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Individual dose and exposure of Italian children to ultrafine particles

Author:
Buonanno, G.   Marini, S.   Morawska, L.   Fuoco, F.C.  


Journal:
Science of The Total Environment


Issue Date:
2012


Abstract(summary):

Time-activity patterns and the airborne pollutant concentrations encountered by children each day are an important determinant of individual exposure to airborne particles. This is demonstrated in this work by using hand-held devices to measure the real-time individual exposure of more than 100 children aged 8-11 years to particle number concentrations and average particle diameter, as well as alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited surface area concentration. A GPS-logger and activity diaries were also used to give explanation to the measurement results. Children were divided in three sample groups: two groups comprised of urban schools (school time from 8:30 am to 1:30 pm) with lunch and dinner at home, and the third group of a rural school with only dinner at home. The mean individual exposure to particle number concentration was found to differ between the three groups, ranging from 6.2 x 10(4) part.cm(-3) for children attending one urban school to 1.6 x 10(4) part.cm(-3) for the rural school. The corresponding daily alveolar deposited surface area dose varied from about 1.7 x 10(3) mm(2) for urban schools to 6.0 x 10(2) mm(2) for the rural school. For all of the children monitored, the lowest particle number concentrations are found during sleeping time and the highest were found during eating time. With regard to alveolar deposited surface area dose, a child's home was the major contributor (about 70%), with school contributing about 17% for urban schools and 27% for the rural school. An important contribution arises from the cooking/eating time spent at home, which accounted for approximately 20% of overall exposure, corresponding to more than 200 mm(2). These activities represent the highest dose received per time unit, with very high values also encountered by children with a fireplace at home, as well as those that spend considerable time stuck in traffic jams. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Page:
271-277


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