Saddiqi, Hafiz Abubaker
This paper presents the first report of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in dairy goats in a desert (Pakistan). Three breeds of dairy goats, i.e. Dera Din Pariah, Pak Angora and Beetal, kept at Government Livestock Farm, Rakh Khairewala, district Jhang/Layya, Pakistan, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) resistant to commonly used three anthelmintics, i.e. benzimidazole, levamisole and ivermectin. Sixty animals of each breed were selected randomly on the basis of their weight and egg count. Three commonly used anthelmintics, viz., oxfendazole (three different preparations of oxfendazole: fendamex, oxazole, systamex), levamisole and ivermectin, were given at the recommended dose to five groups while one untreated group was kept as control for each breed. Faecal egg counts, faecal egg count reduction test, postmortem worm count and copro-culture were performed to assess the efficacy of selected anthelmintics. The prevalent species of GINs exhibited resistance against all three preparations of oxfendazole. Levamisole in two breeds and ivermectin in all the breeds led to reduction (P <= 0.05) of prevalent species of GINs in both flocks. Haemonchus controtus and Trichostrongylus species exhibited the presence of resistance against oxfendazole preparations which exhibited low efficacy (P >= 0.05). The farm management practices along with the results of the present study revealed the presence of multiple anthelmintic resistant GINs of dairy goats kept in a desolated tract.
Jerez-Rozo, Jackeline I.
Romanach, Rodolfo J.
Dave, Rajesh N.
The design and feasibility of a simple process of incorporating stable nanoparticles into edible polymer films is demonstrated with the goal of enhancing the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. Nanosuspensions produced from wet stirred media milling (WSMM) were transformed into polymer films containing drug nanoparticles by mixing with a low molecular weight hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC E15LV) solution containing glycerin followed by film casting and drying. Three different BCS Class II drugs, naproxen (NPX), fenofibrate (FNB) and griseofulvin (GF) were studied. The influence of the drug molecule on the film properties was also investigated. It was shown that film processing methodology employed has no effect on the drug crystallinity according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Differences in aggregation behavior of APIs in films were observed through SEM and NIR chemical imaging analysis. NPX exhibited the strongest aggregation compared to the other drugs. The aggregation had a direct effect on drug content uniformity in the film. Mechanical properties of the film were also affected depending on the drug-polymer interaction. Due to strong hydrogen bonding with the polymer, NPX exhibited an increase in Young's Modulus (YM) of approximately 200%, among other mechanical properties, compared to GF films. A synergistic effect between surfactant/polymer and drug/polymer interactions in the FNB film resulted in an increase of more than 600% in YM compared to the GF film. The enhancement in drug dissolution rate of films due to the large surface area and smaller drug particle size was also demonstrated. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vissers, Lisenka E L M
Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish
Veltman, Joris A
van Bokhoven, Hans
Intellectual disability (ID) is a major health problem mostly with an unknown etiology. Recently exome sequencing of individuals with ID identified novel genes implicated in the disease. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to identify the genetic cause of ID in one syndromic and two non-syndromic Pakistani families. Whole exome of three ID probands was sequenced. Missense variations in two plausible novel genes implicated in autosomal recessive ID were identified: lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2B (KMT2B), zinc finger protein 589 (ZNF589), as well as hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT) with a de novo mutation with autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The KMT2B recessive variant is the first report of recessive Kleefstra syndrome-like phenotype. Identification of plausible causative mutations for two recessive and a dominant type of ID, in genes not previously implicated in disease, underscores the large genetic heterogeneity of ID. These results also support the viewpoint that large number of ID genes converge on limited number of common networks i.e. ZNF589 belongs to KRAB-domain zinc-finger proteins previously implicated in ID, HHAT is predicted to affect sonic hedgehog, which is involved in several disorders with ID, KMT2B associated with syndromic ID fits the epigenetic module underlying the Kleefstra syndromic spectrum. The association of these novel genes in three different Pakistani ID families highlights the importance of screening these genes in more families with similar phenotypes from different populations to confirm the involvement of these genes in pathogenesis of ID. =20
Bi-III-MOFs 1-4 were prepared via solvothermal method using four organic linkers; 2-mercapto-3-methyl-4-thiazoleacetic acid (H(2)MMTA), 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (2,6-NDA), 4,6-dihydroxy-2-mercaptopyrimidine (H2DMP), and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (H(2)MBA), respectively. The resulting MOFs were structurally/morphologically characterized by UV/Vis, AAS/ICP-MS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), H-1 NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction technique. All these MOFs showed good luminescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. N-2 gas adsorption isotherms of 1-4 confirmed the porosity of these frameworks. In order to evaluate the effect of metal ion upon chelation, the free organic linkers and respective MOFs were screened for their antibacterial potential against some pathogenic bacteria and appreciable activity was observed.
