Angiolillo, D J
When patients with coronary stents undergo non-cardiac surgery, bridging therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is not infrequent in clinical practice. However, the efficacy and safety of this approach is poorly understood. This was a retrospective analysis of patients with coronary stent(s) on any antiplatelet therapy undergoing non-cardiac surgery between March 2003 and February 2012. The primary efficacy endpoint was the 30-day incidence of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome leading to hospitalisation, or stroke. The primary safety endpoint was the 30-day composite of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) bleedings =E2=89=A5 2. Among 515 patients qualifying for the analysis, LMWH bridging was used in 251 (49 %). At 30 days, MACCE occurred more frequently in patients who received LMWH (7.2 % vs 1.1 %, p=3D0.001), driven by a higher rate of myocardial infarction (4.8 % vs 0 %, p< 0.001). This finding was consistent across several instances of statistical adjustment and after the propensity matching of 179 pairs. Patients bridged with LMWH also experienced a significantly higher risk of BARC bleedings =E2=89=A5 2 (21.9 % vs 11.7 %, p=3D0.002) compared to those who were not, which remained significant across different methods of statistical adjustment and propensity matching. In conclusion, LMWH bridging in patients with coronary stents undergoing surgery is a common and possibly harmful practice, resulting in worse ischaemic outcomes at 30 days, and a significant risk of bleeding.=20
The anatomy of the radial artery has yet to be systematically studied from the perspective of using it as a route for catheter access. We prospectively performed angiography of the arteries of the upper limb to delineate the anatomic features of the radial artery as a way to determine the feasibility of using it as a route for coronary intervention. We studied 2,211 consecutive patients submitted to transradial cardiac catheterization. In all patients, an angiography of the upper limb arteries was performed before and after procedure. Radial puncture was successful in 98.9% of patients. At angiography, anatomic variations of upper limb arteries were noted in 505 patients (22.8%) and included tortuous configurations (3.8%), stenosis (1.7%), hypoplasias (7.7%), radioulnar loop (0.8%), abnormal origin of the radial artery (8.3%), and lusoria subclavian artery (0.45%). Overall procedural success by transradial approach was 97.5%. Patients with anatomic variations of radial artery had a significantly lower puncture (96.2% vs 99.7%, P < 0.0001) and procedural (93.1% vs 98.8%, P < 0.0001) success. The procedure was successfully performed by radial approach in 98.8% of patients with tortuous configurations, 91.9% of radial stenosis, 93.9% of hypoplastic radial artery, 83.3% of radioulnar loop, 96.7% of radial axillary origin, and 60% of lusoria subclavian artery setting. Anatomic variations of the radial artery are not rare. However, they do not represent an important limitation in transradial approach if they are well documented previously. (C) 2006 Wiley-Liss., Inc.