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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 91

  • Samuel Daniel: Selected Poetry and A Defense of Rhymeby Samuel Daniel; Geoffrey G. Hiller; Peter L. Groves

    Review by: Marjory E. Lange  

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  • Secondary Xylem Biology || Fungal Degradation of Wood Cell Walls

    Daniel, Geoffrey  

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  • Secondary Xylem Biology || Fungal Degradation of Wood Cell Walls

    Daniel, Geoffrey  

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  • Second generation of portable gamma camera based on Caliste CdTe hybrid technology

    Maier, Daniel   Blondel, Claire   Delisle, Cyrille   Limousin, Olivier   Martignac, Jerome   Meuris, Aline   Visticot, Francois   Daniel, Geoffrey   Bausson, Pierre-Anne   Gevin, Olivier   Amoyal, Guillaume   Carrel, Frederick   Schoepff, Vincent   Mahe, Charly   Soufflet, Fabrice   Vassal, Marie-Cecile  

    In the framework of a national funded program for nuclear safety, a first prototype of portable gamma camera was built and tested. It integrates a Caliste-HD CdTe-hybrid detector designed for space X-ray astronomy coupled with a new system-on-chip based acquisition system (FPGA and ARM microprocessor) and thermo-electrical coolers for a use at room temperature. The complete gamma part of the camera fits in a volume of 15 x 15 x 40 cm(3) for a mass lower than 1 kg and a power consumption lower than 10 W. Localization and spectro-identification of radionuclides in a contaminated scene were demonstrated during several test campaigns. A new generation of system is under development taking into account feedback experience from in-situ measurements and integrating a new generation of sensor cost-optimized by industrial applications called Caliste-O. Caliste-O holds a 16 x 16 pixel detector of 14x14 mm(2) and 2 mm thick with 8 full-custom front-end IDeF-X HD ASICs. Two prototypes were fabricated and tested. The paper will present the results of in-situ measurements with the first gamma camera, the spectroscopic performance of Caliste-O and the design of the second generation of gamma camera which aims for real time imaging and spectro-identification. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • A Viable Electrode Material for Use in Microbial Fuel Cells for Tropical Regions

    Offei, Felix   Thygesen, Anders   Mensah, Moses   Tabbicca, Kwame   Fernando, Dinesh   Petrushina, Irina   Daniel, Geoffrey  

    Electrode materials are critical for microbial fuel cells (MFC) since they influence the construction and operational costs. This study introduces a simple and efficient electrode material in the form of palm kernel shell activated carbon (AC) obtained in tropical regions. The novel introduction of this material is also targeted at introducing an inexpensive and durable electrode material, which can be produced in rural communities to improve the viability of MFCs. The maximum voltage and power density obtained (under 1000 load) using an H-shaped MFC with AC as both anode and cathode electrode material was 0.66 V and 1.74 W/m(3), respectively. The power generated by AC was as high as 86% of the value obtained with the extensively used carbon paper. Scanning electron microscopy and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of AC anode biofilms confirmed that electrogenic bacteria were present on the electrode surface for substrate oxidation and the formation of nanowires.
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  • Ordered Network of Interconnected SnO2 Nanoparticles for Excellent Lithium-Ion Storage

    Etacheri, Vinodkumar   Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.   Caruthers, James   Daniel, Geoffrey   Nedelec, Jean-Marie   Kessler, Vadim G.   Pol, Vilas G.  

