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Now showing items 129 - 144 of 428

  • Review of Clitostethus Weise,Parastethorus Pang et Mao and Stethorus Weise (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) from Pakistan

    Iqbal, Zafar   Nasir, Muhammad Farooq   Bodlah, Imran   Szawaryn, Karol  

    The ladybird beetles form the tribe Scymnini are important group of beneficial insects, and they mostly feed on aphids, mealybugs, scale insects, whiteflies and mites. Five species from the genera Clitostethus Weise, Parastethorus Pang et Mao and Stethorus Weise, are reviewed from Pakistan. Two new country records are presented here, namely, C. arcuatus (Rossi) and S. gangliiformis Li et al. The identification key, diagnoses, descriptions and distributions are provided, along with prey and host plants records. All species are illustrated.
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  • Homozygous Truncating Variants in TBC1D23 Cause Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia and Alter Cortical Development

    Ivanova, Ekaterina L.   Mau-Them, Frederic Tran   Riazuddin, Saima   Kahrizi, Kimia   Laugel, Vincent   Schaefer, Elise   Martin, Anne de Saint   Runge, Karen   Iqbal, Zafar   Spitz, Marie-Aude   Laura, Mary   Drouot, Nathalie   Gerard, Benedicte   Deleuze, Jean-Francois   de Brouwer, Arjan P. M.   Razzaq, Attia   Dollfus, Helene   Assir, Muhammad Zaman   Nitchke, Patrick   Hinckelmann, Maria-Victoria   Ropers, Hilger   Riazuddin, Sheikh   Najmabadi, Hossein   van Bokhoven, Hans   Chelly, Jamel  

    Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is a heterogeneous group of rare recessive disorders with prenatal onset, characterized by hypoplasia of pons and cerebellum. Mutations in a small number of genes have been reported to cause PCH, and the vast majority of PCH cases are explained by mutations in TSEN54, which encodes a subunit of the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex. Here we report three families with homozygous truncating mutations in TBC1D23 who display moderate to severe intellectual disability and microcephaly. MRI data from available affected subjects revealed PCH, small normally proportioned cerebellum, and corpus callosum anomalies. Furthermore, through in utero electroporation, we show that downregulation of TBC1D23 affects cortical neuron positioning. TBC1D23 is a member of the Tre2-Bub2-Cdc16 (TBC) domain-containing RAB-specific GTPase-activating proteins (TBC/RABGAPs). Members of this protein family negatively regulate RAB proteins and modulate the signaling between RABs and other small GTPases, some of which have a crucial role in the trafficking of intracellular vesicles and are involved in neurological disorders. Here, we demonstrate that dense core vesicles and lysosomal trafficking dynamics are affected in fibroblasts harboring TBC1D23 mutation. We propose that mutations in TBC1D23 are responsible for a form of PCH with small, normally proportioned cerebellum and should be screened in individuals with syndromic pontocereballar hypoplasia.
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  • Biallelic variants in LINGO1 are associated with autosomal recessive intellectual disability, microcephaly, speech and motor delay.

    Ansar, Muhammad   Riazuddin, Saima   Sarwar, Muhammad Tahir   Makrythanasis, Periklis   Paracha, Sohail Aziz   Iqbal, Zafar   Khan, Jamshed   Assir, Muhammad Zaman   Hussain, Mureed   Razzaq, Attia   Polla, Daniel Lopo   Taj, Abid Sohail   Holmgren, Asbjorn   Batool, Naila   Misceo, Doriana   Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna   de Brouwer, Arjan P M   Guipponi, Michel   Hanquinet, Sylviane   Zoete, Vincent   Santoni, Federico A   Frengen, Eirik   Ahmed, Jawad   Riazuddin, Sheikh   van Bokhoven, Hans   Antonarakis, Stylianos E  

