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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 42

  • Suppression of RNA interference pathway in vitro by Grass carp reovirus.

    Guo, Shuai   Xu, Dan   Xu, Hong-xu   Wang, Tu   Li, Jia-le   Lu, Li-qun  

    The means of survival of genomic dsRNA of reoviruses from dsRNA-triggered and Dicer-initiated RNAi pathway remains to be defined. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) replication on the RNAi pathway of grass carp kidney cells (CIK). The dsRNA-triggered RNAi pathway was demonstrated unimpaired in CIK cells through RNAi assay. GCRV-specific siRNA was generated in CIK cells transfected with purified GCRV genomic dsRNA in Northern blot analysis; while in GCRV-infected CIK cells, no GCRV-specific siRNA could be detected. Infection and transfection experiments further indicated that replication of GCRV correlated with the increased transcription level of the Dicer gene and functional inhibition of in vitro synthesized egfp-siRNA in silencing the EGFP reporter gene. These data demonstrated that although only the genomic dsRNA of GCRV was sensitive to the cellular RNAi pathway, unidentified RNAi suppressor protein(s) might contribute to the survival of the viral genome and efficient viral replication.
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  • Polymorphic microsatellite loci for population studies of Bullacta exarata

    Wang, Shu-Liang   Niu, Dong-Hong   Jia, Ming-Jing   Li, Jia-Le  

    Nine polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from an AC-enriched genomic library of Bullacta exarata. They were polymorphic in 30 individuals from Qidong in Jiangsu Province, China. The number of alleles per polymorphic loci varied from 7 to 14 and the values of observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.2593 to 0.9667 and from 0.7090 to 0.9164, respectively. Six of the nine microsatellites conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and inherited independently. These informative microsatellite markers will be useful in studies of population genetic structure for this species.
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  • Identification and characterization of the TLR18 gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Huang, Wen-Ji   Shen, Yubang   Xu, Xiao-Yan   Hu, Mo-Yan   Li, Jia-le  

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in the innate immune system. Although TLR18 is an important member of this family of receptors in fish, the role of the tlr18 gene in responses to pathogen infection is still unclear. In this study, we identified and characterized the grass carp tlr18 gene (gctlr18) to further clarify the function of TLR18 in teleost fish. Gctlr18 spans over 3600 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 852 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that gctlr18 encodes structures typical of the TLR family, including a signal peptide, seven leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane region, and a (Toll-interleukin-1 receptor) TIR domain. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gctlr18 was constitutively expressed in all investigated tissues, with abundant expression in spleen, gill, heart, intestine, kidney and fin and low expression in skin, liver and brain. Following grass carp reovirus-challenge and Aeromonas hydrophila inoculation, gctlr18 transcripts were upregulated significantly in immune-relevant tissues. Stimulation of Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells with purified flagellin from Salmo typhimurium, lipopolysaccharide and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stimulation in vitro resulted in significantly increased gctlr18 expression, reaching a peak followed by restoration of normal levels. Overexpression of gctlr18 reduced A. hydrophila invasion by 83.4%. In CIK cells, gctlr18 induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including il-8, inf-1 and trif-alpha. Our results indicate that gctlr18 plays a key role in innate immune responses in teleost fish. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Twenty-four polymorphic microsatellite markers from spotted barbell (Hemibarbus maculates)

    Zhu, Jun-Jie   Liu, Shi-Li   Ma, Ke-Yi   Li, Jia-Le   Lian, Qing-Ping  

    Spotted barbell (Hemibarbus maculates) is an economically important freshwater fish which is widely distributed throughout China's river systems. We reported the isolation and characterization of 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from genomic DNA in this species enriched by (CA)(15) probe. The variability of these microsatellites were tested on 30 individuals. The average allele number was 10.5 per locus, ranging from 3 to 18. The observed heterozygosity was from 0.0000 to 1.0000 and the expected heterozygosity was from 0.6226 to 0.9379. 6 of the 24 microsatellites did not conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellites can be used to study economic traits of QTL position, population genetic diversity and the construction of the genetic mapping for Hemibarbus maculates in the future.
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  • Synthesis and Properties of Fullerene C-60 and C-70 Spin Probes Containing Isoindoline Nitroxides

