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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 59

  • Gateways to the Global Economyby ?ke Andersson; David Andersson

    Review by: David Ley  

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  • Gateways to the Global Economyby Åke Andersson; David Andersson

    Review by: David Ley  

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  • The Economics of Experiences, the Arts and Entertainmentby Ake E. Andersson; David Emanuel Andersson

    Review by: Peter Slade  

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  • The Economics of Experiences, the Arts and Entertainmentby Ake E. Andersson; David Emanuel Andersson

    Review by: Peter Slade  

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  • Discrepancy between Health Care Rationing at the Bedside and Policy Level

    Persson, Emil   Andersson, David   Back, Lovisa   Davidson, Thomas   Johannisson, Emma   Tinghog, Gustav  

    Background. Whether doctors at the bedside level should be engaged in health care rationing is a controversial topic that has spurred much debate. From an empirical point of view, a key issue is whether there exists a behavioral difference between rationing at the bedside and policy level. Psychological theory suggests that we should indeed expect such a difference, but existing empirical evidence is inconclusive. Objective. To explore whether rationing decisions taken at the bedside level are different from rationing decisions taken at the policy level. Method. Behavioral experiment where participants (n =3D 573) made rationing decisions in hypothetical scenarios. Participants (medical and nonmedical students) were randomly assigned to either a bedside or a policy condition. Each scenario involved 1 decision, concerning either a life-saving medical treatment or a quality-of-life improving treatment. All scenarios were identical across the bedside and policy condition except for the level of decision making. Results. We found a discrepancy between health care rationing at policy and bedside level for scenarios involving life-saving decisions, where subjects rationed treatments to a greater extent at the policy level compared to bedside level (35.6% v. 29.3%, P =3D 0.001). Medical students were more likely to ration care compared to nonmedical students. Follow-up questions showed that bedside rationing was more emotionally burdensome than rationing at the policy level, indicating that psychological factors likely play a key role in explaining the observed behavioral differences. We found no difference in rationing between bedside and policy level for quality-of-life improving treatments (54.6% v. 55.7%, P =3D 0.507). Conclusions. Our results indicate a robust bedside effect in the life-saving domain of health care rationing decisions, thereby adding new insights to the understanding of the malleability of preferences related to resource allocation.
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  • Understanding the friction of atomically thin layered materials

    Andersson, David  

    Friction is a ubiquitous phenomenon that greatly affects our everyday lives and is responsible for large amounts of energy loss in industrialised societies. Layered materials such as graphene have interesting frictional properties and are often used as (additives to) lubricants to reduce friction and protect against wear. Experimental Atomic Force Microscopy studies and detailed simulations have shown a number of intriguing effects such as frictional strengthening and dependence of friction on the number of layers covering a surface. Here, we propose a simple, fundamental, model for friction on thin sheets. We use our model to explain a variety of seemingly contradictory experimental as well as numerical results. This model can serve as a basis for understanding friction on thin sheets, and opens up new possibilities for ultimately controlling their friction and wear protection.
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  • No Effect of Ego Depletion on Risk Taking

    Koppel, Lina   Andersson, David   Vastfjall, Daniel   Tinghog, Gustav  

    We investigated the effect of ego depletion on risk taking. Specifically, we conducted three studies (total n=3D 1,716) to test the prediction that ego depletion results in decisions that are more strongly in line with prospect theory, i.e., that ego depletion reduces risk taking for gains, increases risk taking for losses, and increases loss aversion. Ego depletion was induced using two of the most common manipulations from previous literature: the letter 'e' task (Studies 1 and 3) and the Stroop task (Study 2). Risk taking was measured using a series of standard, incentivized economic decision-making tasks assessing risk preferences in the gain domain, risk preferences in the loss domain, and loss aversion. None of the studies revealed a significant effect of ego depletion on risk taking. Our findings cast further doubts about the ability of ego-depletion manipulations to affect actual behavior in experimental settings.
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  • The effect of acute pain on risky and intertemporal choice

