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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 5022

  • Basal cell carcinoma and epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    Wang, G. Y.   Dolorito, J.   Chuang, J.   Frascari, F.   Epstein, E.  

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  • Micro-Machined Optical Fiber Side-Cantilevers for Acceleration Measurement

    Li, J.   Wang, G. Y.   Sun, J. N.   Maier, R. R. J.   Macpherson, W. N.   Hand, D. P.   Dong, F. Z.  

    We propose an accelerometer based on a micro-cantilever fabricated onto the side of a single mode optical fiber using a combination of ps-laser machining and focused ion beam (FIB) processing. FIB machining is also used to fabricate a 45 degrees mirror onto the end of the fiber that is accurately aligned with optical fiber core. This provides a reliable means to optically address components attached to the side of the fiber, such as the cantilever. Using interferometry to accurately monitor the deflection of the side cantilever results in a device that is capable of measuring two-axis acceleration. Acceleration up to 6 g is measured with a resolution of similar to 0.01 g and a frequency range from dc to 500 Hz has been demonstrated. The cross-axis sensitivity is below -32 dB.
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  • Planting pattern and irrigation effects on water status of winter wheat

    WANG, G. Y.   ZHOU, X. B.   CHEN, Y. H.  

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  • Planting pattern and irrigation effects on water status of winter wheat

    Wang, G. Y.   Zhou, X. B.   Chen, Y. H.  

    The effects of planting pattern and irrigation on the soil water content, stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content, leaf water potential and leaf water use efficiency of winter wheat were investigated in North China during the 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons. A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design that consisted of three planting patterns: (i) a uniform row spacing of 25 cm, and alternating wide-narrow row spacing of 40 and 20 cm tested as (ii) flat and (iii) furrow-ridge seedbeds. In addition, irrigation treatments of 90, 135 and 180 mm were used. The planting pattern, irrigation treatments and interactions between them significantly affected soil water content, stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content, leaf water potential and leaf water use efficiency. The soil water content, stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content, leaf water potential, grains/spike, thousand grain weight, leaf water use efficiency and yield were highest in the furrow-ridge seedbed planting pattern and increased with increasing irrigation (except for the leaf water use efficiency). The leaf water use efficiency in the 135 mm irrigation treatment was significantly greater than in the other treatments. In addition, soil water content, stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content, leaf water potential, grains/spike and thousand grain weight were positively correlated with leaf water use efficiency and yield of winter wheat. The interaction between the furrow-ridge seedbed planting pattern and 135 mm irrigation increased soil water content, leaf water indices, grains/spike, thousand grain weight, leaf water use efficiency and yield. These results indicated that a beneficial response occurred for wheat yield. The furrow-ridge seedbed planting pattern combined with 135 mm of irrigation improved the soil and leaf water status and could increase wheat yield while using less water.
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  • Auditory event-related potentials in methadone substituted opiate users

    Wang, G. Y.   Kydd, R.   Russell, B. R.  

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  • Neuropsychological performance of methadone-maintained opiate users

    Wang, G. Y.   Wouldes, T. A.   Kydd, R.   Jensen, M.   Russell, B. R.  

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been used to treat opiate dependence since the mid-1960s. Previous studies have investigated the effects of methadone on cognitive function however the findings have been inconsistent. Some report a complete absence of deficits while others report different types of cognitive impairment. Our research aimed to investigate the effects of MMT on cognitive function by comparing the performance of patients currently enrolled in MMT (n=32) with opiate-dependent subjects (n=17) and healthy control subjects (n=25) on a computerised neuropsychological test battery. Both the patients undertaking MMT and the opiate users showed less efficient interaction between visual searching and manually connecting digits and letters during the Switching of Attention Task than the healthy control subjects (F(2,64)=3.25, p=0.05), which indicates deficits in information processing. Nevertheless, the performance of the MMT group was similar to that of healthy control subjects in all other tasks, in contrast to the group of opiate users who performed poorly when compared to healthy control subjects during tests of attention (mean difference (MD)=2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.9-4.7), p=0.001) and executive function (MD=5.9, 95% CI (1.3-10.5), p=0.007). These findings suggest that cognitive function in patients undertaking MMT is improved compared to those dependent on illicit opiates.
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  • A revised cavitation model for cryogenic cavitating flow computations

    Shi, S. G.   Wu, Q.   Wang, G. Y.  