    PURPOSE: To elucidate the novel molecular cause in two unrelated consanguineous families with autosomal recessive intellectual disability.; METHODS: A combination of homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing was used to locate the plausible genetic defect in family F162, while only exome sequencing was followed in the family PKMR65. The protein 3D structure was visualized with the University of California-San Francisco Chimera software.; RESULTS: All five patients from both families presented with severe intellectual disability, aggressive behavior, and speech and motor delay. Four of the five patients had microcephaly. We identified homozygous missense variants in LINGO1, p.(Arg290His) in family F162 and p.(Tyr288Cys) in family PKMR65. Both variants were predicted to be pathogenic, and segregated with the phenotype in the respective families. Molecular modeling of LINGO1 suggests that both variants interfere with the glycosylation of the protein.; CONCLUSION: LINGO1 is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly found in the central nervous system. Published loss-of-function studies in mouse and zebrafish have established a crucial role of LINGO1 in normal neuronal development and central nervous system myelination by negatively regulating oligodendrocyte differentiation and neuronal survival. Taken together, our results indicate that biallelic LINGO1 missense variants cause autosomal recessive intellectual disability in humans.=20
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  • Sensitive detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells of newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients is associated with imatinib resistance: implications in the post-imatinib era.

    Iqbal, Zafar   Aleem, Aamer   Iqbal, Mudassar   Naqvi, Mubashar Iqbal   Gill, Ammara   Taj, Abid Sohail   Qayyum, Abdul   ur-Rehman, Najeeb   Khalid, Ahmad Mukhtar   Shah, Ijaz Hussain   Khalid, Muhammad   Haq, Riazul   Khan, Mahwish   Baig, Shahid Mahmood   Jamil, Abid   Abbas, Muhammad Naeem   Absar, Muhammad   Mahmood, Amer   Rasool, Mahmood   Akhtar, Tanveer  

    BACKGROUND: BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations are infrequently detected in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Recent studies indicate the presence of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations in a higher percentage of CML patients when CD34+ stem/progenitor cells are investigated using sensitive techniques, and these mutations are associated with imatinib resistance and disease progression. However, such studies were limited to smaller number of patients.; METHODS: We investigated BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells from 100 chronic-phase CML patients by multiplex allele-specific PCR and sequencing at diagnosis. Mutations were re-investigated upon manifestation of imatinib resistance using allele-specific PCR and direct sequencing of BCR-ABL kinase domain.; RESULTS: Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations were detected in 32/100 patients and included F311L, M351T, and T315I. After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 8-48), all patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations exhibited imatinib resistance. Of the 68 patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, 24 developed imatinib resistance; allele-specific PCR and BCR-ABL kinase domain sequencing detected mutations in 22 of these patients. All 32 patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations had the same mutations after manifestation of imatinib-resistance. In imatinib-resistant patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, we detected F311L, M351T, Y253F, and T315I mutations. All imatinib-resistant patients except T315I and Y253F mutations responded to imatinib dose escalation.; CONCLUSION: Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can be detected in a substantial number of chronic-phase CML patients by sensitive allele-specific PCR technique using CD34+ cells. These mutations are associated with imatinib resistance if affecting drug binding directly or indirectly. After the recent approval of nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib and ponatinib for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia along with imatinib, all of which vary in their effectiveness against mutated BCR-ABL forms, detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can help in selection of appropriate first-line drug therapy. Thus, mutation testing using CD34+ cells may facilitate improved, patient-tailored treatment.
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  • Corrigendum to "An inventory of the ethnoveterinary practices for reproductive disorders in cattle and buffaloes, Sargodha district of Pakistan" (vol 117, pp 393, 2008)

    Rehan Dilshad, Syed Muhammad   Najeeb-ur-Rehman   Iqbal, Zafar   Muhammad, Ghulam   Iqbal, Arshad   Ahmad, Nazir  

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  • Effects of exponential volume fraction law on the natural frequencies of FGM cylindrical shells under various boundary conditions

    Arshad, Shahid Hussain   Naeem, Muhammad Nawaz   Sultana, Nazra   Iqbal, Zafar   Shah, Abdul Ghafar  

    In the present work, vibration characteristics of thin functionally graded cylindrical shells are studied under the influence of various boundary conditions. Fabrication of FGM cylindrical shell is carried out by using exponential volume fraction law. Strain- and curvature-displacements relationships are taken from Love's thin shell theory. The frequency equation in the form of eigenvalue problem is obtained by adapting the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Characteristic beam functions are assumed to approximate the axial modal dependence. Effects of exponential volume fraction law on the natural frequencies of the FGM cylindrical shells for various boundary conditions are studied against circumferential wave number, length to radius ratio and thickness to radius ratio for different values of power law exponents. Results evaluated show good agreement with those available in the literature.
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  • RAPD analysis of Fusarium isolates causing "Mango malformation" disease in Pakistan