    Koppel, Lina   Andersson, David   Morrison, India   Posadzy, Kinga   Vastfjall, Daniel   Tinghog, Gustav  

    Pain is a highly salient and attention-demanding experience that motivates people to act. We investigated the effect of pain on decision making by delivering acute thermal pain to participants' forearm while they made risky and intertemporal choices involving money. Participants (n =3D 107) were more risk seeking under pain than in a no-pain control condition when decisions involved gains but not when they involved equivalent losses. Pain also resulted in greater preference for immediate (smaller) over future (larger) monetary rewards. We interpret these results as a motivation to offset the aversive, pain-induced state, where monetary rewards become more appealing under pain than under no pain and when delivered sooner rather than later. Our findings add to the long-standing debate regarding the role of intuition and reflection in decision making.
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  • Molecular dynamics investigation of grain boundaries and surfaces in U3Si2

    Beeler, Benjamin   Baskes, Michael   Andersson, David   Cooper, Michael W. D.   Zhang, Yongfeng  

    Uranium-silicide (U-Si) fuels are being pursued as a possible accident tolerant fuel (ATF). This uranium alloy benefits from higher thermal conductivity and higher fissile density compared to uranium dioxide (UO2). In order to perform engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations, the material properties of the fuel must be known. Currently, the experimental data available for U-Si fuels is rather limited. Thus, multi-scale modeling efforts are underway to address this gap in knowledge. Interfaces play a critical role in the microstructural evolution of nuclear fuel under irradiation, acting both as sinks for point defects and as preferential nucleation sites for fission gas bubbles. In this study, a semiempirical modified Embedded-Atom Method (REAM) potential is utilized to investigate grain boundaries and free surfaces in U3Si2. The interfacial energy as a function of temperature is investigated for ten symmetric tilt grain boundaries, eight unique free surfaces and voids of radius up to 35 angstrom. The point defect segregation energy for both U and Si interstitials and vacancies is also determined for two grain boundary orientations. Finally, the entropy change and free energy change for grain boundaries is calculated as a function of temperature. This is the first study into grain boundary properties of U-Si nuclear fuel. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  • Molecular dynamics investigation of grain boundaries and surfaces in U3Si2

    Beeler, Benjamin   Baskes, Michael   Andersson, David   Cooper, Michael WD.   Zhang, Yongfeng  

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  • Nanotribology and voltage-controlled friction: general discussion

    Andersson, David   Bazant, Martin   Bennewitz, Roland   Bocquet, Lyderic   Bresme, Fernando   Brilliantov, Nikolay   de Wijn, Astrid S.   Drummond, Carlos   Dryfe, Robert   Hillman, Robert   Kornyshev, Alexei A.   Kr?mer, Günther   Kulkarni, Mohit   Lee, Alpha   Li, Hua   Mugele, Frieder   Perez Martinez, Carla   Perkin, Susan   Rastei, Mircea   Robotham, Oliver   Schatz, George   Schiffrin, David   Tivony, Ran   Urbakh, Michael   Yaroshchuk, Andriy  

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  • A molecular dynamics study of the behavior of Xe in U3Si2

    Beeler, Benjamin   Andersson, David   Cooper, Michael W. D.   Zhang, Yongfeng  

    Uranium-silicide (U-Si) fuels are being pursued as a possible accident tolerant fuel (ATF). This uranium alloy fuel benefits from higher thermal conductivity and higher fissile density compared to uranium dioxide (UO2). The role of fission gas swelling on the operational performance of U-Si fuels remains an open question, however, fission gas swelling is a critical phenomenon in UO2, U-Zr and U-Mo nuclear fuels. Given the lack of experimental data, in order to study the fundamentals of bubble formation and evolution in U-Si, it is critical that there be an atomistic description of Xe within the U-Si system. In this work, a recently developed U-Si MEAM interatomic potential is leveraged to generate a description of the U-Si-Xe system fit to density functional theory data. The point defect energies of Xe in U3Si2 are determined, in addition to the point defect segregation energy for Xe with respect to two grain boundary orientations. Finally, the properties of small Xe bubbles are analyzed and an equation of state is developed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  • Nucleation of an Activating Conformational Change by a Cation-pi Interaction