    Yan, Guo-Ping   Zhao, Biao   Bottle, Steven E.   Zhang, Qiao   Li, Jia-Le  

    Three fullerene isoindoline nitroxides N-methyl-3,4-fulleropyrrolidine-2-spiro-5'-(1',1',3',3'-tetramethylisoindolin-20-yloxyl), (C60-(TMIO)(m), and C-70-(TMIO)(n)) were synthesized by the covalent bonding of 5-formyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl isoindolin-2-yloxyl to the fullerenes C-60 and C-70. Significantly, the X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated the characteristic N 1s signals of NO. at 402 eV. The atomic force microscope morphologies showed that the average particle sizes of C-60-(TMIO)(m) and C-70-(TMIO)(n) were 38 and 15 nm. The electrochemical experiments indicated that fullerene bound isoindoline nitroxides retained similar electrochemical properties and redox reaction mechanisms as the parent nitroxides. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the fullerene isoindoline nitroxides all exhibited the hyperfine splittings and characteristic spectra of tetramethyl isoindoline nitroxides, with typical nitroxide g-values and nitrogen isotropic hyperfine coupling constants. Therefore, these fullerene isoindoline nitroxides may be considered as potential candidates for novel biological spin probes using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.
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  • Polymorphic microsatellite loci for population studies of the razor clam, Sinonovaculd constricta

    Niu, Dong-Hong   Li, Jia-Le   Liu, Da-Bo  

    The razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta) is an important aquacultured bivalve in China. The natural populations of this species are decreasing quickly. To facilitate studies on genetic diversity and population structure of wild populations, microsatellites were isolated from a CA enriched genomic library. Eight microsatellite loci were polymorphic in 30 individuals from Chongming in Shanghai, China. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied from 6 to 13 and the values of observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.350 to 1.000 and from 0.602 to 0.902, respectively. These microsatellites are being used in studying population differentiation and genetic diversity for effective conservation and management genetic resources of S. constricta.
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  • Seismic Behaviors of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel-FRP Composite Bars under Quasi-Static Loading

    Xiao, Tong-Liang   Qiu, Hong-Xing   Li, Jia-Le  

    Steel-fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite bar (SFCB) is a new composite material with good corrosion resistance and designable post-yield stiffness. Substitution of steel bar with SFCB can greatly increase the durability and ultimate capacity associated with seismic performance. First, the method and main results of the experiment are briefly introduced, then a simplified constitutive model of composite bar material was applied to simulate the seismic behaviors of the concrete beams reinforced with SFCBs by fiber element modeling. The simulation results were found to be in good agreement with test results, indicating that the finite element model is reasonable and accurate in simulating the seismic behaviors of beams reinforced with SFCB. Based on the numerical simulation method, a parametric study was then conducted. The main variable parameters were the FRP type in composite bars (i.e., basalt, carbon FRP and E-glass FRP), the concrete strength, basalt FRP (BFRP) content in SFCBs and shear span ratio. Seismic behaviors such as load-displacement pushover curves, seismic ultimate capacity and its corresponding drift ratio of the SFCBs reinforced concrete beams were also evaluated. The results showed that (1) the fiber type of the composite bar had a great impact on the mechanical properties of the beam, among which the beam reinforced with BFRP composite bar has higher seismic ultimate capacity and better ductility. With the increase of the fiber bundle in the composite bar, the post-yield stiffness and ultimate capacity of the component increase and the ductility is better; (2) at the pre-yield stage, concrete strength has little influence on the seismic performance of concrete beams while after yielding, the seismic ultimate capacity and post-yielding stiffness of specimens increased slowly with the increase in concrete strength, however, the ductility was reduced accordingly; (3) as the shear span ratio of beams increased from 3.5 to 5.5, the seismic ultimate capacity decreased gradually while the ultimate drift ratio increased by more than 50%. Through judicious setting of the fiber content and shear span ratio of the composite bar reinforced concrete beam, concrete beams reinforced with composite bars can have good ductility while maintaining high seismic ultimate capacity.
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  • Covalent imprinted polymer for selective and rapid enrichment of ractopamine by a noncovalent approach

