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Now showing items 1 - 4 of 4

  • Baking kinetics of laminated dough using convective and microwave heating

    Garg, Anubha   Malafronte, Loredana   Windhab, Erich J.  

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  • Baking kinetics of laminated dough using convective and microwave heating

    Garg, Anubha   Malafronte, Loredana   Windhab, Erich J.  

    Microwave baking is gaining popularity due to improved time efficiency of the process as compared to the traditional convective baking. Several studies focused on combining microwave baking with other heating techniques in order to achieve desirable product properties. However, not much is known about the principles of combining these techniques for complex laminated structures like puff pastry. In this work, the independent influence of convection and microwave was studied for baking of puff pastry. Product properties such as moisture content, expansion, texture and color were characterized in order to assess the effect of the heating methods As compared to convection, microwave baking resulted in a much faster process, up to 5 times reduction in baking time, without significant difference in volume and hardness of the pastry. However, it led to a different structure formation in terms of pore size distribution. Browning quality of the product was more desirable and uniform in case of convection as expected. The study helped in understanding influence of convection and microwave heating on development of product properties during baking of laminated doughs. The knowledge from this study will be useful in forming combination of these heating modes for optimising the process further. (C) 2019 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Perspective on robotic surgery and its role in head and neck cancers

    Kazi, Rehan   Garg, Anubha   Dwivedi, Raghav C.  

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  • Implications of understanding cancer stem cell (CSC) biology in head and neck squamous cell cancer

    Dwivedi, Raghav C.   Katna, Rakesh   Garg, Anubha   Pathak, K. A.   Nutting, Christopher M.   Rhys-Evans, Peter   Harrington, Kevin J.   Kazi, Rehan  

    Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world. Effective therapeutic modalities such as surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and combinations of each are used in the management of this disease. Efforts are ongoing throughout the world to improve early detection and prevention of HNSCCs. Often, treatment fails to obtain total cancer cure and this is more likely with advanced stage disease. In recent years it appears that one of the key determinants of treatment failure may be the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC) that 'escape' currently available therapies. CSCs form a minute portion of the total tumour burden but may play a disproportionately important role in determining outcomes. Molecular mechanisms which underlie the genesis of CSCs are yet not fully understood and their detection within the total tumour bulk remains a challenge. Specific markers like Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), CD44 and Bmi-1 have shown early promising results both in CSC detection and in guiding treatment protocols. CSCs have been shown to be relatively resistant to standard treatment modalities. It is hoped that developing robust in vitro and in vivo experimental models of CSCs might provide a means of devising more effective therapeutic strategies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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