    Iqbal, Zafar   Mehboob-ur-Rahman   Dasti, Altaf A.   Saleem, Ahmad   Zafar, Yusuf  

    Mango Malformation (MM) disease is a major constraint to mango production. A total of 20 Fusarium isolates from MM-affected mango plants were collected from 14 locations in Pakistan and assessed for genetic diversity using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. A total of 393 fragments were amplified after screening with 50 random primers. The amplifications with 45 primers identified scoreable polymorphisms among the isolates. A genetic similarity matrix based on Nei and Li's index determined coefficients ranging from 46.46% to 92.51%. These coefficients were used to construct a dendrogram using the UPGMA algorithm. The isolates grouped into two main clusters, comprising 13 and 7 isolates respectively, at a genetic relatedness of 52%. Within the clusters, Fusarium isolates were not necessarily related either by geographic origin or by the mango cultivar from which they were isolated. RAPD proved a reproducible and tractable means of differentiating Fusarium isolates. These findings also suggest that some infections originate not from adjacent plants within an orchard but from geographically distant areas; indicating that most probably infection occurs in nurseries prior to plants being transported around the country for subsequent cultivation, and that improved plant hygiene could significantly curb MM infection and spread.
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  • Cure Characterization of Cycom 977-2A Carbon/Epoxy Composites for Quickstep Processing

    Khan, Laraib A.   Kausar, Ayesha   Hussain, Syed Tajammul   Iqbal, Zafar   Day, Richard J.   Syed, Ahmed Shuja   Khan, Zaffar M.  

    In this effort, Quickstep, a relatively a new technique, have been employed for manufacturing of composite materials. The cure schedule provided by a prepreg manufacturer is usually designed for autoclave or other traditional processing techniques and thermosetting resin systems are formulated for ramp rate curing 2-3 K min(-1). While in case of Quickstep processing, ramp rates of 15 K min(-1) can be achieved, thus changing the chemorheology of resin. The cure process of 977-2A carbon/epoxy composites was evaluated for Quickstep processing using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical and thermal analysis, and Fourier transformed infrared and results were compared with cure cycle employed for autoclave curing. Optimum hold time for Quickstep processing at upper curing temperature (180 degrees C) was determined using DSC. The hold time of 120 min at 180 degrees C was found to be suitable for Quickstep cure cycle, producing a panel of similar degree of cure to that achieved through autoclave processing schedule. Final degree of cure was dependent on time spent at upper cure temperature and slightly on initial steps of the cure cycle which was used to control the resin flow, fiber wetting, and void removal. Quickstep processed samples exhibited higher T-g and crosslink density and similar molecular network structure to the autoclave cured samples. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 54:887-898, 2014. (c) 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers
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  • Model for Service Delivery for Developmental Disorders in Low-Income Countries.

    Hamdani, Syed Usman   Minhas, Fareed Aslam   Iqbal, Zafar   Rahman, Atif  

    As in many low-income countries, the treatment gap for developmental disorders in rural Pakistan is near 100%. We integrated social, technological, and business innovations to develop and pilot a potentially sustainable service for children with developmental disorders in 1 rural area. Families with developmental disorders were identified through a mobile phone-based interactive voice response system, and organized into "Family Networks." "Champion" family volunteers were trained in evidence-based interventions. An Avatar-assisted Cascade Training and information system was developed to assist with training, implementation, monitoring, and supervision. In a population of 30,000, we successfully established 1 self-sustaining Family Network consisting of 10 trained champion family volunteers working under supervision of specialists, providing intervention to 70 families of children with developmental disorders. Each champion was responsible for training and providing ongoing support to 5 to 7 families from his or her village, and the families supported each other in management of their children. A pre-post evaluation of the program indicated that there was significant improvement in disability and socioemotional difficulties in the child, reduction in stigmatizing experiences, and greater family empowerment to seek services and community resources for the child. There was no change in caregivers' well-being. To replicate this service more widely, a social franchise model has been developed whereby the integrated intervention will be "boxed" up and passed on to others to replicate with appropriate support. Such integrated social, technological, and business innovations have the potential to be applied to other areas of health in low-income countries. Copyright =C2=A9 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
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  • The role of selenium in amelioration of heat-induced oxidative damage in cucumber under high temperature stress

    Shahid, Muhammad Adnan   Javaid, Muhammad Mansoor   Iqbal, Zafar   Anjum, Muhammad Akbar   Garcia-Sanchez, Francisco   Mattson, Neil Scott  