    The inducer operates in cryogenic liquids which have a lower liquid to vapor density ratio, significantly higher slopes of pressure-temperature saturation curve and other quantities such as latent heat and thermal conductivity, resulting in substantial thermal effects and strong variations in fluid properties. The goal of our overall efforts is to establish a predictive tool for cryogenic cavitating flows, especially the transport-based cavitation model. Specifically, a Rayleigh-Plesset Based transport model is presented which considered the thermal effect. A Revised cavitation model is introduced and the computational results of the Revised cavitation model is compared against the previous Kubota cavitation model under cryogenic conditions. Compared with the results of Kubota model, the reduced magnitude of the cavity length is larger for the Revised model and it can simulate the observed "frosty" appearance within the cavity better. The maximum temperature and pressure depressions for the cases show lower and the pressure returns to the free-stream pressure faster for the Revised model. The Revised model can capture the temperature and pressure depressions more exactly in the cavity region, especially at the rear end of the cavity, since the intensity of the evaporation and condensation show large distinction for the previous and the Revised models. The evaporation intensity is lowered, while the magnitude of the condensation term is stronger for the Revised model due to the thermal effect term. As evaporation occurs, the revised term of the evaporation rate is negative which will suppress the evaporation intensity. With increasing the cavitation intensity, the revised term of the evaporation rate become higher. For the condensation term, the revised term of the condensation rate is positive as condensation occurs which will enhance the condensation intensity. It also can be found that the revised term of the condensation rate is higher when the condensation intensity is larger. The Revised model is more sensitive to the thermal effect of cavitation. The effectiveness of the Revised model is confirmed by using experimental data in cryogenic cavitation.
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  • Filter-based density correction model for turbulent cavitating flows

    Huang, B.   Chen, G. H.   Zhao, J.   Wang, G. Y.  

    To improve the predictions of the unsteady cavitating flows, a Filter-Based Density Correction model (FBDCM) is proposed, which blends the FBM and DCM models according to the local fluid density. The new FBDCM model can effectively modulate the eddy viscosity, according to the multi-phase characteristic of unsteady cavitating flows. From the experimental validations regarding the force analysis, the unsteady cavity visualization and velocity distributions, the results show that more favorable agreement with experimental visualizations and measurements are obtained with the FBDCM model. Furthermore, the physical instability mechanism of cloud cavitation is investigated with FBDCM model.
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  • Formation of heterocyclic amines during cooking of duck meat

    Liao, G. Z.   Wang, G. Y.   Zhang, Y. J.   Xu, X. L.   Zhou, G. H.  

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are an important class of food mutagens and carcinogens produced in meat cooked at high temperature. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods: boiling, microwave cooking, charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying on the formation of HAs in duck breast were studied. The various HAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analysed by HPLC. Results showed that both the varieties and contents of HAs and the cooking loss of duck breast increase along with increasing cooking temperature and time. Pan-fried duck breasts contained the highest amount of total HAs, followed by charcoal-grilling, deep-frying, roasting, microwave cooking and boiling. 9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole (norharman) and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole (harman) were detected in all of the cooked duck meat, with levels in the range of 0.1-33 ng g(-1). 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f] pyridine (PhIP) was formed easily in duck meat cooked by pan-frying and charcoal-grilling in the range of 0.9-17.8 ng g(-1). 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[ 4,5-f] quinoline (IQ) was identified in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling and pan-frying, in the range of 0.4-4.2 ng g(-1). 2-Amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx) was detected in amounts below 4.5 ng g(-1) in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying. The other HAs were detected in amounts below 10 ng g(-1). Colour development increased with cooking temperature, but no correlation with HAs' content was observed.
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  • Giant coercivity in perpendicularly magnetized cobalt monolayer

    Lin, D. C.   Song, C.   Cui, B.   Wang, Y. Y.   Wang, G. Y.   Pan, F.  

    We report giant coercivity (H-C) up to 35 kOe at 4K, measured by the anomalous Hall effect, in perpendicularly magnetized Co (similar to 0.3 nm) films, where Co is approximately one monolayer. The H-C is dramatically reduced with huge applied current, due to Joule heating rather than Rashba effect. It is also sensitive to temperatures, producing almost zero H-C at 200 K. The Curie temperature of the Co monolayer is similar to 275 K, far lower than that of bulk Co. The giant H-C could be explained by the strong interaction at Co/Pd interface, providing a promising paradise: one monolayer, one permanent magnet. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4752446]
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  • [010] uniaxial-anisotropy induced asymmetry of magnetic reversal in (Ga,Mn)As

    Lin, D. C.   Bi, G. Y.   Li, F.   Song, C.   Wang, Y. Y.   Cui, B.   Wang, G. Y.   Pan, F.  

    We investigate the asymmetric magnetic rotation arising from [010] uniaxial anisotropy in (Ga,Mn)As thin films by measuring the planar Hall effect, with the Hall bars fabricated along [110] direction. Two modes, angle-scan and field-scan, are utilized to do the measurements, both of which show remarkably asymmetric rotations. This phenomenon is found to arise from the minimal [010] uniaxial anisotropy, which is commonly overshadowed by its strong cubic anisotropy counterpart. Besides, we also measure the temperature and film thickness dependence of asymmetric rotation, showing a more remarkable behavior with the increase of temperature or thickness. The direct demonstration of [010] uniaxial anisotropy by an electrical fashion provides useful information for designing electrically programmable memory and logic device on the basis of (Ga,Mn)As. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4788903]
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  • Size effects on the fatigue behavior of bulk metallic glasses

    Wang, G. Y.   Liaw, P. K.   Yokoyama, Y.   Inoue, A.  

