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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 383


    Shah, K.   Mulhern, B.   Longworth, L.   Janssen, B.  

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  • Barriers to transmission of transcriptional noise in a c-fos c-jun pathway

    Shah, K.   Tyagi, S.  

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  • Is the aim of the English health care system to maximize QALYs?

    Shah, K.   Praet, C.   Devlin, N.   Sussex, J.   Appleby, J.   Parkin, D.  

    Objectives: To compare the types of benefit considered relevant by the English Department of Health with those included by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) when conducting economic evaluations of options for spending limited health care resources. Methods: We analysed all policy Impact Assessments (IAs) carried out by the Department of Health (DH) in 2008 and 2009. The stated benefits of each policy were extracted and thematic analysis was used to categorise these. Results: 51 Impact Assessments were analysed, eight of which mentioned quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gains as a benefit. 18 benefits other than QALY gains were identified. Apart from improving health outcomes, commonly referred to benefits included: reducing costs, improving quality of care, and enhancing patient experience. Many of the policies reviewed were implemented on the basis of benefits unrelated to health outcome. The methods being used to apply a monetary valuation to QALY gains (in cost-benefit calculations) are not consistent across Impact Assessments or with NICE's stated threshold range. Conclusions: The Department of Health and NICE approach resource allocation decisions in different ways, based upon overlapping but not congruent considerations and underlying principles. Given that all these decisions affect the allocation of the same fixed health care budget, there is a case for establishing a uniform framework for option appraisal and priority setting so as to avoid allocative inefficiency. The same applies to any other national health care system.
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  • Cdk5 activity in the brain - multiple paths of regulation

    Shah, K.   Lahiri, D. K.  

    Cyclin dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5), a family member of the cyclin-dependent kinases, plays a pivotal role in the central nervous system. During embryogenesis, Cdk5 is indispensable for brain development and, in the adult brain, it is essential for numerous neuronal processes, including higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory formation. However, Cdk5 activity becomes deregulated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, which leads to neurotoxicity. Therefore, precise control over Cdk5 activity is essential for its physiological functions. This Commentary covers the various mechanisms of Cdk5 regulation, including several recently identified protein activators and inhibitors of Cdk5 that control its activity in normal and diseased brains. We also discuss the autoregulatory activity of Cdk5 and its regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. We finally highlight physiological and pathological roles of Cdk5 in the brain. Specific modulation of these protein regulators is expected to provide alternative strategies for the development of effective therapeutic interventions that are triggered by deregulation of Cdk5.
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  • An experimentally validated transient thermal model for cylindrical Li-ion cells

    Shah, K.   Drake, S.J.   Wetz, D.A.   Ostanek, J.K.   Miller, S.P.   Heinzel, J.M.   Jain, A.  

    Measurement and modeling of thermal phenomena in Li-ion cells is a critical research challenge that directly affects both performance and safety. Even though the operation of a Li-ion cell is in most cases a transient phenomenon, most available thermal models for Li-ion cells predict only steady-state temperature fields. This paper presents the derivation, experimental validation and application of an analytical model to predict the transient temperature field in a cylindrical Li-ion cell in response to time-varying heat generation within the cell. The derivation is based on Laplace transformation of governing energy equations, and accounts for anisotropic thermal conduction within the cell. Model predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements on a thermal test cell. The effects of various thermophysical properties and parameters on transient thermal characteristics of the cell are analyzed. The effect of pulse width and cooling time for pulsed operation is quantified. The thermal response to multiple cycles of discharge and charge is computed, and cell-level trade-offs for this process are identified. The results presented in this paper may help understand thermal phenomena in Li-ion cells, and may contribute towards thermal design and optimization tools for energy conversion and storage systems based on Li-ion cells. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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    Ohuabunwa, U.   Turner, J.   Shah, K.   Alexander, J.   Walton Mouw, R.   Brandi, J.   Everett, S.  

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  • State of the Art and Future Research Needs for Multiscale Analysis of Li-Ion Cells

    Shah, K.   Balsara, N.   Banerjee, S.   Chintapalli, M.   Cocco, A. P.   Chiu, W. K. S.   Lahiri, I.   Martha, S.   Mistry, A.   Mukherjee, P. P.   Ramadesigan, V.   Sharma, C. S.   Subramanian, V. R.   Mitra, S.   Jain, A.  

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  • Multidetector CT-Guided Lumbar Puncture in Patients with Cancer

    Debnam, J.M.   Schellingerhout, D.   Kumar, A.J.   Ketonen, L.   Shah, K.   Hamberg, L.M.   Hunter, G.J.  

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  • A comparison of the nutritional knowledge of dental, dietetic and nutrition students

    Shah, K.   Hunter, M. L.   Fairchild, R. M.   Morgan, M. Z.  