    High temperature is an environmental stress which destroys agricultural crops and inhibits their growth and productivity. The aim of current investigation was to examine the role of selenium (Se) on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Sahil plant growth, physio-biochemical and yield attributes under heat stress (HS) in controlled conditions. Plants were grown under normal temperature (NT; 28/18 degrees C day/night) from sowing to 32 days after sowing (DAS). All plants were foliar-sprayed with Se (8 mu M) at flower-initiation stage (32-DAS) and heat stress (HS; 40/30 degrees C day/night) was induced from 35-DAS to entire duration of the experiment (75-DAS). Data regarding growth, physio-biochemical and yield traits were measured. Heat stress decreased growth traits, total chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), antioxidant enzyme activities, membrane stability index (MSI) and yield-related attributes, while increased intercellular CO2 (Ci), ROS production, lipid peroxidation (LPO), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and compatible solutes. Exogenous application of Se mitigated HS-induced injurious effects by improving growth components, Pn, gs, E, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, level of osmolytes, MSI and yield attributes and reducing ROS, LPO and NPQ. Selenium reversed heat-induced oxidative damage by strengthening antioxidative mechanism, which resulted in higher scavenging of ROS, thereby minimizing LPO. It is suggested that Se-induced improvement in Pn, growth and productivity associated traits under HS is linked with enhanced antioxidant activities and osmolytes accumulation. In addition, Se applied at flower initiation is highly effective in alleviating heat damage in cucumber.
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  • Anti-Oxidant Activities,Chemical Attributes and Fruit Yield of Peach Cultivars as Influenced by Foliar Application of Ascorbic Acid

    Sajid, Muhammad   Khan, Muhammad Ali   Bilal, Wasim   Rab, Abdur   Iqbal, Zafar   Khan, Sana Irshad  

    Peach fruit is enriched with natural antioxidants but oxidation caused by biotic and abiotic stresses, reduce these antioxidants and consequently effect the quality and yield of the fruit. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to investigate the role of ascorbic acid to sustain the natural antioxidant activity, improve the fruit quality and yield of peach cultivars (Early Grand and Florida King). The peach cultivars, Early Grand and Florida King were tested against four levels of ascorbic acid (200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm) and compared with control as water spray. The foliar application of ascorbic acid significantly influenced anti-oxidant activity and physico-chemical attributes of peach cultivars. However, the foliar application of ascorbic acid @ 800 ppm significantly increased the fruit weight, fruit yield, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity of fruit peel, with least percent infected fruits and fruit juice pH as compared to the rest of the treatments. Similarly, significant variation was recorded for peach cultivars regarding anti-oxidant activity and various physico-chemical attributes. The maximum fruit weight, fruit yield, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and TSS/TA ratio were noted in fruit of cultivar Florida King. On other side the foliar treated fruit of peach cultivar Early Grand had the highest percent infected fruits, fruit juice pH and antioxidant activity of fruit peel. It is concluded from the significant findings of present research that the peach cultivar Florida King performed better in terms of maximum fruit yield, whereas the cultivar Early Grand produced better quality fruits with high anti-oxidant activity when treated with 800 ppm of ascorbic acid as foliar spray.
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  • Fabrication of PEGylated Porous Alumina Whiskers (PAW) for drug delivery applications

    Ali, Manahil   Mujtaba-ul-Hassan, Syed   Ahmad, Jamil   Khurshid, Ahmat   Shahzad, Faisal   Iqbal, Zafar   Mehmood, Mazhar   Waheed, Khalid  

    This study reports the fabrication and potential evaluation of Porous Alumina Whiskers (PAW) synthesized by facile two-step process, hydrothermal synthesis followed by calcination, for drug delivery applications. The as-synthesized PAW were modified with Polyethylene Glycol (PEG), after hydroxylation, to improve biocompatibility. Chemical and structural properties of Porous Alumina Whiskers (PAW) were evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) which confirm the successful synthesis of PEGylated PAW. Moreover, biocompatibility was accessed via MIT-assay using Rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. Finally drug loading and release capabilities of PEGylated PAW were tested using photosense, a standard photodynamic therapy (PD) model drug. Results confirm the suitability of PAW as a potential platform for drug delivery. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Phenothiazine-based dyes with bilateral extension of pi-conjugation for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Iqbal, Zafar   Wu, Wu-Qiang   Kuang, Dai-Bin   Wang, Lingyun   Meier, Herbert   Cao, Derong  