    An ordered network of interconnected tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles with a unique 3D architecture and an excellent lithium-ion (Li-ion) storage performance is derived for the first time through hydrolysis and thermal self-assembly of the solid alkoxide precursor. Mesoporous anodes composed of these approximate to 9 nm-sized SnO2 particles exhibit substantially higher specific capacities, rate performance, coulombic efficiency, and cycling stabilities compared with disordered nanoparticles and commercial SnO2. A discharge capacity of 778 mAh g(-1), which is very close to the theoretical limit of 781 mAh g(-1), is achieved at a current density of 0.1 C. Even at high rates of 2 C (1.5 A g(-1)) and 6 C (4.7 A g(-1)), these ordered SnO2 nanoparticles retain stable specific capacities of 430 and 300 mAh g(-1), respectively, after 100 cycles. Interconnection between individual nanoparticles and structural integrity of the SnO2 electrodes are preserved through numerous charge-discharge process cycles. The significantly better electrochemical performance of ordered SnO2 nanoparticles with a tap density of 1.60 g cm(-3) is attributed to the superior electrode/electrolyte contact, Li-ion diffusion, absence of particle agglomeration, and improved strain relaxation (due to tiny space available for the local expansion). This comprehensive study demonstrates the necessity of mesoporosity and interconnection between individual nanoparticles for improving the Li-ion storage electrochemical performance of SnO2 anodes.
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  • Carbonization of wood and nanostructures formed from the cell wall

    Xie, Xinfeng   Goodell, Barry   Daniel, Geoffrey   Qian, Yuhui   Jellison, Jody   Peterson, Michael  

    In this paper, formation of unique carbon nanostructures via carbonization of wood in a step-wise process is reviewed. The mechanism described for the production of carbon nanotubes improves our understanding of a historic mystery related to the production of Damascus steel. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Carbon nanotubes produced from natural cellulosic materials RID H-5340-2011

    Goodell, Barry   Xie, Xinfeng   Qian, Yuhui   Daniel, Geoffrey   Peterson, Michael   Jellison, Jody  

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were produced from wood fiber using a low temperature process, which included continuous oxiclization at 240 degrees C and cyclic oxidation at 400 degrees C. The inside diameter of the CNTs was approximately 4-5 nm and the outside diameter ranged from 10 nm to 20 nm. No CNTs were produced when pure lignin and cellulose were tested indicating that the molecular and spatial arrangement of cell wall plays an important role in CNT formation. The research suggests that the chemical components in the secondary plant cell wall and their differential ablation properties are critical for the formation of CNTs at these comparatively low temperatures.
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  • Pressurised compressive chip pre-treatment of Norway spruce with a mill scale Impressafiner

    Nelsson, Erik   Sandberg, Christer   Hilden, Lars   Daniel, Geoffrey  

    Mill scale trials were performed to evaluate pressurised compressive chip pre-treatment with the Impressafiner installed in one of the thermomechanical pulp lines at Braviken paper mill (Holmen Paper AB). The aim of the study was to determine if earlier reported effects of the Impressafiner pre-treatment on spruce chips from pilot scale trials (i.e. energy reduction and extractives removal) could also be attained with the mill scale Impressafiner. The mill scale Impressafiner pre-treatment resulted in partial disintegration of chips into a material consisting of fragmented chips with cracks running along the longitudinal fibre axis. Splits or evidence for weaknesses were observed between the primary and secondary fibre walls of pre-treated chips. An increase in water uptake for pre-treated chips was also observed. The extractive content was reduced by up to 24% for pulps produced with pre-treated chips compared to pulps from untreated chips. Pulp produced from pre-treated chips had higher tensile- and tear indices, elongation and light scattering and lower freeness compared to pulps from untreated chips produced with the same total specific energy consumption. The total specific energy needed to reach a tensile index of 47 Nm/g was reduced by 120 kWh/bone dry ton (6%) with Impressafiner pre-treatment. A smaller refiner plate gap was needed to reach the same specific energy consumption for pre-treated chips compared to untreated chips.
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  • Distribution of glucomannans and xylans in poplar xylem and their changes under tension stress

