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A 230-GHz High-Power and Wideband Coupled Standing Wave VCO in 65-nm CMOS

Author:
Jalili, Hossein  Momeni, Omeed  


Journal:
IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS


Issue Date:
2020


Abstract(summary):

This article presents a 230-GHz wideband harmonic voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with large output power based on a compact and low-loss structure of coupled standing wave oscillators. In order to boost the output power, oscillators are coupled together without adding extra passive loss to the circuit. Transistors with inductive drain impedances provide the necessary negative resistance to the oscillators while simultaneously acting as active variable capacitors for frequency tuning and generate the desired second-harmonic power through their nonlinearities. Transmission lines at the drains are responsible for creating the inductive impedance as well as coupling adjacent oscillators and routing and combining the output power. Therefore, the circuit has a compact structure that minimizes passive losses. A varactor-less frequency tuning scheme is used and allows for wideband operation without sacrificing the output power. In addition to oscillator coupling and minimizing the losses, the output power has been boosted by engineering the harmonic impedance that is seen by the transistors in the circuit. The prototype chip was implemented in a 65-nm CMOS process. The output power of the VCO covers 219-238 GHz frequency band (8.35% tuning range) and delivers 3.4-dBm maximum output power. The minimum measured phase noise is -105.8 dBc/Hz (at 10-MHz offset) while consuming 195 mW from a 1.5-V supply.


Page:
547---556


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