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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 55

  • Monitoring Victoria's public forests:implementation of the Victorian Forest Monitoring Program

    Haywood, Andrew   Thrum, Kristen   Mellor, Andrew   Stone, Christine  

    A new strategic inventory across all publicly managed forests has been installed in Victoria. For the preceding two decades, Victoria's forest inventory has been compiled from various data sources from across the state, an approach that doesn't allow information about the nature and rate of changes to the resource to be estimated, or for projections or forecasts to be made. To address these limitations, the Victorian Forest Monitoring Program (VFMP) was established, to monitor Victoria's progress in meeting a commitment towards sustainable forest management, and to satisfy requirements for state and national reporting. The purpose of the new program is to 'assess and monitor the extent, state and sustainable development of Victoria's public forests in a timely and accurate manner.' The VFMP consists of a plot-based system of permanent observational units located on a state-wide grid. A combination of ground-based and aerial photo plots and remotely sensed data are used to capture a set of basic attributes that are used to derive indicators of sustainability. To meet the monitoring needs a remeasurement framework has been developed to guide the change estimation procedures. The program was designed and implemented between 2009 and 2015 and used to generate data and information for the most recent Victoria's State of the Forest Report. The first annual change estimate is due to be completed in 2017. A summary of implementation and proposed maintenance is presented and discussed in this paper.
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  • Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit study of haemoglobinopathies in Australian children.

    Argent, Elizabeth   Emder, Phillip   Monagle, Paul   Mowat, David   Petterson, Toni   Russell, Susan   Sachdev, Rani   Stone, Christine   Ziegler, David S  

    AIM: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and types of haemoglobinopathies in Australian children and their distribution among ethnic groups, and to collect information on timing of diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies in Australia.; METHODS: Between January 2004 and March 2006, the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit asked paediatricians to report all children under 15years of age with a newly diagnosed haemoglobinopathy. A questionnaire requesting further information was forwarded to those clinicians. Carrier states such as thalassaemia minor were excluded.; RESULTS: Eighty-four notifications of haemoglobinopathy were received by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit, with 59 confirmed cases giving a national incidence of 0.74 per 100,000 children < 15years of age per annum. Of 59 cases, 42 (71%) were Australian born. Twenty-nine (35.6%) children had sickle cell disease, 17 (28.8%) had Hb H disease, six (10.2%) had beta-thalassaemia major and 15 (25.4%) had compound heterozygous conditions. One child died from sickle cell disease. Of Australian born children, at least 10 mothers (23.8%) and 11 fathers (26.2%) were unaware of their carrier status pre-partum (information unavailable for 13 mothers and 17 fathers). Only 11 parents (18.6%) had risks of haemoglobinopathy discussed with them antenatally and only three cases (5.1%) were diagnosed antenatally.; CONCLUSIONS: We found that a small but significant number of children with haemoglobinopathies are being born in Australia despite existing programmes of testing at-risk groups and neonatal screening. Haemoglobinopathies were also diagnosed in recent immigrants. Greater awareness of these conditions and enhancements of screening and detection programmes may be needed as the genetic diversity of the Australian population continues to develop. =C2=A9 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health =C2=A9 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
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  • Bell-miner-associated dieback at the tree crown scale: a multi-trophic process

    Stone, Christine  

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  • Insect Sampling in Forest Ecosystems.Methods in Ecology. Edited by Simon R Leather

    Stone, Christine  

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  • Integrating plantation health surveillance and wood resource inventory systems using remote sensing

