Mumtaz, Muhammad Zahid
Farooqi, Muhammad Aslam
Organic amendments improve the soil quality and plant productivity as well as help in the establishment of introduced bacteria. The present study was conducted to evaluate the interactive impact of organic amendments and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strain Alcaligenes sp. AZ9 to improve maize productivity and soil quality. organic amendments including rock phosphate enriched compost (RPEC), biochar, and humic acid were applied in soil along with and without Alcaligenes sp. AZ9. The results revealed that the sole application of organic amendments along with Alcaligenes sp. AZ9 showed increase in growth and grain yield of maize. However, a combined application of organic amendments (RPEC, biochar, and humic acid) along with Alcaligenes sp. AZ9 showed maximum increase in plant height up to 14%, shoot dry biomass up to 30%, 1000-grains weight up to 10%, grain yield up to 31%, stover yield up to 34%, and potassium (K) concentration in grains up to 12% as compared to absolute control. The increase in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration in grains was non-significant over control. This treatment also improved soil biological attributes in terms of the bacterial population up to 60%, microbial biomass carbon up to 22%, soil organic carbon up to 29%, and saturation percentage of soil up to 14% as compared to control. It can be concluded that the application of organic amendments improved establishment of introduced bacteria, which could be effective in improving maize growth and yield as well as soil health.
Ul Hasan, Murtaz
A cross-sectional study has been carried out in order to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in susceptible hosts in the Punjab region (Pakistan). A total of 170 equines and 150 dromedary camels were examined. Five (3.3%) and 6 (4%) camels were positive at parasitological and serological examination, respectively. None of the equines tested positive at any method. These results seem to indicate that T. evansi infection has a relatively low prevalence in the Punjab region. However, efforts must be done in order to establish control measures in affected herds and avoid dissemination of the disease.
Naqvi, Syed Kamran Ul-Hassan
van Bokhoven, Hans
Background and Aims. Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa-vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition that mostly affects joints and tendons but can also affect the pericardium, which is a surface surrounding the heart. CACP syndrome is caused by mutations in a secreted proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) gene, which expresses in skeletal as well as nonskeletal tissues. We undertook this study to genetically screen a large consanguineous Pakistani family segregating CACP in an autosomal recessive manner. Methods. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping of 10 members of a Pakistani family including six affected and four normal individuals was carried out using 250K SNP genotyping array. To screen for mutation in PRG4 gene, all coding exons and exon-intron junctions were sequenced using ABI prism 3730 automated DNA sequencer. Results. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping revealed a large homozygous region on chromosome 1 carried by all the affected individuals. This region contains the previously described PRG4 gene involved in CACP syndrome. Sequence analysis of PRG4 gene in affected individuals of the family presented here revealed a 2 base-pair (bp) deletion (c.2816_2817delAA) predicting a frame shift mutation (p.Lys939fsX38). To our knowledge, this is probably the first mutation identified in PRG4 gene in a Pakistani family. Conclusions. We described a 2-bp novel deletion mutation in PRG4 gene in a Pakistani family with CACP. Our findings extend the body of evidence that only nonsense mutation in PRG4 gene triggers the phenotype. (C) 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sajid, Muhammad Sohail
Khan, Muhammad Nisar
Khan, Muhammad Kasib
Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p<0.05) in cattle (1076/1475; 72.9%) than in buffaloes (957/2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.
Rahman, Zia Ur
Awais, Mian Muhammad
Background: Oxytocin has been reported for a wide range of adverse effects in different species of lactating animals. The present study was aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of oxytocin on biomarkers of oxidative stress in buffaloes. Lactating buffaloes (n = 40) were randomly selected from a commercial dairy farm located in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan and divided into two equal groups viz. treatment and control groups, each containing 20 buffaloes. Buffaloes in treatment group were injected with oxytocin before each milking (morning and evening) for milk let down; whereas, animals in control group were milked naturally without oxytocin injection. Both the groups were assessed for oxidative stress biomarkers. Results: Results showed significantly higher levels (P <= 0.05) of TOS, tHcy and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity in lactating buffaloes injected with oxytocin as compared to those of control group. On the other hand, serum levels of TAS, PON1 and arylesterase were significantly lower (P <= 0.05) in the buffaloes of treatment group. Conclusions: Oxytocin injection in lactating buffaloes resulted in elevated oxidative stress by increasing the total homocysteine and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and decreasing enzymatic activities of antioxidant enzymes including paraoxonase-1 and arylesterase; that might render the animals to poor productive and reproductive potential.