    Size effects on bending fatigue characteristics are investigated on Zr-based bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs). The fatigue lifetimes and endurance limits of the large-size samples are greater than those of the small-size samples. The results suggest that although a BMG exhibits good ductility due to the formation of multiple shear bands when its size decreases, the fatigue resistance of BMGs might degrade when the specimen size becomes smaller. The current study finds that small-size BMG samples under bending fatigue could fail in the flexural or fracture mode. VC 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3664846]
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  • POLARIZATION FATIGUE BEHAVIORS IN Bi3.5Nd0.5Ti3O12 FERROELECTRIC THIN FILMS

    Cheng, C. P.   Jiang, B.   Tang, M. H.   Wang, G. Y.   Yang, S. B.   Xu, H. Y.  

    The evolution of the fatigue behaviors in Bi3.5Nd0.5Ti3O12 (BNT) ferroelectric thin films deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by chemical solution deposition (CSD) method effected by amplitude, frequency and profile of the driving electric field were reported. It is found that the switching with lower frequency and higher amplitude of the external voltages resulted in higher fatigue rates and only bipolar waveform type voltage can result in fatigue, whereas a unipolar voltage cannot. An empirical function with N/f is proposed in the frequency-dependence of polarization fatigue, where N is the number of switching cycles and f is the frequency of driving. It is indicated that injected charges from electrodes into films, the trapped charges, and suppression of the seeds of opposite domain nucleation are the main mechanism of fatigue in ferroelectric BNT thin films.
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  • Targeting human glioma cells using HSV-1 amplicon peptide display vector

    Ho, I. A. W.   Miao, L.   Sia, K. C.   Wang, G. Y.   Hui, K. M.   Lam, P. Y. P.  

    Targeting cell infection using herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors is a complicated issue as the process involves multiple interactions of viral envelope glycoproteins and cellular host surface proteins. In this study, we have inserted a human glioma-specific peptide sequence (denoted as MG11) into a peptide display HSV-1 amplicon vector replacing the heparan sulfate-binding domain of glycoprotein C (gC). The modified MG11: gC envelope recombinant vectors were subsequently packaged into virions in the presence of helper virus deleted for gC. Our results showed that the tropism of these HSV-1 recombinant virions was increased for human glioma cells in culture as compared with wild-type virions. The binding of these recombinant virions could also be blocked effectively by preincubating the cells with the glioma-specific peptide, indicating that MG11 peptide and the recombinant virions competed for the same or similar receptor-binding sites on the cell surface of human glioma cells. Furthermore, preferential homing of these virions was shown in xenograft glioma mouse model following intravascular delivery. Taken together, these results validated the hypothesis that HSV-1 binding to cells can be redirected to human gliomas through the incorporation of MG11 peptide sequence to the virions. Gene Therapy (2010) 17, 250-260; doi: 10.1038/gt.2009.128; published online 8 October 2009
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  • Efficient Evaluation of Mars Entry Terminal State Based on Gaussian Process Regression

    Gao, A.   Wang, G. Y.   Wu, S. S.   Song, T.  

    Trajectory optimization technology used for Mars entry is one of the key technologies for planetary exploration. Evaluation of the performance of the entry trajectory under conditions of complex atmospheric dynamics, various vehicular design parameters, and multiple constraints in the process of entry, are important issues pertaining to the design of trajectories. In this study, an efficient evaluation approach of the terminal state for Mars entry is proposed based on Gaussian process regression to evaluate the maximum terminal altitude for different entry velocities, terminal Mach numbers, and vehicular parameters. Additionally, the influences of entry flight-path angle, lift-drag ratio, and ballistic coefficient, on the maximum terminal altitude are analyzed. A genetic algorithm is used in the optimization solver to avoid local minima and to guarantee the data quality of the training samples used for Gaussian process regression. The mean function, kernel function, and hyperparameters are selected as the optimization parameters for Gaussian process regression to describe the correlation between samples, and the maximum terminal altitude prediction model is then established. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve the evaluation of more than 3000 group scenarios within tens of seconds with a mean relative error that is less than 4%.
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  • A New Building Recognition Algorithm from High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Chen, Z.   Wang, G. Y.   Liu, J. G.   Cheng, C. J.   Deng, J. H.  

    The building recognition from high resolution remote sensing images is an internationally advanced research field. But there are still many difficult to be solved. In this paper, in order to extract and recognize the special building from the high resolution remote sensing images, a new algorithm is presented. First, a self-adaptive Average Absolute Difference Maximum edge enhancement algorithm is presented to enhance the edge of the building and suppress the background at one time. Second, the locally self-adaptive segmentation algorithm is implemented to obtain the binary image. Third, the thinning algorithm is implanted to obtain the single pixel edge of the building and a pruning algorithm is necessary in order to reduce the computation times in the following process. The following step is obtained by the Hough transformation to make the edge of the building into polygon. Finally, an Interior angle chain (IAC) is proposed to recognize the building with different shape. The experimental results demonstrate that the new algorithm can extract the special shape building quickly and accurately.
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