Murphy, Annabel C.
Stephens, Elton R.
Willis, Christine L.
Cox, Russell J.
Simpson, Thomas J.
Transcription of the 74 kb Pseudomonas fluorescens mupirocin [pseudomonic acid (PA)] biosynthesis cluster depends on quorum sensing-dependent regulation via the LuxI/LuxR homologues MupI/MupR. To facilitate analysis of novel PAs from pathway mutants, we investigated factors that affect mup gene expression. First, the signal produced by MupI was identified as N-(3-oxodecanoyl)homoserine lactone, but exogenous addition of this molecule did not activate mupirocin production prematurely nor did expression of mupI in trans increase metabolite production. Second, we confirmed that mupX, encoding an amidase/hydrolase that can degrade N-acylhomoserine lactones, is also required for efficient expression, consistent with its occurrence in a regulatory module linked to unrelated genes in P. fluorescens. Third, and most significantly, mupR expression in trans to wild type and mutants can increase production of antibiotic and novel intermediates up to 17-fold.
The development of tool materials for high temperature applications such as friction stir welding of steels and high strength materials remain a key challenge because these materials are difficult to synthesize and consolidate by conventional means. In this work, nanostructured W-25 wt.%Re alloy and W-25Re-HfC composites of uniform microstructure containing 5 and 10 vol.% of HfC particles, were developed by mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. The effect of processing parameters and reinforcement content on the microstructure, densification, and properties of the developed materials was investigated. Mechanical alloying of the as-received and partially alloyed W-25 wt.%Re powder for 25 h yielded a single nanostructured solid solution with a crystallite size of 13 nm and increased its lattice strain to 0.75%. The fully alloyed powder was reinforced with 5 and 10 vol.% of HfC particles and further milled for 15 h, this led to the formation of composite powders with a uniform distribution of particles in the matrix. The uniform distribution of HfC particles, obtained by mechanical alloying, was maintained in the consolidated samples. Crystallite size of the matrix phase in the sintered composites remained in the nanometer range and did not exceed 100 nm. Partially and fully alloyed monolithic W-25 wt.%Re alloys, spark plasma sintered at 1800 degrees C for 10 min, had relative density values of 98.2 and 97.8%, respectively. W-25Re-HfC composites containing 5 and 10 vol.% HfC, spark plasma sintered at 1800 degrees C for 10 min, had relative density values of 96.9 and 96.2%, respectively. The composite containing 10 vol.% of HfC possessed the highest Vickers hardness value of 495. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The genome of sida golden mottle virus (SiGMoV) (GU997691 and GU997692) isolated from Sida santaremensis Monteiro in Manatee County, Florida, was sequenced and characterized. SiGMoV was determined to be a bipartite virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus with a genome organization typical of the New World viruses in the genus. SiGMoV DNA-A had the highest identity scores (89%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationships to sida golden mosaic Buckup virus (SiGMBuV) (JX162591 and HQ008338). However, SiGMoV DNA-B had the highest identity scores (93%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationship to corchorus yellow spot virus (DQ875869), SiGMBuV (JX162592) and sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFlV) (HE806443). There was extensive recombination in the SiGMoV DNA-A and much less in DNA-B. Full-length clones of SiGMoV were infectious and were able to infect and cause symptoms in several plant species.=20
We report a strategy to prepare an antimicrobial fabric coated with two layers of antibiotic agents, each with different antimicrobial mechanisms. The bottom layer is e-polylysine which uses its positive charge to disrupt bacterial membrane, but shows only limited antimicrobial efficacy. The second layer is a photosensitizer (zinc phthalocyanine) which uses a photodynamic antimicrobial mechanism and can inactivate microorganisms by singlet oxygen or redox oxygen species. The surface-modified fabric was shown to be stable, durable, and washable. We found that such composite fabric demonstrates potent antimicrobial property to both Gram-positive and-negative bacterial strains, reducing the survival of E. coil or S. aureus by 99% and 98%, respectively. Importantly, the fabric also kills drug resistant bacterial strain (MRSA). At molecular level, we found that conjugated photosensitizer exists in both monomeric and aggregate forms, the former accounts for its antimicrobial efficacy while the latter is responsible for the photo stability of the fabric. Thus, this strategy of using antimicrobial agents with two orthogonal mechanisms can be used to develop antimicrobial materials. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The complete genome sequence of a bipartite begomovirus found in a Side sp. plant growing in Bradenton, FL, was determined. The virus is a new strain of Sida golden mosaic Buckup virus (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus). This is the first report of this virus in the United States and the first report outside Jamaica.
