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Now showing items 17 - 32 of 59

  • The (Null) Effect of Affective Touch on Betrayal Aversion,Altruism,and Risk Taking

    Koppel, Lina   Andersson, David   Morrison, India   Vastfjall, Daniel   Tinghog, Gustav  

    Pleasant touch is thought to increase the release of oxytocin. Oxytocin, in turn, has been extensively studied with regards to its effects on trust and prosocial behavior, but results remain inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of touch on economic decision making. Participants (n =3D 120) were stroked on their left arm using a soft brush (touch condition) or not at all (control condition; varied within subjects), while they performed a series of decision tasks assessing betrayal aversion (the Betrayal Aversion Elicitation Task), altruism (donating money to a charitable organization), and risk taking (the Balloon Analog Risk Task). We found no significant effect of touch on any of the outcome measures, neither within nor between subjects. Furthermore, effects were not moderated by gender or attachment. However, attachment avoidance had a significant effect on altruism in that those who were high in avoidance donated less money. Our findings contribute to the understanding of affective touch-and, by extension, oxytocin-in social behavior, and decision making by showing that touch does not directly influence performance in tasks involving risk and prosocial decisions. Specifically, our work casts further doubt on the validity of oxytocin research in humans.
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  • New Insight in Cold Pain:Role of Ion Channels,Modulation,and Clinical Perspectives

    Lolignier, Stephane   Gkika, Dimitra   Andersson, David   Leipold, Enrico   Vetter, Irina   Viana, Felix   Noel, Jacques   Busserolles, Jerome  

    Cold temperature detection involves the process of sensory transduction in cutaneous primary sensory nerve terminals, which converts thermal stimuli into depolarizations of the membrane. This transformation into electrical signals is followed by the subsequent propagation of action potentials in cold-sensitive afferent nerve fibers. A large array of ion channels shapes this process; however, the precise contribution of specific ion channel subtypes to cold perception and cold pain remains elusive. This review aims at giving an update on our current understanding of the role played by TRPs, leak K+ and voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels in the transduction of cold by nociceptors and in cold-induced pain.
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  • Greenhouse gas emissions and subjective well-being: An analysis of Swedish households

    Andersson, David   N?ssén, Jonas   Larsson, J?rgen   Holmberg, John  

    In the contemporary discussion on society's transformation towards long-term climate targets, it is often implicitly assumed that behavioral changes, unlike technological changes, would lead to reductions in human wellbeing. However, this assumption has been questioned by researchers, who instead argue that people may live better lives by consuming less and reduce their environmental impact in the process. In this study we explore the relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and subjective well-being, using a sample of 1000 Swedish respondents. Our results show that there is no strong link between an individual's emissions and subjective wellbeing. We also analyze the relationship between specific emission-intensive activities and subjective well-being and find that none of the activities examined correlates with subjective well-being. Finally, we explore a hypothesis put forward in the literature, suggesting that a poor work-life balance, long commuting distances, and materialistic values may decrease individuals' subjective well-being and increase greenhouse gas emissions. Our results indicate that materialistic values do correlate with lower levels of well-being and to some extent also with higher greenhouse gas emissions. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Handbook of Creative Cities || The Sociability and Morality of Market Settlements

    Andersson, David   Andersson, ?ke   Mellander, Charlotta  

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  • Setting priorities in primary health care - on whose conditions? A questionnaire study

    Arvidsson, Eva   Andre, Malin   Borgquist, Lars   Andersson, David   Carlsson, Per  

    Background: In Sweden three key criteria are used for priority setting: severity of the health condition; patient benefit; and cost-effectiveness. They are derived from the ethical principles established by the Swedish parliament 1997 but have been used only to a limited extent in primary care. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse: 1) GPs', nurses', and patients' prioritising in routine primary care 2) The association between the three key priority setting criteria and the overall priority assigned by the GPs and nurses to individual patients. Methods: Paired questionnaires were distributed to all patients and the GPs or nurses they had contact with during a 2-week period at four health centres in Sweden. The staff registered the health conditions or health problem, and the planned intervention. Then they estimated the severity of the health condition, the expected patient benefit, and the cost-effectiveness of the planned intervention. Both the staff and the patients reported their overall prioritisation of the patient. In total, 1851 paired questionnaires were collected. Results: Compared to the medical staff, the patients assigned relatively higher priority to acute/minor conditions than to preventive check-ups for chronic conditions. Severity of the health condition was the priority setting criterion that had the strongest association with the overall priority for the staff as a whole, but for the GPs it was cost-effectiveness. Conclusions: The challenge for primary care providers is to balance the patients' demands with medical needs and cost-effectiveness. Transparent priority setting in primary care might contribute to a greater consensus between GPs and nurses on how to use the key priority setting criteria.
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  • Åke Andersson and David Andersson (Eds.),Gateways to the Global Economy

    David Ley  

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  • Rate theory scenarios study on fission gas behavior of U3Si2 under LOCA conditions in LWRs

    Miao, Yinbin   Gamble, Kyle A.   Andersson, David   Mei, Zhi-Gang   Yacout, Abdellatif M.  

