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Now showing items 113 - 128 of 13730

  • Supergravity as generalised geometry II:Ed(d)× ?+and M theory

    André Coimbra   Charles Strickland-Constable…  

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  • The Role of Corporate Political Strategies in M&As

    Croci, Ettore; Pantzalis, Christos; Park, Jung Chul; Petmezas, Dimitris  

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  • Highly skilled and well connected: Migrant inventors in cross-border M&As

    Useche, Diego   Miguelez, Ernest   Lissoni, Francesco  

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  • Kendall M. Campbell, MD Selected as 2014 Puffer/IOM Fellow

    Ireland, J.  

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  • A unified theory of forward- and backward-looking M&As and divestitures

    Ma, Qing   Wang, Susheng  

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  • The Poet as Botanistby M. M. Mahood

    Ellen J. Jenkins  

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  • Hemoglobin M Disease as a Cause of Cyanosis in a Newborn

    Alonso-Ojembarrena, Almudena   Lubian-Lopez, Simon P.  

    Methemoglobinemia, including the inherited or congenital form, is a known but infrequent cause of neonatal cyanosis. We present the case of a newborn patient with neonatal cyanosis, who was diagnosed with F-M-Osaka methemoglobinemia, and an up-to-date literature review of the disease.
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  • Kendall M. Campbell, MD Selected as 2014 Puffer/IOM Fellow

    Ireland   J.  

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  • The Poet as Botanistby M. M. Mahood

    Ellen J. Jenkins  

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  • Rosen's (m,R) system as an X-machine

    Michael L. Palmer   Richard A. Williams   Derek Gatherer  

    Abstract Robert Rosen’s (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly both irreducible to sub-models of its component states and non-computable on a Turing machine. (M,R) stands as an obstacle to both reductionist and mechanistic presentations of systems biology, principally due to its self-referential structure. If (M,R) has the properties claimed for it, computational systems biology will not be possible, or at best will be a science of approximate simulations rather than accurate models. Several attempts have been made, at both empirical and theoretical levels, to disprove this assertion by instantiating (M,R) in software architectures. So far, these efforts have been inconclusive. In this paper, we attempt to demonstrate why - by showing how both finite state machine and stream X-machine formal architectures fail to capture the self-referential requirements of (M,R) . We then show that a solution may be found in communicating X-machines, which remove self-reference using parallel computation, and then synthesise such machine architectures with object-orientation to create a formal basis for future software instantiations of (M,R) systems. Highlights • Finite state machines and stream X-machines fail to model the self-referential (M,R) system. • Communicating X-machines can evade the self-referential problem. • Communicating X-machines require parallel processing. • Communicating X-machines can have object-oriented components. • We produce an object-oriented communicating X-machine architecture for (M,R) .
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  • Material Adverse Change (Lessons from Failed M&As) || Front Matter

    Stefanowski, Robert V.  

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  • Immunoglobulin M as a vaccine adjuvant

    Ilag, Leodevico L.  

    Vaccines are effective in preventing disease by stimulating the immune system and sustaining an immune response towards eradication of pathogens and diseased cells. However, designing successful vaccines is not always straightforward. For a vaccine to be successful, antigen-presenting cells (APC) need to be stimulated, primarily by adjuvants, towards a sustained immune response through integration of the innate and adaptive (humoral and cellular) immune systems. Furthermore, there is an immediate need for safe and effective adjuvants. There has been significant progress in understanding the mechanisms on how vaccines work and the role of adjuvants, dendritic cells, and the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. Currently, different adjuvants are actively explored but the potential of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) as a vaccine adjuvant has been overlooked. This article hypothesizes how the IgM molecule could function as a vaccine adjuvant by acting as a "soluble" toll-like receptor (TLR) through the formation of an immune complex with antigen (Ag) and other components of the innate immune system. The complex should lead to sustained humoral and/or cell-mediated immune responses. Hypothetically, it is also possible that the Ag-IgM complex recruits other components of complement or other factors that can activate other members of the adaptive immune system. As it is now possible to produce commercial-scale quantities of monoclonal human IgM antibodies, understanding the role of the IgM in linking the innate and adaptive immune systems may lead to practical therapeutic applications. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Cross-border M&As and innovative activity of acquiring and target firms