    Tang, Yi-Wei   Fang, Guo-Zhen   Wang, Shuo   Li, Jia-Le  

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the separation and concentration of ractopamine (RAC) was prepared by a covalent imprinting approach and the template was removed successfully by hydrolysis, so that four carboxylic acid groups were left in the cavities and could specifically rebind RAC through noncovalent interaction: hydrogen bonding. The conditions for synthesis of the MIP were optimized during the polymerization process, and a molar ratio of template-functional monomer complexes to cross-linker of 1: 3 was confirmed. The adsorption capacity of the MIP was 4.1-fold that of the nonimprinted polymer, and the adsorption reaction reached equilibrium after 25 min at 50 mg L(-1) concentration. The results of the competitive adsorption test showed that the MIPs had specific recognition ability for the analyte RAC. In addition, the important factors affecting the efficiency of the method which was developed using the MIPs as a solid-phase sorbent for separation and determination of RAC combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection were optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range of the calibration curve in the method was 0.05-5 mu g L(-1) (R(2)=0.98) and the limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) was 0.01 mu g L(-1). The proposed method was applied to determination of RAC in spiked feedstuffs and urine samples, with recoveries ranging from 74.17 to 114.46% and relative standard deviation (n=3) below 4.55 in all cases.
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  • Synthesis,Crystal Structure,and Properties of a New Coordination Polymer Built from N/O-Donor Mixed Ligands

    Zhu, Mei-An   Han, Shuai-Shuai   Deng, Feng   Li, Jia-Le   Chen, Shui-Sheng  

    The coordination polymer, namely, [Cd(H2L)(nobda)](n) (1) was prepared by the reaction of Cd(NO3)(2) .4H(2)O with 4-amino-1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H(2)nobda) and 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene (H2L), and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The carboxylic acid of H(2)nobda ligands was completely deprotonated to be nobda(2- )anions, which act as tridentate ligand to connect the Cd(2+ )to form two-dimensional (2D) network, while the neutral H2L ligands serve as a linear didentate bridge to connect two adjacent Cd2+ ions upper and down the 2D layer. The adjacent 2D layers were further linked into the three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular polymer by the weak interactions such as hydrogen bonds and pi-pi stacking interactions. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra and luminescent properties in the solid state at room temperature have been investigated.
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  • Isolation and characterization of twelve novel microsatellites in yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Li, Zhong-Quan   Xie, Nan   Li, Jia-Le  

    The yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco is a freshwater fish species. Due to overfishing and pollution of freshwater ecosystems, the wild stocks of this fish reduced substantially. We isolated and characterized 12 polymorphic microsatellites of this species. The number of alleles at the 12 microsatellite loci ranged from four to eight, with an average of 6.6/locus. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.72, whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.60 to 0.86 (average: 0.80). All 12 microsatellites conformed to Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and were in linkage equilibrium. These 12 novel microsatellites could facilitate studies of genetic diversity and population structure of the yellow catfish to supply necessary information of conservation of the yellow catfish.
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  • Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the complement component C6 gene in grass carp

    Shen, Yu-Bang   Zhang, Jun-Bin   Xu, Xiao-Yan   Li, Jia-Le  

    The complement system, as a representative of innate immunity, plays a key role in the host defense against infections. C6 is the member of complement components creating the membrane attack complex (MAC). In this study, we cloned and characterized the grass carp complement component C6 (gcC6) gene. Our data showed that gcC6 gene contained a 2724 bp open reading frame (ORF), a 237 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 219 bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcC6 showed 77.6% and 58.9% identity to zebrafish C6 and rainbow trout C6, respectively. GcC6 gene was expressed in a wide range of grass carp tissues, and the highest expression level of gcC6 was detected in the spleen and liver. Upon challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, its,expression was significantly up-regulated in muscle, trunk kidney, liver, head kidney, spleen, heart and intestine, whereas it was down-regulated in the brain and skin. The expression level of gcC6 was high at the unfertilized egg stage. It was significantly increased at 1 day post-hatching, but it was decreased at 10 days post-hatching. This result suggested that the complement C6 transcripts in early embryos were of maternal origin. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Hunting for advanced low-energy gamma-rays shielding materials based on PbWO4 through crystal defect engineering

