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Now showing items 1 - 6 of 6

  • Big data in microstructure analysis:Building a universal orientation system for thin sections

    Tikoff, Basil   Chatzaras, Vasileios   Newman, Julie   Roberts, Nicolas M.  

    We present an orientation system for thin sections used for microanalysis, applicable to both billets and cores. The orientation system enables spatially referenced observations and consists of three parts. First, we establish a reference corner that is the uppermost corner of the sample on the thin section, in its original geographic orientation in the field or laboratory setting. This corner is tied to a right-hand coordinate system, in which all reference axes point downward. A geographic direction-based, rather than uppermost corner-based, convention for a reference corner can be substituted for projects that utilize sub-horizontally oriented thin sections. The reference corner - combined with orientation metadata - define a unique position of the thin section in geographic space. Second, we propose a system of small saw cuts (notches) that minimizes the number of notches required on the sample, to distinguish both the reference corner and the orientation of the thin section relative to fabric (e.g., foliation/lineation), if present. The utility of a notching standard is that it provides an inherent doublecheck on thin section orientation and facilitates sharing between users. Third, we develop a grid system in order to locate features of interest on the thin section, relative to the reference corner. Any of these systems - referencing, notching, and gridding - can be used independently. These systems are specifically designed to work with digital data systems, which are currently being developed, allowing researchers to share microstructural data with each other and facilitating new types of big data science in the field of structural geology.
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  • Mantle strength of the San Andreas fault system and the role of mantle-crust feedbacks

    Chatzaras, Vasileios   Tikoff, Basil   Newman, Julie   Withers, Anthony C.   Drury, Martyn R.  

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  • Mantle strength of the San Andreas fault system and the role of mantle-crust feedbacks

    Chatzaras, Vasileios   Tikoff, Basil   Newman, Julie   Withers, Anthony C.   Drury, Martyn R.  

    In lithospheric-scale strike-slip fault zones, upper crustal strength is well constrained from borehole observations and fault rock deformation experiments, but mantle strength is less well known. Using peridotite xenoliths, we show that the upper mantle below the San Andreas fault system (California, USA) is dry and its maximum resolved shear stress (5-9 MPa) is similar to the shear strength of the upper, seismogenic portion of the fault. These results do not fit with any existing lithospheric strength profile. We propose the "lithospheric feedback" model in which the upper crust and lithospheric mantle act together as an integrated system. Mantle flow controls displacement and loads the upper crust. In contrast, the upper crust controls the stress magnitude in the integrated system. Crustal rupture transiently increases strain rate in the upper mantle below the strike-slip fault, leading to viscous strain localization. The lithospheric feedback model suggests that lithospheric strength is a dynamic property-varying in space and time-in actively deforming regions.
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  • Axial-type olivine crystallographic preferred orientations: The effect of strain geometry on mantle texture

    Chatzaras, Vasileios   Kruckenberg, Seth C.   Cohen, Shaina M.   Medaris, L. Gordon   Withers, Anthony C.   Bagley, Brian  

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  • Constraints on the rheology of the lower crust in a strike-slip plate boundary:evidence from the San Quintin xenoliths,Baja California,Mexico

    van der Werf, Thomas   Chatzaras, Vasileios   Kriegsman, Leo Marcel   Kronenberg, Andreas   Tikoff, Basil   Drury, Martyn R.  

    The rheology of lower crust and its transient behavior in active strike-slip plate boundaries remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed a suite of granulite and lherzolite xenoliths from the upper Pleistocene-Holocene San Quintin volcanic field of northern Baja California, Mexico. The San Quintin volcanic field is located 20 km east of the Baja California shear zone, which accommodates the relative movement between the Pacific plate and Baja California microplate. The development of a strong foliation in both the mafic granulites and lherzolites, suggests that a lithospheric-scale shear zone exists beneath the San Quintin volcanic field. Combining microstructural observations, geothermometry, and phase equilibria modeling, we estimated that crystal-plastic deformation took place at temperatures of 750-890 degrees C and pressures of 400-560MPa, corresponding to 15-22 km depth. A hot crustal geotherm of 40 degrees C km(-1) is required to explain the estimated deformation conditions. Infrared spectroscopy shows that plagioclase in the mafic granulites is relatively dry. Microstructures are interpreted to show that deformation in both the uppermost lower crust and upper mantle was accommodated by a combination of dislocation creep and grain-size-sensitive creep. Recrystallized grain size paleopiezometry yields low differential stresses of 12-33 and 17MPa for plagioclase and olivine, respectively. The lower range of stresses (12-17MPa) in the mafic granulite and lherzolite xenoliths is interpreted to be associated with transient deformation under decreasing stress conditions, following an event of stress in-crease. Using flow laws for dry plagioclase, we estimated a low viscosity of 1.1-1.3 x 10(20) Pa.s for the high temperature conditions (890 degrees C) in the lower crust. Significantly lower viscosities in the range of 10(16)-10(19) Pa.s, were estimated using flow laws for wet plagioclase. The shallow upper mantle has a low viscosity of 5.7 x 10(19) Pa.s, which indicates the lack of an upper-mantle lid beneath northern Baja California. Our data show that during post-seismic transients, the upper mantle and the lower crust in the Pacific-Baja California plate boundary are characterized by similar and low differential stress. Transient viscosity of the lower crust is similar to the viscosity of the upper mantle.
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  • Tracking the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic margin of northern Gondwana in the Hellenides: paleotectonic constraints from U–Pb detrital zircon ages

    Chatzaras, Vasileios   D?rr, Wolfgang   Gerdes, Axel   Krahl, Jochen   Xypolias, Paraskevas   Zulauf, Gernold  

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