR target to mediate the function of ACR in cardiomyocyte autophagy. ACR activates Pink1 expression through directly binding to Dnmt3B and blocking Dnmt3B-mediated DNA methylation of Pink1 promoter. Pink1 suppresses autophagy and Pink1 transgenic mice show reduced myocardial infarction sizes. Further, we find that FAM65B is a downstream target of Pink1 and Pink1 phosphorylates FAM65B at serine 46. Phosphorylated FAM65B inhibits autophagy and cell death in the heart. Our findings reveal a novel role for the circRNA in regulating autophagy and ACR-Pink1-FAM65B axis as a regulator of autophagy in the heart will be potential therapeutic targets in treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
A funnelform single-drop microextraction was developed for gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. A solvent microdrop of 4 mu L was formed at the tip of a microsyringe needle assembled with a small brass funnel in the microextraction. In the funnel, the restricted microdrop was shaken gently by circular motion in an aqueous sample solution. Eleven organochlorine and two pyrethroid pesticides were used as the model compounds for evaluating the microextraction. The parameters affecting the enrichment factor of the microextraction were investigated, including the funnel inner angle, solvent component, and microdrop volume, etc. With the optimized microextracting conditions, the enrichment factors of organochlorines and pyrethroids were 272-875 and 147-183, respectively. The detection limit was in the range of 1-12 ng/L (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation (RSD) of peak height was less than 10.2% (n = 8). This proposed technique is simple, convenient, and efficient. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.