    Zhang, Quan-Ping   Xu, Yun-Chuan   Li, Jia-Le   Liu, Ao-Jie   Xu, Dui-Gong   Wei, Ming   Zhou, Yuan-Lin  

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  • The food web structure and ecosystem properties of a filter-feeding carps dominated deep reservoir ecosystem

    Liu, Qi-Gen   Chen, Yong   Li, Jia-Le   Chen, Li-Qiao  

    An Ecopath model was constructed to describe the ecosystem of Lake Qiandaohu, a stock-enhanced large deep Chinese reservoir with silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) dominated in its pelagic community. The food web structure and ecosystem property of the reservoir were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that there were seven trophic levels (TLs) in the system, with the trophic flows primarily occurring through the first four TLs. The food web structure of this ecosystem was characterized with a bulged intermediate trophic level, which was contrary to the wasp-waist food web structure occurred in most natural aquatic ecosystems. The corresponding trophic flow pattern showing by transfer efficiencies (TEs) between TLs indicated that the trophic flows primarily went through from TL I to II with a high TE (of over 50%) and through a flow loop or short cut between detritus and TL II but greatly reduced from TL II to III with a lowest TE of 2.5% due to the bulged biomass at TL II. The trophic flow loop greatly increased the throughput recycled, which, together with high connectance index (CI), system omnivory index (SOI), Finn's cycled index (FCI) and Finn's mean path length (FML), might be beneficial to the maintaining of ecosystem stability. Finally, ecosystem property indices showed that this reservoir had a high value of P-P/R and P-P/B, indicating this ecosystem of short history was immature, but highly productive. This silver carp and bighead carp dominated deep reservoir ecosystem had both the characteristics of high productivity of an immature ecosystem and the feature of high stability of a mature ecosystem. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • High-flow vascular malformation treatment using ultrasound-guided laser combined with polidocanol sclerotherapy.

    Zhang, Yan   Zhou, Ping   Li, Lan   Li, Jia-le  

    The current treatment for vascular malformations includes surgery, sclerotherapy, and embolization. However, each method has its limitations, such as recurrence, complications, scarring, and radiation exposure. Therefore, identifying an effective, minimally invasive treatment that reduces lesion recurrence is particularly important. We describe in detail a patient who received treatment with ultrasound-guided laser interruption of feeding vessels combined with polidocanol sclerotherapy after the recurrence of forearm high-flow vascular malformation. =20
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  • Teosin, a novel basic shell matrix protein from Hyriopsis cumingii induces calcium carbonate polycrystal formation

    Jin, Can   Li, Jia-Le   Liu, Xiao-Jun  

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  • Larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel Mytilus coruscus in response to monospecific bacterial biofilms

    Yang, Jin-Long   Shen, Pei-Jing   Liang, Xiao   Li, Yi-Feng   Bao, Wei-Yang   Li, Jia-Le  

    The effects of bacterial biofilms (BFs) on larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel, Mytilus coruscus, were investigated in the laboratory. Of nine different isolates, Shewanella sp.1 BF induced the highest percentage of larval settlement and metamorphosis, whereas seven other isolates had a moderate inducing activity and one isolate, Pseudoalteromonas sp. 4, had a no inducing activity. The inducing activity of individual bacterial isolates was not correlated either with their phylogenetic relationship or with the surfaces from which they were isolated. Among the eight bacterial species that demonstrated inducing activity, bacterial density was significantly correlated with the inducing activity for each strain, with the exception of Vibrio sp. 1. The Shewanella sp. 1 BF cue that was responsible for inducing larval settlement and metamorphosis was further investigated. Treatment of the BFs with formalin, antibiotics, ultraviolet irradiation, heat, and ethanol resulted in a significant decrease in their inducing activities and cell survival. BF-conditioned water (CW) did not induce larval metamorphosis, but it triggered larval settlement behavior. A synergistic effect of CW with formalin-fixed Shewanella sp. 1 BF significantly promoted larval metamorphosis. Thus, a cocktail of chemical cues derived from bacteria may be necessary to stimulate larval settlement and metamorphosis in this species.
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