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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 21736

  • A fundamental study of the PCR amplification of GC-rich DNA templates

    Mamedov, T. G.   Pienaar, E.   Whitney, S. E.   TerMaat, J. R.   Carvill, G.   Goliath, R.   Subramanian, A.  

    A theoretical analysis is presented with experimental confirmation to conclusively demonstrate the critical role that annealing plays in efficient PCR amplification of GC-rich templates. The analysis is focused on the annealing of primers at alternative binding sites (competitive annealing) and the main result is a quantitative expression of the efficiency (eta) of annealing as a function of temperature (T-A), annealing period (t(A)), and template composition. The optimal efficiency lies in a narrow region of T-A and t(A) for GC-rich templates and a much broader region for normal GC templates. To confirm the theoretical findings. the following genes have been PCR amplified from human cDNA template: ARX and HBB (with 78.72% and 52.99% GC, respectively). Theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. Optimum annealing times for GC-rich genes lie in the range of 3-6s and depend on annealing temperature. Annealing times greater than 10s yield smeared PCR amplified products. The non-GC-rich gene did not exhibit this sensitivity to annealing times. Theory and experimental results show that shorter annealing times are not only sufficient but can actually aid in more efficient PCR amplification of GC-rich templates. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • T-x phase diagram and electrical conductivity of solid solutions in the TlInSe2-TlGaTe2 system

    Alieva, N. A.   Najafov, A. I.   Mamedov, T. G.  

    Using detailed physicochemical characterization results, we have mapped out the T-x phase diagram of the TlInSe2-TlGaTe2 system. The system has been shown to have eutectic phase relations, with limited solid solubilities of its constituent components. The extent of the TlInSe2-based solid solution is 30.0 mol %, and that of the TlGaTe2-based solid solution is 25.0 mol %. The eutectic is located at 55.0 mol % TlGaTe2 and melts at a temperature of 973 K. The electrical conductivity of crystalline samples of the solid solutions has been measured as a function of temperature.
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  • Characteristics and Sequence of Phosphoglycolate Phosphatase from a Eukaryotic Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Mamedov, T. G.   Suzuki, K.   Miura, K.   Kucho, K.-i.   Fukuzawa, H.  

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  • Characterization of cubic graphs G with ir_{t}(G)=IR_{t}(G)=2

    Eslahchi, Changiz   Haghi, Shahab   Jafari Rad, Nader  

    A subset S of vertices in a graph G is called a total irredundant set if, for each vertex v in G, v or one of its neighbors has no neighbor in S - {v}. The total irredundance number, ir(G), is the minimum cardinality of a maximal total irredundant set of G, while the upper total irredundance number, TR(G), is the maximum cardinality of a such set. In this paper we characterize all cubic graphs G with ir(t)(G) = IRt(G) = 2.
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  • Professor T. G. Griffith (1926–2019)

    Griffiths, Clive; Hainsworth, Peter  

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  • Energy constraints and\\(F(T,T_{G})\\)cosmology

    S. Waheed   M. Zubair  

    The present paper is elaborated to discuss the energy condition bounds in a modified teleparallel gravity namely \(F(T,T_{G})\), involving torsion invariant \(T\) and contribution from a term \(T_{G}\), the teleparallel equivalent of the Gauss-Bonnet term. For this purpose, we consider flat FRW universe with matter contents as perfect fluid. We formulate the SEC, NEC, WEC and DEC in terms of some cosmic parameters including Hubble, deceleration, jerk and snap parameters. By taking two interesting models for \(F(T,T_{G})\) and some recent limits of these cosmic parameters, we explore the constraints on the free parameters present in both assumed models. We also discuss these constraints graphically in terms of cosmic time by taking power law cosmology into account.
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  • Plane Symmetric Solutions in f($$\mathcal{G}$$G, T) Gravity

    Shamir, M. F.   Saeed, A.  

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  • Modified QCD ghost\\(f(T,T_{G})\\)gravity

    Jawad, Abdul   Rani, Shamaila   Chattopadhyay, Surajit  

    In this paper, we explore the reconstruction scenario of modified QCD ghost dark energy model and newly proposed \(f(T,T_{G})\) gravity in flat FRW universe. We consider the well-known assumption of scale factor, i.e., power law form. We construct the \(f(T,T_{G})\) model and discuss its cosmological consequences through various cosmological parameters such as equation of state parameter, squared speed of sound and \(\omega_{\mathit{DE}}-\omega '_{\mathit{DE}}\). The equation of state parameter provides the quintom-like behavior of the universe. The squared speed of sound exhibits the stability of model in the later time. Also, \(\omega_{\mathit{DE}}- \omega '_{\mathit{DE}}\) corresponds to freezing as well as thawing regions. It is also interesting to remark here that the results of equation of state parameter and \(w_{\mathit{DE}}-w'_{\mathit{DE}}\) coincide with the observational data.
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  • Energy constraints and\(F(T,T_{G})\)cosmology

    S. Waheed; M. Zubair  

    The present paper is elaborated to discuss the energy condition bounds in a modified teleparallel gravity namely F(T, T-G), involving torsion invariant T and contribution from a term T-G, the teleparallel equivalent of the Gauss-Bonnet term. For this purpose, we consider flat FRW universe with matter contents as perfect fluid. We formulate the SEC, NEC, WEC and DEC in terms of some cosmic parameters including Hubble, deceleration, jerk and snap parameters. By taking two interesting models for F(T, T-G) and some recent limits of these cosmic parameters, we explore the constraints on the free parameters present in both assumed models. We also discuss these constraints graphically in terms of cosmic time by taking power law cosmology into account.
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  • Modified QCD ghost\(f(T,T_{G})\)gravity

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Chattopadhyay, Surajit  

    In this paper, we explore the reconstruction scenario of modified QCD ghost dark energy model and newly proposed f (T, T-G) gravity in flat FRW universe. We consider the well-known assumption of scale factor, i.e., power law form. We construct the f (T, TG) model and discuss its cosmological consequences through various cosmological parameters such as equation of state parameter, squared speed of sound and w(DE) - w'(DE). The equation of state parameter provides the quintom-like behavior of the universe. The squared speed of sound exhibits the stability of model in the later time. Also, w(DE) - w'(DE) corresponds to freezing as well as thawing regions. It is also interesting to remark here that the results of equation of state parameter and w(DE) - w'(DE) coincide with the observational data.
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  • Thermodynamics in f(G,T) Gravity

    Sharif, M.   Ikram, Ayesha  

    This paper explores the nonequilibrium behavior of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon of isotropic and homogeneous universe model in f (G, T) gravity (G and T represent the Gauss-Bonnet invariant and trace of the energy-momentum tensor, resp.). We construct the corresponding field equations and analyze the first as well as generalized second law of thermodynamics in this scenario. It is found that an auxiliary term corresponding to entropy production appears due to the nonequilibrium picture of thermodynamics in first law. The universal condition for the validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics is also obtained. Finally, we check the validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics for the reconstructed f (G, T) models (de Sitter and power-law solutions). We conclude that this law holds for suitable choices of free parameters.
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  • JOHN G. T. SHIPMAN 1939–2016

    Petouris, Thanos  

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  • JOHN G. T. SHIPMAN 1939–2016

    Thanos Petouris  

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  • JOHN G. T. SHIPMAN 1939–2016

    Petouris   Thanos  

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  • JOHN G. T. SHIPMAN 1939–2016

    Thanos Petouris  

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  • Inhomogeneous perturbations and stability in f(G,T)$f(\\mathcal{G},T)$ gravity

    Sharif M.   Ikram Ayesha  

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