    Stone, Christine   Turner, Russell   Verbesselt, Jan  

    Commercial softwood growers in Australia are keen to improve the efficiency and precision of resource inventory underpinning their timber supply commitments. At the same time, they also need to implement forest health strategies which contribute to their environmental management systems and certification process. For example, the Australian Forestry Standard requires forest managers to identify, assess and prioritise any potential damage agents that may impact on forest ecosystem health and vitality. These health programs, however, are often run parallel with, and independently of, resource inventory programs. While most large growers maintain a health Surveillance program, their capacity to quantify the impact of damaging agents on stand productivity and wood volume is often limited. Quantification of productivity losses due to biotic and abiotic agents would significantly improve decisions associated with resource scheduling and allocation of resources for pest control and stand amelioration. This paper discusses how remote sensing technologies can provide spatially-explicit data that permit the integration of plantation inventory and health assessments. The emerging diversity of sensor capabilities on both satellite and airborne platforms enables the development of hierarchical monitoring programs that can be customised for individual regions. For example, the coarse-scale sensor MODIS can provide very cheap coverage Suitable for frequent temporal condition monitoring (thus identifying areas requiring more detailed attention in a timely manner), whereas the new generation of high-resolution sensors are facilitating a shift from manually mapped stand polygons (e.g. those from aerial sketchmapping and aerial photographic interpretation - API) to pixel and object-based digital analysis techniques suitable for both crown and stand-level inventory and canopy health assessment on a continuous, broad-scale basis. The application of these new technologies and associated spatial analyses permits the integration of plantation inventory and health assessment, thus providing forest managers with a holistic and cost-effective approach to timber production.
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  • Linking a decade of forest decline in the south-west of Western Australia to bioclimatic change

    Evans, Bradley   Stone, Christine   Barber, Paul  

    The south-west of Western Australia has experienced severe and prolonged drought over the last three decades. This has coincided with forest declines and more recently (following the summer of 2010-2011) sudden stand mortality in the Northern jarrah forest. Over the same period the Southern jarrah and Southern karri forests remained unaffected. The bioclimatic linkage between these localised climatic events and forest responses is key to developing a predictive capability that permits timely interventionist management strategies. We looked at the temporal dynamics of three accessible bioclimatic parameters (monthly mean diurnal temperature range, monthly mean precipitation and an aridity index derived from evaporation data) that were spatially registered with forested areas known to have been affected by this shift towards dryer and hotter conditions. Changes in forest condition were determined by accessing the vegetation fractional-cover data set, freely available from the high temporal resolution satellite MODIS. This data set provided estimates of three vegetation-related indices, namely photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil cover. Both the climatic variables and the vegetative response variables were spatially co-registered over each of the three selected forest areas and a time series analysis undertaken for each variable. From the observed trends, we identify a set of threshold values for each bioclimatic metric and the approximate time lag associated with observed notable deterioration in the vegetation cover metrics.
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  • The Australian forest industry takes a lead role in reducing the risk from exotic pests and pathogens

    Stone, Christine   Carnegie, Angus  

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  • Tuberculosis recurrence and mortality after successful treatment: Impact of drug resistance RID C-9327-2011

    Cox, Helen   Kebede, Yared   Allamuratova, Sholpan   Ismailov, Gabit   Davletmuratova, Zamira   Byrnes, Graham   Stone, Christine   Niemann, Stefan   Ruesch-Gerdes, Sabine   Blok, Lucie   Doshetov, Daribay  

    Background The DOTS (directly observed treatment short-course) strategy for tuberculosis ( TB) control is recommended by the World Health Organization globally. However, there are few studies of long-term TB treatment outcomes from DOTS programs in high-burden settings and particularly settings of high drug resistance. A DOTS program was implemented progressively in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan starting in 1998. The total case notification rate in 2003 was 462/100,000, and a drug resistance survey found multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains among 13% of new and 40% of previously treated patients. A retrospective, observational study was conducted to assess the capacity of standardized short-course chemotherapy to effectively cure patients with TB in this setting. Methods and Findings Using routine data sources, 213 patients who were sputum smear-positive for TB, included in the drug resistance survey and diagnosed consecutively in 2001-2002 from four districts, were followed up to a median of 22 months from diagnosis, to determine mortality and subsequent TB rediagnosis. Valid follow-up data were obtained for 197 (92%) of these patients. Mortality was high, with an average of 15% (95% confidence interval, 11% to 19%) dying per year after diagnosis (6% of 73 pansusceptible cases and 43% of 55 MDR TB cases also died per year). While 73 (74%) of the 99 new cases were "successfully" treated, 25 (34%) of these patients were subsequently rediagnosed with recurrent TB (13 were smear-positive on rediagnosis). Recurrence ranged from ten (23%) of 43 new, pansusceptible cases to six (60%) of ten previously treated MDR TB cases. MDR M. tuberculosis infection and previous TB treatment predicted unsuccessful DOTS treatment, while initial drug resistance contributed substantially to both mortality and disease recurrence after successful DOTS treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that specific treatment of drug-resistant TB is needed in similar settings of high drug resistance. High disease recurrence after successful treatment, even for drug-susceptible cases, suggests that at least in this setting, end-of-treatment outcomes may not reflect the longer-term status of patients, with consequent negative impacts for patients and for TB control.
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  • Questioning the New Orthodoxies