    Joel Stiebale  

    Abstract This paper analyzes the effects of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on the innovation of European firms. The results indicate a considerable increase in post-acquisition innovation in the merged entity. This is mainly driven by inventors based in the acquirer's country, while innovation in the target's country tends to decline. The asymmetry of effects between acquiring and target firms increases with pre-acquisition differences in knowledge stocks, indicating a relocation of innovative activities towards more efficient usage within multinational firms. Instrumental variable techniques as well as a propensity-score matching approach indicate that the effect of cross-border M&As on innovation is causal. Highlights • This paper analyzes the impact of cross-border M&As on innovation of European firms. • Post-acquisition, innovation output in the merged entity increases substantially. • This increase is driven by the acquirer, while target's innovation declines. • Results indicate a relocation of R&D towards more efficient usage within MNEs.
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  • Failure to Complete Cross-Border M&As: “To” vs. “From” Emerging Markets

    Zhou, Chenxi; Xie, Jinhong; Wang, Qi  

    While cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) involving emerging markets have been increasing in recent years, a high percentage collapse before completion. This study investigates how the predictors of cross-border M&A completion involving emerging markets depend upon the direction of global expansion, i.e., investment inbound to a developing market or outbound from a developing market. Analysis based on 15 years of data from four emerging economies, Brazil, Russia, India, and China, from 1995 to 2010, reveals fundamental differences in the predictors of inbound vs. outbound M&A completion. Country-level factors reflecting differences in political, trade, and legal environments strongly affect the completion for inbound M&As, but have a much weaker influence on outbound M&As. By contrast, firm-level factors such as past M&A experience have a significantly stronger effect on completion for outbound than for inbound M&As. Most interestingly, two deal level factors (the percentage of stake sought by the acquirer and whether or not the deal is a cash transaction) increase the likelihood of completion for inbound but decrease it for outbound M&As. These findings have important managerial implications for enhancing the success of global expansions.
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  • Cross-border M&As and innovative activity of acquiring and target firms

    Stiebale   Joel  

    Highlights • This paper analyzes the impact of cross-border M&As on innovation of European firms. • Post-acquisition, innovation output in the merged entity increases substantially. • This increase is driven by the acquirer, while target's innovation declines. • Results indicate a relocation of R&D towards more efficient usage within MNEs. Abstract This paper analyzes the effects of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on the innovation of European firms. The results indicate a considerable increase in post-acquisition innovation in the merged entity. This is mainly driven by inventors based in the acquirer's country, while innovation in the target's country tends to decline. The asymmetry of effects between acquiring and target firms increases with pre-acquisition differences in knowledge stocks, indicating a relocation of innovative activities towards more efficient usage within multinational firms. Instrumental variable techniques as well as a propensity-score matching approach indicate that the effect of cross-border M&As on innovation is causal.
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  • Einstein-Nordström theory as a frame for a theory of quantum gravity

    Winterberg, F  

    The Einstein-Nordstrom theory is proposed as a framework for a theory of quantum gravity, dividing the space of physical reality into a part longer than the radius of a proton and described by Einstein's classical field theory of gravitation and one smaller than the radius of a proton, for the Yang-Mills theories of elementary particles, with both of them separated by a common event horizon. This division of space is reflected into the division of classical Newtonian point particle dynamics and Helmholtz line vortex dynamics, leading to a non-dimensional number for stable vortex line configurations, as for the stability of the Karman vortex street in classical fluid dynamics, and here for the non-dimensional mass ratio, of the Higgs particle mass to the Planck mass. Setting the vortex core radius of the line vortices equal to the Planck length, Lorentz invariance is broken for energies larger than the Planck energy, whereby the underlying more fundamental symmetry is the Galilei group, establishing a preferred reference system. With the Hamiltonian operator there commuting with the particle number operator, this permits the existence of negative, as well as positive masses.
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