    Kim, Jong Sik   Daniel, Geoffrey  

    Present work investigated glucomannan (GM) and xylan distribution in poplar xylem cells of normal- (NW), opposite- (OW) and tension wood (TW) with immunolocalization methods. GM labeling was mostly detected in the middle- and inner S-2 (+S-3) layer of NW and OW fibers, while xylan labeling was observed in the whole secondary cell wall. GM labeling in vessels of NW and OW was much weaker than in fibers and mostly detected in the S-2 layer, whereas slightly stronger xylan labeling than fibers was detected in the whole secondary cell wall of vessels. Ray cells in NW and OW showed no GM labeling, but strong xylan labeling. These results indicate that GMs and xylans are spatially distributed in poplar xylem cells with different concentrations present in different cell types. Surprisingly, TW showed significant decrease of GM labeling in the normal secondary cell wall of gelatinous (G) fibers compared to NW and OW, while xylan labeling was almost identical indicating that the GM and xylan synthetic pathways in fibers have different reaction mechanisms against tension stress. Unlike fibers, no notable changes in GM labeling were detected in vessels of TW, suggesting that GM synthesis in vessels may not be affected by tension stress. GM and xylan was also detected in the G-layer with slightly stronger and much weaker labeling than the normal secondary cell wall of G-fibers. Differences in GM and xylan distribution are also discussed for the same functional cells found in hardwoods and softwoods.
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  • Characterization and biological depectinization of hemp fibers originating from different stem sections

    Liu, Ming   Fernando, Dinesh   Meyer, Anne S.   Madsen, Bo   Daniel, Geoffrey   Thygesen, Anders  

    The wide variation of mechanical properties of natural fibers limits their applications in matrix composites. The aim of this study is to evaluate the properties of hemp fibers from different stem sections (top, middle and bottom) and to assess fungal retting pretreatment of hemp from different stem sections with the white rot fungi Phlebia radiata Cel 26 and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. For the untreated hemp fibers, no apparent difference in tensile behavior for fiber bundles from different stem sections was observed, and more than 90% tested samples demonstrated plastic flow behavior. Fiber strength and stiffness were highest for the fibers from the top and middle stem sections. These properties were related to the compositional make up and morphological properties of hemp fibers, notably the secondary fiber cell contents. In fungal retting, there was a strong dependence of depectinization selectivity on stem section, which decreased from bottom to top presumably due to the significantly higher lignin content in the bottom section than in the top section (middle section was in between). Consequently, the fungal retting caused a lower reduction in strength of fibers from the bottom section than in those from the top stem section, and essentially reversed the influence of stem section on fiber tensile strength through depectinization selectivity. At whole hemp stem level, the fungal retting with P. radiata Cel 26 exhibited better mechanical properties with an ultimate tensile strength, strain and stiffness of 736 MPa, 2.3% and 42 GPa, respectively, while fibers treated with C subvermispora exhibited lower mechanical properties of 573 MPa, 1.9% and 40 GPa, respectively. The study thus also showed that less variable and high strength fibers may be produced using the dependence of depectinization selectivity on stem section for composite application. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Synthetic xylan-binding modules for mapping of pulp fibres and wood sections RID A-7307-2010

    Filonova, Lada   Gunnarsson, Lavinia Cicortas   Daniel, Geoffrey   Ohlin, Mats  

    Background: The complex carbohydrate composition of natural and refined plant material is not known in detail but a matter that is of both basic and applied importance. Qualitative assessment of complex samples like plant and wood tissues requires the availability of a range of specific probes. Monoclonal antibodies and naturally existing carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) have been used in the past to assess the presence of certain carbohydrates in plant tissues. However, the number of natural CBMs is limited and development of carbohydrate-specific antibodies is not always straightforward. We envisage the use of sets of very similar proteins specific for defined targets, like those developed by molecular evolution of a single CBM scaffold, as a suitable strategy to assess carbohydrate composition. An advantage of using synthetic CBMs lies in the possibility to study fine details of carbohydrate composition within non-uniform substrates like plant cell walls as made possible through minor differences in CBM specificity of the variety of binders that can be developed by genetic engineering. Results: A panel of synthetic xylan-binding CBMs, previously selected from a molecular library based on the scaffold of CBM4-2 from xylanase Xyn10A of Rhodothermus marinus, was used in this study. The wild type CBM4-2 and evolved modules both showed binding to wood sections. However, differences were observed in the staining patterns suggesting that these modules have different xylan-binding properties. Also the staining stability varied between the CBMs, the most stable staining being obtained with one (X-2) of the synthetic modules. Treatment of wood materials resulted in altered signal intensities, thereby also demonstrating the potential application of engineered CBMs as analytical tools for quality assessment of diverse plant material processes. Conclusion: In this study we have demonstrated the usefulness of synthetic xylan-binding modules as specific probes in analysis of hemicelluloses (xylan) in wood and fibre materials.
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  • Heterogeneous distribution of pectin and hemicellulose epitopes in the phloem of four hardwood species