    Stone, Christine  

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  • Egyptian Stone Vessels: Khian through Tuthmosis IVby Christine Lilyquist

    Review by: Emily Teeter  

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  • Egyptian Stone Vessels: Khian through Tuthmosis IVby Christine Lilyquist

    Review by: Emily Teeter  

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  • Enhancing a eucalypt crown condition indicator driven by high spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing imagery

    Evans, Bradley   Lyons, Tom   Barber, Paul   Stone, Christine   Hardy, Giles  

    Individual crown condition of Eucalyptus gomphocephala was assessed using two classification models to understand changes in forest health through space and time. Using high resolution (0.5 m) digital multispectral imagery, predictor variables were derived from textural and spectral variance of all pixels inside the crown area. The results estimate crown condition as a surrogate for tree health against the total crown health index. Crown condition is derived from combining ground-based crown assessment techniques of density, transparency, dieback, and the regrowth of foliage. This object-based approach summarizes the pixel data into mean crown indices assigned to crown objects which became the carrier of information. Models performed above expectations, with a significant weighted Cohen's kappa (kappa > 0.60 and p < 0.001) using 70% of available data. Using in situ data for model development, crown condition was predicted forwards (2010) and backwards (2007) in time, capturing trends in crown condition and identifying decline in the healthiest between 2008 and 2010. The results confirm that combining spectral and textural information increased model sensitivity to small variations in crown condition. The methodology provides a cost-effective means for monitoring crown condition of this or other eucalypt species in native and plantation forests. (c) 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JRS.6.063605]
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  • The use of guidelines for dissemination of "best practice" in primary care of patients with eating disorders

    Currin, Laura   Waller, Glenn   Treasure, Janet   Nodder, Jane   Stone, Christine   Yeomans, Maria   Schmidt, Ulrike  

    Objective: A number of sets of clinical guidelines have been developed for the treatment of eating-disordered patients. This study aimed to measure adherence to such guidance among family physicians working in primary care settings. Method: In the wake of the publication of national guidelines for "best practice," family physicians in a large but diverse geographical region of the UK (population of 6.4 million) were approached and asked to complete a two-stage survey. Results: Only 4% of these clinicians report using published guidelines or protocols, and none used the national guidelines that were available. Nor were these clinicians using the spirit of the guidelines, as there was little correspondence between recommended and actual treatment behavior. Conclusion: These findings suggest that specialist eating disorders services should not rely on guidelines to ensure the dissemination of best practice for these patients in primary care. Alternative means of dissemination are needed, and suggestions are made. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  • Automated Mapping of Woody Debris over Harvested Forest Plantations Using UAVs,High-Resolution Imagery,and Machine Learning

    Windrim, Lloyd   Bryson, Mitch   McLean, Michael   Randle, Jeremy   Stone, Christine  

    Surveying of woody debris left over from harvesting operations on managed forests is an important step in monitoring site quality, managing the extraction of residues and reconciling differences in pre-harvest inventories and actual timber yields. Traditional methods for post-harvest survey involving manual assessment of debris on the ground over small sample plots are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and do not scale well to heterogeneous landscapes. In this paper, we propose and evaluate new automated methods for the collection and interpretation of high-resolution, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne imagery over post-harvested forests for estimating quantities of fine and coarse woody debris. Using high-resolution, geo-registered color mosaics generated from UAV-borne images, we develop manual and automated processing methods for detecting, segmenting and counting both fine and coarse woody debris, including tree stumps, exploiting state-of-the-art machine learning and image processing techniques. Results are presented using imagery over a post-harvested compartment in a Pinus radiata plantation and demonstrate the capacity for both manual image annotations and automated image processing to accurately detect and quantify coarse woody debris and stumps left over after harvest, providing a cost-effective and scalable survey method for forest managers.
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  • Egyptian Stone Vessels: Khian through Tuthmosis IV . Christine Lilyquist

    Teeter, Emily  

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  • All that remains is ambivalence: A headteacher's reflections

    Stone, Christine  

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