    Fission gas behavior of U3Si2 under various loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors (LWRs) was simulated using rate theory. A rate theory model for U3Si2 that covers both steady-state operation and power transients was developed for the GRASS-SST code based on existing research reactor/ion irradiation experimental data and theoretical predictions of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The steady-state and LOCA condition parameters were either directly provided or inspired by BISON simulations. Due to the absence of in-pile experiment data for U3Si2's fuel performance under LWR conditions at this stage of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) development, a variety of LOCA scenarios were taken into consideration to comprehensively and conservatively evaluate the fission gas behavior of U3Si2 during a LOCA.
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  • ?ke Andersson and David Andersson (Eds.),Gateways to the Global Economy

    David Ley  

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  • ARRANGEMENT FOR REDUCING CURRENT DENSITY IN A TRANSISTOR IN AN IC

    To reduce current density in a transistor in an IC comprising a plurality of interdigitated drain, source and gate fingers (10, 11, 12) a first current distributing plate (1) is part of a metal layer of the IC and is connected by first vias (5) to all drain fingers (10) and a second current distributing plate (2) is also part of said metal layer of the IC and is connected by second vias (6) to all source fingers (11).
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  • Åke Andersson and David Andersson (Eds.),Gateways to the Global Economy

    David   Ley  

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  • A defect model for UO2+x based on electrical conductivity and deviation from stoichiometry measurements

    Garcia, Philippe   Pizzi, Elisabetta   Dorado, Boris   Andersson, David   Crocombette, Jean-Paul   Martial, Chantal   Baldinozzi, Guido   Simeone, David   Maillard, Serge   Martin, Guillaume  

    Electrical conductivity of UO2+x shows a strong dependence upon oxygen partial pressure and temperature which may be interpreted in terms of prevailing point defects. A simulation of this property along with deviation from stoichiometry is carried out based on a model that takes into account the presence of impurities, oxygen interstitials, oxygen vacancies, holes, electrons and clusters of oxygen atoms. The equilibrium constants for each defect reaction are determined to reproduce the experimental data. An estimate of defect concentrations and their dependence upon oxygen partial pressure can then be determined. The simulations carried out for 8 different temperatures (973-1673 K) over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures are discussed and resulting defect equilibrium constants are plotted in an Arrhenius diagram. This provides an estimate of defect formation energies which may further be compared to other experimental data or ab-initio and empirical potential calculations. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • The Gothenburg congestion charge scheme: A pre–post analysis of commuting behavior and travel satisfaction

    Andersson, David   N?ssén, Jonas  

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  • Donations to Outgroup Charities, but Not Ingroup Charities, Predict Helping Intentions Toward Street-Beggars in Sweden

    Erlandsson, Arvid   Nilsson, Artur   Tinghög, Gustav   Andersson, David   Västfjäll, Daniel  

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  • A novel approach to calculate individuals' carbon footprints using financial transaction data - App development and design

    Andersson, David  

    Carbon calculators can potentially help people understand and reduce their climate impact. This paper describes the features of Svalna, a mobile application that estimates users' greenhouse gas emissions by means of a hybrid approach that relies on financial transaction data from the users' bank paired with environmentally extended input output analysis; data from official registers of governmental agencies, and data entered by the users themselves. Applying financial transaction data in carbon calculators is increasingly popular, and I discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using such data in order to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. The paper also describes how design features have been developed based on insights from behavioral science and previous research on carbon calculators. The mobile application is available for use in Sweden and had approximately 15,000 users in December 2019. (c) 2020 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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  • Intuition and Moral Decision-Making- The Effect of Time Pressure and Cognitive Load on Moral Judgment and Altruistic Behavior

    Andersson, David   Bonn, Caroline   Johannesson, Magnus   Kirchler, Michael   Koppel, Lina   Vastfjall, Daniel  

    Do individuals intuitively favor certain moral actions over others? This study explores the role of intuitive thinking D induced by time pressure and cognitive load D in moral judgment and behavior. We conduct experiments in three different countries (Sweden, Austria, and the United States) involving over 1,400 subjects. All subjects responded to four trolley type dilemmas and four dictator games involving different charitable causes. Decisions were made under time pressure/time delay or while experiencing cognitive load or control. Overall we find converging evidence that intuitive states do not influence moral decisions. Neither time-pressure nor cognitive load had any effect on moral judgments or altruistic behavior. Thus we find no supporting evidence for the claim that intuitive moral judgments and dictator game giving differ from more reflectively taken decisions. Across all samples and decision tasks men were more likely to make utilitarian moral judgments and act selfishly compared to women, providing further evidence that there are robust gender differences in moral decision-making. However, there were no significant interactions between gender and the treatment manipulations of intuitive versus reflective decision-making.
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  • Frailty is independently associated with 1-year mortality for elderly patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Ekerstad, Niklas   Swahn, Eva   Janzon, Magnus   Alfredsson, Joakim   Lofmark, Rurik   Lindenberger, Marcus   Andersson, David   Carlsson, Per  

    BACKGROUND: For the large population of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease, it is crucial to identify clinically relevant measures of biological age and their contribution to risk. Frailty is denoting decreased physiological reserves and increased vulnerability. We analysed the manner in which the variable frailty is associated with 1-year outcomes for elderly non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients.; METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients aged 75 years or older, with diagnosed NSTEMI were included at three centres, and clinical data including judgment of frailty were collected prospectively. Frailty was defined according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale. Of 307 patients, 149 (48.5%) were considered frail. By Cox regression analyses, frailty was found to be independently associated with 1-year mortality after adjusting for cardiovascular risk and comorbid conditions (hazard ratio 4.3, 95% CI 2.4-7.8). The time to the first event was significantly shorter for frail patients than for nonfrail (34 days, 95% CI 10-58, p=3D0.005).; CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is strongly and independently associated with 1-year mortality. The combined use of frailty and comorbidity may constitute an important risk prediction concept in regard to cardiovascular patients with complex needs. =C2=A9 The Author(s) 2013.
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