    Conflicts in dietary messages remain widespread. Such conflicts can have negative effects on the behaviour, motivation and attitudes of individuals. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. This study was designed to provide information on the nutritional knowledge of dental, dietetic and nutrition students and how this conforms to national nutritional guidelines, identifying differences between professional groups and conflicts in undergraduate training. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 124 dental, dietetic and nutrition students at Cardiff University and the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC). Significant inter-group differences (p <0.05) were observed in relation to recommendations concerning the between-mealtime consumption of a wide range of snacks and drinks. Dental students were mainly concerned with oral health problems (for example, acid erosion), while dietetic and nutrition students were mainly concerned with general health problems (for example, obesity). Just over a third of dental students felt that they had received sufficient training in the dietary management of patients. In conclusion, a common risk-factor approach and consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. In addition, recommendations should be made to incorporate oral health into the training of nutritionists and general health into the training of dentists.
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  • Alternatives for restoration of a hemisected mandibular molar

    Naveen, Y. G.   Patel, J. R.   Parikh, P.   Shah, K.  

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  • Do you know the sex of your cells?

    Shah, K.   McCormack, C. E.   Bradbury, N. A.  

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  • High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Clay Nanocomposite for Dielectric Applications

    Shah, K.   Jain, R.   Shrinet, V.   Singh, A.   Bharambe, D.  

    Indigenous Montmorillonite clay available from Kutchh region in western part of India was modified by Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, a quaternary ammonium compound to make it organophilic. It was blended with high density, polyethylene (HDPE) in a Brabender Plasticoder. The condition for blending was optimized and sheets were prepared for evaluating mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Mechanical property such as tensile was improved. The electrical properties such as dielectric strength, volume resistivity and surface resistivity were measured as per ASTM D149 and ASTM D257 standards. It was observed that electrical properties of nanoclay composite improved significantly when organoclay was treated with silane and titanate compounds. Thermal characterization of the HDPE and HDPE clay nanocomposite had been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It has been observed that the thermal stability of the nanocomposite increases significantly when the silane and titanate coupling agents are used.
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  • Boron selenide semiconductor detectors for thermal neutron counting

    Kargar, A.   Tower, J.   Cirignano, L.   Shah, K.  

    Thermal neutron detectors in planar configuration were fabricated from B 2Se 3 (Boron Selenide) crystals grown at RMD Inc. All fabricated semiconductor devices were characterized for the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic and neutron counting measurement. In this study, the resistivity of crystals is reported and the collected pulse height spectra are presented for devices irradiated with the 241AmBe neutron source. Long-term stability of the B 2Se 3 devices for neutron detection under continuous bias and without being under continuous bias was investigated and the results are reported. The B 2Se 3 devices showed response to thermal neutrons of the 241AmBe source.
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  • Experimental and numerical investigation of core cooling of Li-ion cells using heat pipes

    Shah, K.   McKee, C.   Chalise, D.   Jain, A.  

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  • Design-based metrology: advanced automation for CD-SEM recipe generation

    Tabery, C.   Capodieci, L.   Haidinyak, C.   Shah, K.   Threefoot, M.   Choo, B.   Singh, B.   Nehmadi, Y.   Ofek, C.   Menadeva, O.   Ben-Porath, A.  

    The procedure for properly implementing OPC for a new technology node or chip design involves multiple steps: selection of the RET (resolution enhance technique), selection of design rules, OPC model building, OPC verification, CD control quantification (across chip, reticle, wafer, focus, exposure, etc), calibration of optical rule checks (ORC), and other verification steps. Many of these steps require up to thousands of wafer measurements, and while state-of-the-art CD-SEM tools provide automated metrology for production, manually creating a CD recipe with thousands of unique sites is extremely tedious and error-prone. This places a practical limit on both the quality and number of measurements that can be acquired during the technology development and qualification period. At the same time, the number of measurements required to qualify a new reticle design has increased drastically due to the growing complexity of RET and diminishing tolerances. To meet this challenge, a direct and automated link from the design systems to the process metrology tools is needed. Novel methodologies must also be developed to enable automated generation of the recipe from the design inputs and to translate the flood of metrology results into information that can improve the design, mask data processing, or the patterning process. To facilitate this two-way data flow, a new framework has been created enabling true design-based metrology (DBM), and an application named OPC-check has been developed to operate within this framework. This DBM framework provides the common language and interface that facilitates the direct transfer of desired measurement locations from teh design to the metrology tool. This link is a critical element in design for manufacturability (DFM) efforts, a central theme in many presentations at microlithography 2005. This article discusses the significant benefits of the tight integration of design and process metrology for OPC implementation in a new technology node, and provides some examples of the novel OPC-check application as currently implemented at AMD SDC with applied materials CD-SEM tools.
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  • A Parametric Study for Optimization of Minichannel Based Battery Thermal Management System

    An, Z.   Shah, K.   Jia, L.   Ma, Y.  

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