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Now showing items 1 - 4 of 4

  • Denitrification as the dominant nitrogen loss process in the Arabian Sea

    Devol, A. H.   Rich, J. J.   Chang, B. X.   Bulow, S. E.   Naik, Hema   Pratihary, Anil   Jayakumar, A.  

    Primary production in over half of the world's oceans is limited by fixed nitrogen availability. The main loss term from the fixed nitrogen inventory is the production of dinitrogen gas (N-2) by heterotrophic denitrification or the more recently discovered autotrophic process, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are responsible for about 35% of oceanic N-2 production and up to half of that occurs in the Arabian Sea(1). Although denitrification was long thought to be the only loss term, it has recently been argued that anammox alone is responsible for fixed nitrogen loss in the OMZs(2-4). Here we measure denitrification and anammox rates and quantify the abundance of denitrifying and anammox bacteria in the OMZ regions of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and the Arabian Sea. We find that denitrification rather than anammox dominates the N-2 loss term in the Arabian Sea, the largest and most intense OMZ in the world ocean. In seven of eight experiments in the Arabian Sea denitrification is responsible for 87-99% of the total N-2 production. The dominance of denitrification is reproducible using two independent isotope incubation methods. In contrast, anammox is dominant in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific OMZ, as detected using one of the isotope incubation methods, as previously reported(3,5). The abundance of denitrifying bacteria always exceeded that of anammox bacteria by up to 7- and 19-fold in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and Arabian Sea, respectively. Geographic and temporal variability in carbon supply may be responsible for the different contributions of denitrification and anammox in these two OMZs. The large contribution of denitrification to N-2 loss in the Arabian Sea indicates the global significance of denitrification to the oceanic nitrogen budget.
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  • Spatial variation of phytoplankton pigments along the southwest coast of India

    Pratihary, Anil   Mangesh, Gauns   Naqvi, S. W. A.  

    Phytoplankton composition and abundance were studied along the southwestern Indian coast toward the end of the upwelling season in October 2004. Phytoplankton pigment analyses, complemented by limited microscopic counts, were carried out to determine the community structure. Chlorophyll a was the most abundant of all pigments, followed by fucoxanthin. Zeaxanthin was abundantly found in the southern part of the study region (off Trivandrum), whereas fucoxanthin was the dominant marker pigment in the north (off Goa). The infer-red shift in the community structure from a dominant picoplankton fraction and Prymnesiophytes to diatom-dominated microplankton toward the north is ascribed to differences in the physico-chemical environment. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Sedimentary sulphate reduction and organic matter mineralization across salinity gradient of the Mandovi Estuary, West coast of India

    Naik, Richita   Araujo, Jesly   Pratihary, Anil   Kurian, Siby   Naqvi, S.W.A.  

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  • The relationship between volatile halocarbons and phytoplankton pigments during a Trichodesmium bloom in the coastal eastern Arabian Sea

    Roy, Rajdeep   Pratihary, Anil   Narvenkar, Gayatree   Mochemadkar, Sunita   Gauns, Mangesh   Naqvi, S. W. A.  

    Eukaryotic phytoplankton such as diatoms and prymnesiophytes produce biogenic halocarbons in the ocean that serve as important sources of chlorine and bromine to the atmosphere, but the role of cyanobacteria in halocarbon production is not well established. We studied distributions of chloroform (CHCl(3)), carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), methylene bromide (CH(2)Br(2)) and bromoform (CHBr(3)) in relation to phytoplankton composition, determined from pigment analysis complemented by microscopic examination, for one month in coastal waters of the eastern Arabian that experienced a Trichodesmium bloom that typically occurs during the Spring Intermonsoon season. High concentrations of zeaxanthin (23 mu g l(-1)), alpha beta betacarotene (6 mu g l(-1)) and chlorophyll a (67 mu g l(-1)) were found within the bloom whereas the marker pigment concentrations were low outside the bloom. CHCl(3) and CCl(4) occurred in relatively high concentrations in surface waters whereas CH(2)Br(2) and CHBr(3) were restricted to the subsurface layer. Chlorinated halocarbons were positively inter-correlated and with CHBr(3). The observed spatial and temporal trends in brominated compounds appear to be related to the abundance of Trichodesmium although correlations between concentrations of brominated compounds with various marker pigments were poor and statistically non-significant. The results support the existence of multiple sources and sinks of halogenated compounds, which might obscure the relationship between halocarbons and phytoplankton composition. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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