In this paper we propose a k-nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier optimized by P systems, called kNN-P, which can improve the performance of the original kNN classifier. A P system consisting of multiple cells is considered as its computational framework. Under the control of both evolution rules and communication rules, each cell determines the optimal set of k-nearest neighbors for a test sample. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on eighteen benchmark datasets and compared with classical kNN algorithm and eight recently developed improved algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the availability and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The satisfiability problem (SAT) is a well known NP-complete problem. Obtaining All of the truth assignments of SAT is called All-SAT and it has numerous applications in artificial intelligence and computer theories. Many algorithms about SAT have been built, but how to solve All-SAT is still difficult. P system is a new distributed and parallel computation model. We use membrane division, which is frequently investigated to obtain an exponential working space in a linear time, to design a family of P systems to solve All-SAT in polynomial time. Our work provides a new and effective solution to All-SAT in a distributed and parallel manner.
Background: Greater understanding of the roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-10, and the IL-23/T-helper (Th) 17 and IL-12/Th1 pathways in immune dysregulation in moderate/severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has helped in developing new regimens. We aim to review the use of different immunomodulatory therapies used to manage HS. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on the PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov databases from 1 January 1947 to 31 December 2018. Only clinical trials, case reports, case series and retrospective analyses published in the English language were included. Results: Our search yielded 107 articles and 35 clinical trials, of which 15 are still ongoing. The tumor necrosis factor-a inhibitors adalimumab and infliximab were the most comprehensively studied agents. Published data from clinical trials support the efficacy of adalimumab, infliximab, anakinra, ustekinumab, bermekimab and apremilast but not etanercept and MEDI8968. Clinical trials for CJM112 have been completed, with results awaiting publication. Trials are underway for secukinumab, IFX-1, INCB054707 and bimekizumab. Biologics used in smaller cohorts include canakinumab, golimumab and rituximab. Most agents are well tolerated and demonstrate a good safety profile, with the most commonly reported adverse event being infections. Discussion and conclusions: To date, adalimumab is the only biologic which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for HS. However, other agents also show promise, with further trials underway to evaluate their efficacy, tolerability and safety profiles. Different clinical measurement scores and endpoints used to make direct comparison difficult. Longitudinal surveillance and pooled registry data are paramount to evaluate the long-term safety profile and efficacy of therapy.
With diminishing world reserves of phosphorus (P) deposits and rising fertilizer prices, it is important to find alternate sources of P for crops. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of four different composts C1 (animal manure and straw), C2 (garden waste), C3 (wood chips and bark), and C4 (kitchen waste) on soil P pools and P uptake by wheat on 14, 28, and 72 days after compost application. The composts were applied as a 2.5 cm thick layer on the soil surface. During sampling, only the soil underlying compost was sampled. Soil pH and total organic carbon were not affected by the amendments. Soil respiration was significantly higher in compost-amended soils compared with the unamended soil except with C4 on day 72. Addition of composts increased plant growth, and P uptake being highest on day 72 with C1 and C4. With little effect on available P concentration on day 14, there was a conversion of organic P into inorganic P in the compost treatments suggesting net mineralization of organic P on day 28. On day 72, the concentrations of the less labile P forms were higher in the compost treatments compared with the unamended suggesting precipitation and fixation as well as synthesis of organic P. This study showed that mulching with composts having high available and total P concentrations can provide plants with P and also increase soil P concentrations which could reduce the fertilizer requirement for the following crop.
It is proved that every quasisimple group except covers of the alternating groups is uniquely determined up to isomorphism by the structure of CL, the complex group algebra of L. One of the next natural groups to be considered are the characteristically simple groups. In this paper, as the first step in this investigation we prove that if p > 3 is an odd prime number, then PSL(2, p) x PSL(2, p) is uniquely determined by the structure of its complex group algebra.
This review summarizes the current research involving p-synephrine in combination with caffeine. Over 30 clinical human studies with in excess of 700 subjects, and animal and in vitro studies have assessed the safety, efficacy, and mechanism of action of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary active constituent p-synephrine. Approximately 35% of these human subjects concurrently consumed caffeine, a stimulant thermogenic agent. In these clinical investigations, no serious adverse effects were reported or observed when using the combination of p-synephrine with caffeine. Animal studies with exceedingly high doses of p-synephrine in combination with caffeine support and affirm the human studies. The results of studies conducted to date indicate that p-synephrine does not augment the cardiovascular effects of caffeine or produce cardiovascular effects at commonly used doses. These observations can be explained on the basis of in vitro mechanistic studies.