    Four novel organic photo-sensitizers based on phenothiazine were designed, synthesized and characterized for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Anisole, octyloxybenzene and dodecyloxybenzene were incorporated into the phenothiazine by an Ullmann reaction. An additional octyloxybenzene was incorporated into one dye unit through a Suzuki coupling reaction. The modified phenothiazine moiety acts as an electron donor and cyanoacrylic acid acts as an electron acceptor and anchoring unit. The photophysical, electrochemical and sensitizing characteristics of the new dyes were evaluated. The bis(octyloxybenzene) substituted dye delivered the best performance with its sensitized solar cell displaying an overall power conversion efficiency of 5.73% under standard illumination. The results indicate that bilateral conjugate extension of the pi conjugation can increase their light harvesting capacity and electron lifetime, leading to improvements in the efficiency of their dye-sensitized solar cells. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Rapid CE-UV evaluation of polypyrrole-coated magnetic nanoparticles for selective binding of endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals by aromatic interactions

    Miah, Musharraf   Iqbal, Zafar   Lai, Edward P. C.  

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals in water have negative impacts on human health and environmental ecology. Sorbents that can selectively remove these compounds based on their chemical functionality would have a significant health benefit to humans and wildlife. In this work, polypyrrole-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs@PPy) were evaluated as a sorbent for extraction and preconcentration of bisphenol A (BPA), metformin (MF), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), phenformin (PF) and triclosan (TC). Both in-capillary and in vitro binding efficiencies were determined using capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection (CE-UV). In-capillary binding efficiencies of 99 +/- 1% were found for BPA, PF and TC, which were confirmed by in vitro binding tests. Apparently, MNPs@PPy bound strongly with aromatic compounds due to pi-pi bonding interactions. A mixture of ethyl acetate and methanol (75 : 25 v/v) was evaluated as the eluting solvent. CE-UV analysis determined the % recoveries to be 85 +/- 13% for MF and PF which were adequate for analyte preconcentration by this method. A new coating of PPy was successfully added on the used particles for regeneration of their surfaces to achieve a binding efficiency of as high as 94 +/- 3%.
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  • Studies on wheat bran Arabinoxylan for its immunostimulatory and protective effects against avian coccidiosis.

    Akhtar, Masood   Tariq, Ahmad Fraz   Awais, Mian Muhammad   Iqbal, Zafar   Muhammad, Faqir   Shahid, Muhammad   Hiszczynska-Sawicka, Elzbieta  

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran derived polysaccharides, Arabinoxylans (AXs), were evaluated for their immunostimulatory and protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Humoral response revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) total Igs, IgG and IgM titers at days 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells in the experimental chickens administered with AXs as compared to those of control group. The percent protection and daily weight gains were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the chickens of experimental groups as compared to control; whereas, mean oocyst per gram of droppings and lesion scores were significantly higher (P<0.05) in control group as compared to chickens in the experimental groups. The differences in organ body weight ratio of all the lymphoid organs were statistically non-significant (P>0.05) between experimental and control groups except thymus and cecal tonsils. In conclusion, AXs showed both immunostimulatory and protective effects against coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Copyright =C2=A9 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    Afzal, Aftab   Saleem, Shahid   Iqbal, Zafar   Jan, Gul   Malik, Muhammad Faisal Anwar   Asad, Saeed Ahmad  

    The effect of inoculation of Rhizobium or Pseudomonas, or both, in the presence and absence of phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) fertilizer on wheat yield was tested. The experiment was conducted outdoors in potted soil during two consecutive years under natural conditions. Rhizobial strain (Thal 8-chickpea nodulating bacteria) and Pseudomonas strain (54RB), both indigenous P solubilizers were applied in broth culture at seedling stage. Fertilizer in the form of P2O5 was an additional treatment applied at sowing time. Results revealed that inoculation of Pseudomonas strain in presence of phosphorus (P) fertilizer increased yield up to 41.8% when it was compared with only P fertilizer applied. Co-inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains with the P2O5 treatment however resulted in increased grains yield by 10% over the P2O5 treatment alone. It is inferred that inoculation with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas combined with P2O5 is not only environmentally beneficial but also economically sound and productive, with wheat yield increases of 10% to 42%.
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