Khan, Muhammad Nisar
Zafar, Muhammad Arif
Zia, Muhammad Anjum
Comparative efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) crude powder and salinomycin sodium on the occurrence of coccidiosis and growth performance of broiler was evaluated. A total of 90, day-old chicks were randomly divided into six groups. From first day onward, ration was supplemented with 1, 2 and 3 % turmeric powder in groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively, group 1 received salinomycin sodium @ 12 g 50 kg(-1) feed while groups 5 and 6 were kept as infected un-medicated and uninfected un-medicated controls. First five groups were infected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts @ 1,00,000/chick at the age of 20 days. Body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio were investigated throughout the experimental period, and bloody diarrhea and oocysts excretions were investigated at the first and the second week after infection. Maximum coccidiostatic effect was observed with turmeric (3%) showing mild bloody diarrhea as compared to other infected groups receiving turmeric containing rations. This effect was comparable with a standard coccidiostat i.e., salinomycin sodium. Similarly, the weight gain in the groups treated with salinomycin sodium (2280g) and 3% turmeric (2293g) were also significantly higher (p <= 0.05) than that of infected control group (1955g). In the groups treated with ration supplemented with 3% turmeric powder and salinomycin sodium, the peak excretion of oocysts was delayed about 1 or 2 days relative to the control infected group. Concentration-dependent coccidiostatic effect of turmeric suggested that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of turmeric with least toxic effects to be used as coccidiostat.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated individual risk factor contributions to absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Even fewer have examined changes in individual risk factors as components of overall modifiable risk change following a CVD prevention intervention.; DESIGN: Longitudinal study of population CVD risk factor changes following a health screening and enhanced support programme.; METHODS: The contribution of individual risk factors to the estimated absolute CVD risk in a population of high risk patients identified from general practice records was evaluated. Further, the proportion of the modifiable risk attributable to each factor that was removed following one year of enhanced support was estimated.; RESULTS: Mean age of patients (533 males, 68 females) was 63.7 (6.4) years. High cholesterol (57%) was most prevalent, followed by smoking (53%) and high blood pressure (26%). Smoking (57%) made the greatest contribution to the modifiable population CVD risk, followed by raised blood pressure (26%) and raised cholesterol (17%). After one year of enhanced support, the modifiable population risk attributed to smoking (56%), high blood pressure (68%), and high cholesterol (53%) was removed.; CONCLUSION: Approximately 59% of the modifiable risk attributable to the combination of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and current smoking was removed after intervention.=20
Benchafia, El Mostafa
The long-sought cubic gauche phase of polymeric nitrogen (cg-PN) with nitrogen-nitrogen single bonds has been synthesized together with a related phase by a radio-frequency plasma reaction under near-ambient conditions. Here, we report the synthesis of polymeric nitrogen using a mixture of nitrogen and argon flowing over bulk beta-sodium azide or beta-sodium azide dispersed on 100 nm long multiwall carbon nanotubes. The cg-PN phase is identified by Raman and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. The synthesis of the cubic gauche allotrope of high energy density polymeric nitrogen under near-ambient conditions should therefore enable its optimized production and applications as a "green" energetic material and a potential catalyst for different chemical reactions.
Asmawi, Mohd Zaini
Al-Mansoub, Majed Ahmed
Fei, Yam Mun
Previous studies have investigated the cardiovascular activity of Gynura procumbens Merr. single-solvent extracts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro vasorelaxant properties and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of serial extracts and fractions of Gynura procumbens (GP). The leaves of GP were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water using the maceration method. Suspended aortic ring preparations were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE 1 mu M), followed by cumulative addition of GP extracts (0.25-3mg/mL). The petroleum ether extract (GPPE) was the most potent among the four extracts. Pre-incubation of endothelium-intact aorta with atropine (1 mu M), indomethacin (10 mu M), methylene blue (10 mu M), propranolol (1 mu M) and potassium channel blockers such as TEA (1 mu M), glibenclamide (10 mu M), 4-aminopyridine (1 mu M) and barium chloride (10mM) had no effect on GPPE-induced vasorelaxation. The vasorelaxant effect of GPPE was partly diminished by pretreatment of aortic rings preparations with l-NAME (10 mu M) and even more so in endothelium-denuded aortic rings, indicating a minimal involvement of endothelium-dependent pathway in GPPE-induced vasorelaxation. The calcium-induced vasocontractions were antagonized significantly and concentration-dependently by GPPE in calcium free and high potassium medium. These results illustrate that Ca2+ antagonizing actions of GPPE in rat isolated aorta are comparable to that of verapamil and may be mainly responsible for its vasodilation effect. The antioxidant activity of GPPE supports its vasorelaxant effect by attenuating the production of deleterious free radicals and reactive oxygen species in the vasculature.