    Kim, Jong Sik   Daniel, Geoffrey  

    Distributional patterns of pectin and hemicellulose epitopes in the phloem of four hardwoods vary between cell types including sieve tube elements, companion cells, parenchyma and sclerenchyma and between tree species. Using immunolocalization methods combined with monoclonal antibodies, the distribution of pectin and hemicellulose epitopes was examined in the secondary phloem of two diffuse porous (birch, aspen)- and two ring porous (oak, ash) hardwoods with a focus on sieve tube elements (SEs), companion cells (CCs), axial/ray parenchyma cells, and sclerenchyma cells (sclereids and phloem fibers). In all tree species, rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I), homogalacturonan (HG), and xyloglucan epitopes were common in cell walls of SEs, CCs, and axial/ray parenchyma cells. However, the amount of these epitopes varied greatly between cell types and between hardwood species. Apart from aspen, heteroxylan or/and heteromannan epitopes were detected in SEs, but were not detected in CCs and parenchyma cells. With sclerenchyma cells, RG-I, HG, and xyloglucan epitopes were common in compound middle lamellae (CML) of sclereids and phloem fibers. Except for oak, heteromannan epitopes were also detected in CML of sclereids. Distributional patterns of epitopes in CML of birch and ash sclereids varied greatly depending on anatomical structure of CML. Secondary cell walls of sclereids and phloem fibers revealed abundant heteroxylan epitopes, but showed no heteromannan epitopes. Some phloem fibers also showed sparse xyloglucan epitopes in secondary cell walls. Together, results suggest that there are great variations in distributional patterns of pectin and hemicellulose epitopes in hardwood phloem between cell types and between tree species.
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  • Secondary Xylem Biology || Microscope Techniques for Understanding Wood Cell Structure and Biodegradation

    Daniel, Geoffrey  

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  • Secondary Xylem Biology || Microscope Techniques for Understanding Wood Cell Structure and Biodegradation

    Daniel, Geoffrey  

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  • Immunolocalization of pectin and hemicellulose epitopes in the phloem of Norway spruce and Scots pine

    Kim, Jong Sik   Daniel, Geoffrey  

    Although there is considerable information on the gross chemistry of conifer bark, little is known on the chemistry of secondary phloem at the individual cell level. This study investigated distribution of pectins and hemicelluloses in the phloem of two conifer species (Norway spruce and Scots pine) at an individual cell wall level using nine monoclonal antibodies specific for pectin and hemicellulose epitopes combined with immunofluorescence and TEM immunogold labeling. Differences in phloem cell wall chemistry between juvenile (seedlings) and mature conifer trees were also examined. The two conifer species showed qualitatively similar distribution patterns of epitopes in sieve- and (axial/ray) parenchyma cells, irrespective of seedlings and mature trees. Sieve- and parenchyma cell walls showed the presence of rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I), homogalacturonan (HG) and xyloglucan epitopes, but revealed the absence of heteroxylan epitopes. Heteromannan epitopes were only detected in sieve cell walls, showing a chemical difference between sieve- and parenchyma cells. In contrast to qualitative similarity, there were several quantitative differences of epitope localization in sieve- and parenchyma cells between the two conifer species, indicating variations in the chemical structure and/or the amount of pectins and hemicelluloses between the two conifer species. These differences were more significant in seedlings than mature trees. Immunogold labeling of Norway spruce seedlings further indicated the possibility of chemical variations between cell wall regions within a single sieve cell wall. Phloem stone cells detected in mature Norway spruce showed the presence of heteromannans/heteroxylans and RG-I/HG/xyloglucans in secondary cell wall and middle lamellae, respectively.
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