Ceragenins/cationic steroid antimicrobials (CSAs) are a group of cholic acid derivatives with many properties that make them favourable for application as anti-infective agents. CSA-107 is also a member of this group that was labelled with Tc-99m by using SnCl2 center dot 2H(2)O as reducing agent and Na-K tartrate as transchelating agent. Labelling efficiency was optimized by varying the amount of reducing agent, pH, and time of incubation. Labelling efficiency and the stability of Tc-99m-CSA-107 in human serum was determined by paper and thin layer chromatography, which were > 95 and > 90 % respectively. In vitro binding of Tc-99m-CSA-107 was > 95 % determined by using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
Maschmann, Matthew R.
Amama, Placidus B.
Fisher, Timothy S.
Freestanding single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been synthesized in a vertical direction, perpendicular to the growth substrate, using applied DC substrate bias in a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) synthesis process. The degree of alignment and spatial density of SWCNTs demonstrate a strong dependence on the magnitude of applied bias, with increased alignment and decreased density with increased bias. The unique synthesis environment created by the application of a negative substrate bias in PECVD aligns SWCNTs along electric field lines and decreases SWCNT density due to bombardment by positively charged hydrogen ions. Multi-excitation wavelength Raman spectroscopy reveals shifts in dominant RBM peaks with the application of dc bias. Use of this technique to orient SWCNTs in the vertical direction may allow for three-dimensional SWCNT-based device architectures. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gilani, Anwarul H.
Saeed, Sheikh A.
Janssen, Luke J.
Paeonia emodi (peony) is a well known plant used medicinally to treat hypertension, palpitations, and asthma. Despite its popularity, there are few reports in the scientific literature examining its use in such conditions. We prepared a 70% ethanolic extract of peony root (Pe.Cr) and applied it to segments of guinea pig atria and trachea and rat aorta suspended separately in tissue baths. Activity against arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation was measured in human platelet-rich plasma. Airway relaxant effect was evaluated against acetylcholine (ACh)-induced airway contraction in mouse lung slices loaded with fluo-4. Pe.Cr (0.3-10 mg/mL) showed an atropine-resistant negative inotropic effect in atria. In rat aorta, an endothelium-independent vasodilatory effect (0.3-10 mg/mL) was seen in phenylephrine- and high-K+-induced contractions. Pe.Cr (0.01-1 mg/mL) also inhibited AA-induced platelet aggregation. In isolated trachea, Pe.Cr (0.3-10 mg/mL) relaxed carbachol- and histamine-induced contractions independently of beta-adrenergic receptors. In mouse lung slices, Pe.Cr (0.3-1 mg/mL) inhibited ACh-induced airway narrowing and oscillations of intracellular Ca2+ in airway smooth muscle cells. The results showed cardiosuppressant, vasodilatory, antiplatelet, and tracheal and airway relaxant activities of peony, providing potential justification for its medicinal use in different hyperactive cardiovascular and respiratory disorders.
Dilshad, Syed Muhammad Rehan
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document the ethnoveterinary practices (EVPs) used for the treatment and/or management of reproductive disorders of cattle and buffaloes. Materials and methods: The information was collected using rapid and participatory rural appraisal techniques through interviews and focused group discussions with 217 traditional veterinary healers (TVHs) over a period of 16 months. Results: The use of 66 plant species was documented for the treatment of reproductive disorders in the two dairy species. Most frequently reported (>= 20 times) plants represented Apiaceae, Poaceae, Pedaliaceae, Linaceae, Arecaceae, Brassicaceae, Malvaceae, Zingiberaceae, Rosaceae, Cannabaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, Rubiaceae and Mimosaceae families. All the documented plant species were indigenous to the study area. Genital prolapse, retention of fetal membranes, silent estrous/delayed puberty, anestrous, dystokia associated with incomplete cervical dilatation and retention of lochial discharge were the frequently reported reproductive disorders. Some of the plants were reported to be used in more than one condition. Materials other than plants used for the treatment of these disorders included camel milk, butter and butter fat, minerals, eggs, organic matters, chemical substances and meat preparations. These materials were used either alone or as adjunctive therapy. Conclusion: Richness of EVPs in the study area and extensive variation in the doses, methods of preparation, indications, and claims regarding efficacy of plants for various disorders merit controlled studies for their validation. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.