Khan, Zahoor Ali
Microgrid is a community-based power generation and distribution system that interconnects smart homes with renewable energy sources (RESs). Microgrid efficiently and economically generates power for electricity consumers and operates in both islanded and grid-connected modes. In this study, we proposed optimization schemes for reducing electricity cost and minimizing peak to average ratio (PAR) with maximum user comfort (UC) in a smart home. We considered a grid-connected microgrid for electricity generation which consists of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) panel. First, the problem was mathematically formulated through multiple knapsack problem (MKP) then solved by existing heuristic techniques: grey wolf optimization (GWO), binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and wind-driven optimization (WDO). Furthermore, we also proposed three hybrid schemes for electric cost and PAR reduction: (1) hybrid of GA andWDO named WDGA; (2) hybrid of WDO and GWO named WDGWO; and (3) WBPSO, which is the hybrid of BPSO andWDO. In addition, a battery bank system (BBS) was also integrated to make our proposed schemes more cost-efficient and reliable, and to ensure stable grid operation. Finally, simulations were performed to verify our proposed schemes. Results show that our proposed scheme efficiently minimizes the electricity cost and PAR. Moreover, our proposed techniques, WDGA, WDGWO and WBPSO, outperform the existing heuristic techniques.
Khan, Muhammad Nisar
Sajid, Muhammad Sohail
Khan, Muhammad Kasib
The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated determinants (e.g., sex, age, on-farm management and husbandry) of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in the domestic animals of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, 1,140 cattle, 1,140 buffaloes, 660 goats, 840 sheep, and 156 camels were randomly selected and their fecal samples were screened every other week for a year using a modified floatation technique. The samples positive for strongyle-type eggs had the parasite species identified using coproculture. It was found that the prevalence of GI helminths was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in sheep (44.17%; 371/840) than in other livestock. Sheep were followed in order by goats (40.15%; 265/660), buffaloes (39.82%; 454/1,140), and cattle (33.68%; 384/1,140). The important helminth species identified were Fasciola (F.) gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara vitulorum, Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Ostertagia spp., Cooperia spp., Strongyloides spp., Moniezia spp., and Trichuris spp. The prevalence of GI helminths except F. hepatica and F. gigantica was significantly higher in grazing animals, females (P < 0.05) and young (P < 0.05) of all the host species when compared with stall-fed animals, males and adults, respectively. Using ponds and rivers/canals as drinking water were found to have significant influence (P < 0.05) on the prevalence of GI helminths. The results provide a baseline data for planning future research and control strategies against GI helminthes.
Discovery of new antimicrobials is highly desired due to the emergence of microorganisms that have multi-drug resistant capability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of dopamine (DA) on Escherichia coli. DA's inhibitory activity was tested at different initial E. coli cell concentrations. Significant 3.5 and 4.2 log inhibitions were observed for 1 x 10(8) and 1 x 10(7) cells per mL, when compared to controls, corresponding to 99.97 and 99.99% inhibitions. Microscopic techniques (optical, fluorescence, and scanning electron) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed a polydopamine coating on the bacterial cells. Capillary electrophoresis with ultra-violet detection indicated a significant change in the cell structure caused by a low dose (100 mg L-1) of DA within 200 min of incubation.
Shah, Hamid Ullah
Purpose: To evaluate the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities of the organic extract ofRhizopus stolonifer whole cell static culture in order to determine the presence of potentially bioactive compounds in the culture. Methods: The organic extract was obtained by extracting the whole cell culture of R. stolonifer with Ethyl Acetate (EtOAc). The antifungal activity was determined by inhibitory effect on the growth of Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia protuberata and Fusarium oxysporum, cytotoxic activity by brine shrimp lethality test, antibacterial activity against Ervinia carotovora and Xanthomonas campestris by disc diffusion technique, and phytotoxic activity by testing the crude extract against the Lemna minor frond. Results: The extract showed phytotoxic activity (at 95% level of significance) against Lemna minor (67.7 % lethality) with Fronds Inhibition (Fl(50)) of 167.85 mu g mL(-1). The extract exhibited a significant (at 95% level of significance) cytotoxic activity (LC50 of 115.71 mu g mL(-1)) against brine shrimp. Maximum mortality (56.7 %) was obtained at a concentration of 200 mu g mL(-1) concentration after 48 h. In the antifungal test, the highest inhibitory effect was observed against Fusarium oxysporum (88.8 %) followed by Alternaria alternata (81.5 %), Aspergillus flavus (70.5 %) and Curvularia protuberata (37.5 %) at 1000 mu g mL(-1) when compared to negative reference. Antibacterial activity against Ervinia carotovora and Xanthomonas campestris was minimal even at extract level of 2000 mu g mL(-1). Conclusion: The ethyl acetate extract of R. stolonifer possesses significant herbicidal, cytotoxic and antifungal properties. Isolation and characterization is required for structural elucidation of its bioactive compounds.