    Rogne, Per   Andersson, David   Grundstrom, Christin   Sauer-Eriksson, Elisabeth   Linusson, Anna   Wolf-Watz, Magnus  

    As a key molecule in biology, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has numerous crucial functions in, for instance, energetics, post-translational modifications, nucleotide biosynthesis, and cofactor metabolism. Here, we have discovered an intricate interplay between the enzyme adenylate kinase and its substrate ATP. The side chain of an arginine residue was found to be an efficient sensor of the aromatic moiety of ATP through the formation of a strong cation-pi interaction. In addition to recognition, the interaction was found to have dual functionality. First, it nucleates the activating conformational transition of the ATP binding domain and also affects the specificity in the distant AMP binding domain. In light of the functional consequences resulting from the cation-pi interaction, it is possible that the mode of ATP recognition may be a useful tool in enzyme design.
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  • Grand potential sintering simulations of doped UO2 accident-tolerant fuel concepts

    Greenquist, Ian   Tonks, Michael   Cooper, Michael   Andersson, David   Zhang, Yongfeng  

    Chromium-doped UO is a widely-studied near-term deployable accident-tolerant fuel concept because it results in a dense, large-grain structure that increases the fuel resistance to densification, swelling, and fission gas release. A new charged-interstitial mechanism was recently proposed to describe the behavior of dopants like chromium in sintered UO2. Based on that mechanism, manganese was suggested as an even stronger dopant than chromium. In the current work we use mesoscale sintering simulations in an effort to validate the new mechanism. We compare the relative behavior of Cr-doped and undoped UO2 against experimental data in the literature. We also make predictions of the relative behavior of Mn-doped UO2. Simulations are done using the phase field-based grand potential sintering model. Dopants have two effects on sintered UO2. They marginally increase the densification rate and greatly increase the average grain size. Both of these effects are individually tested in small-scale simulations. Then large 3D sintering simulations are used to test the combined behavior of both effects. The results for the densification rate simulations are consistent with experiments for Cr-doped fuels. However, the grain growth rates are lower than what is found in the literature for Cr-doped fuels. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Intuition and cooperation reconsidered.

    Tinghog, Gustav   Andersson, David   Bonn, Caroline   Bottiger, Harald   Josephson, Camilla   Lundgren, Gustaf   Vastfjall, Daniel   Kirchler, Michael   Johannesson, Magnus  

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  • Prioritizing Rare Diseases:Psychological Effects Influencing Medical Decision Making

    Wiss, Johanna   Levin, Lars-Ake   Andersson, David   Tinghoeg, Gustav  

    Background. Measuring societal preferences for rarity has been proposed to determine whether paying premium prices for orphan drugs is acceptable. Objective. To investigate societal preferences for rarity and how psychological factors affect such preferences. Method. A postal survey containing resource allocation dilemmas involving patients with a rare disease and patients with a common disease, equal in severity, was sent out to a randomly selected sample of the population in Sweden (return rate 42.3%, n =3D 1270). Results. Overall, we found no evidence of a general preference for prioritizing treatment of patients with rare disease patients over those with common diseases. When treatment costs were equal, most respondents (42.7%) were indifferent between the choice options. Preferences for prioritizing patients with common diseases over those with rare diseases were more frequently displayed (33.3% v. 23.9%). This tendency was, as expected, amplified when the rare disease was costlier to treat. The share of respondents choosing to treat patients with rare diseases increased when presenting the patients in need of treatment in relative rather than absolute terms (proportion dominance). Surprisingly, identifiability did not increase preferences for rarity. Instead, identifying the patient with a rare disease made respondents more willing to prioritize the patients with common diseases. Respondents' levels of education were significantly associated with choicethe lower the level of education, the more likely they were to choose the rare option. Conclusions. We find no support for the existence of a general preference for rarity when setting health care priorities. Psychological effects, especially proportion dominance, are likely to play an important role when preferences for rarity are expressed.
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