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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 244

  • Performance of Irradiated RD53A 3D Pixel Sensors

    Terzo, S.   Chmeissani, M.   Giannini, G.   Grinstein, S.   Manna, M.   Pellegrini, G.   Quirion, D.   Vazquez Furelos, D.  

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC will replace its current inner tracker system for the HL-LHC era. 3D silicon pixel sensors are being considered as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the new fully silicon-based tracking detector. 3D sensors with a small pixel size of (50 x 50) mu m(2) and (25 x 100) mu m(2) compatible with the first prototype ASIC for the HL-LHC, the RD53A chip, have been studied in beam tests after uniform irradiation to 5 x 10(15) n(eq)/cm(2). An operation voltage of only 50V is needed to achieve a 97% hit efficiency after this fluence.
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  • Timing performance of small cell 3D silicon detectors

    Kramberger, G.   Cindro, V.   Flores, D.   Hidalgo, S.   Hiti, B.   Manna, M.   Mandic, I.   Mikuz, M.   Quirion, D.   Pellegrini, G.   Zavrtanik, M.  

    A silicon 3D detector with a single cell of 50 x 50 mu m(2) was produced and evaluated for timing applications. The measurements of time resolution were performed for Sr-90 electrons with dedicated electronics used also for determining time resolution of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs). The measurements were compared to those with LGADs and also simulations. The studies showed that the dominant contribution to the timing resolution comes from the time walk originating from different induced current shapes for hits over the cell area. This contribution decreases with higher bias voltages, lower temperatures and smaller cell sizes. It is around 30 ps for a 3D detector of 50 x 50 mu m(2) cell at 150 V and -20 degrees C, which is comparable to the time walk due to Landau fluctuations in LGAD5. It even improves for inclined tracks and larger pads composed of multiple cells. A good agreement between measurements and simulations was obtained, thus validating the simulation results.
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  • Test beam characterization of irradiated 3D pixel sensors

    Garcia Alonso, A.   Curras, E.   Duarte-Campderros, J.   Fernandez, M.   Gomez, G.   Gonzalez, J.   Silva, E.   Vila, I   Jaramillo, R.   Meschini, M.   Ceccarelli, R.   Dinardo, M.   Gennai, S.   Moroni, L.   Zuolo, D.   Demaria, N.   Monteil, E.   Gaioni, L.   Messineo, A.   Dalla Beta, G-F   Menicino, R.   Boscardin, M.   Hidalgo, S.   Merlos, A.   Pellegrini, G.   Quirion, D.   Manna, M.  

    Due to the large expected instantaneous luminosity, the future HL-LHC upgrade sets strong requirements on the radiation hardness of the CMS detector Inner Tracker. Sensors based on 3D pixel technology, with its superior radiation tolerance, comply with these extreme conditions. A full study and characterization of pixelated 3D sensors fabricated by FBK is presented here. The sensors were bump-bonded to RD53A readout chips and measured at several CERN SPS test beams. Results on charge collection and efficiency, for both non-irradiated and irradiated up to 1016 n(eq)/cm(2) samples, are presented. Two main studies are described: in the first the behaviour of the sensor is qualified as a function of irradiation, while kept under identical conditions; in the second the response is measured under typical operating conditions.
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  • 50 mu m thin Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) for timing applications

    Carulla, M.   Doblas, A.   Flores, D.   Galloway, Z.   Hidalgo, S.   Kramberger, G.   Luce, Z.   Mandic, I.   Mazza, S.   Merlos, A.   Pellegrini, G.   Quirion, D.   Rodriguez, R.   Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.   Seiden, A.   Zhao, Y.  

    LGAD detectors on 300 mu m thick high resistivity p-type substrates were proposed for the first time by IMB-CNM-CSIC. They are customized Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) to obtain a high electric field region confined close to the reversed junction. Therefore, only electrons generated by an incident particle passing through the detector and drifting to the n+ contact, start the impact ionization process. Thus, the collected charge is multiplied. The basic difference between APDs and LGADs is the gain. LGADs have a moderate gain in order to avoid the inherent problems due to high multiplication: cross talk and high noise. In that way, the detector signal can be kept high without increasing the noise. These devices have been successfully fabricated and extensively characterized, before and after irradiation. Unfortunately, neutron and proton radiation cause the degradation of the gain and the creation of bulk traps, degrading the timing resolution. One way to reduce the radiation induced degradation is to minimize the substrate thickness, thus improving the timing resolution of LGAD detectors. Two technology approaches have been contemplated: the use of SOI (Silicon on insulator) substrates and Silicon to Silicon bonding substrates, both with a very thin active silicon layer of 50 mu m. As a consequence, drifting distances of generated electrons and holes are significantly reduced, resulting in a decrease in the number of electrons and holes trapped by radiation induced bulk defects. A new family of thin detectors, produced in 2x2 arrays prototypes, for the ATLAS experiment High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed. These detectors are suitable for timing applications with time resolution in the range of 30 ps at 20 degrees C. Optimization of the LGAD structures for the HGTD experiment and the detector experimental performances are presented and discussed.
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  • Radiation hardness of gallium doped low gain avalanche detectors

    Kramberger, G.   Carulla, M.   Cavallaro, E.   Cindro, V   Flores, D.   Galloway, Z.   Grinstein, S.   Hidalgo, S.   Fadeyev, V   Lange, J.   Mandic, I   Merlos, A.   McKinney-Martinez, F.   Mikuz, M.   Quirion, D.   Pellegrini, G.   Petek, M.   Sadrozinski, H. F-W   Seiden, A.   Zavrtanik, M.  

    Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs) are based on a n(++)-p(+)-p-p(++) structure where appropriate doping of multiplication layer (p(+)) leads to high enough electric fields for impact ionization. Operation of these detectors in harsh radiation environments leads to decrease of gain attributed to the effective acceptor removal in the multiplication layer. In order to cope with that devices were produced where boron was replaced by gallium. The initial radiation hardness studies show a smaller degradation of gain with neutron fluence indicating that gallium is more difficult to displace/deactivate from the lattice site than boron.
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  • Timing performance of small cell 3D silicon detectors

    Kramberger, G.   Cindro, V.   Flores, D.   Hidalgo, S.   Hiti, B.   Manna, M.   Mandić, I.   Mikuž, M.   Quirion, D.   Pellegrini, G.   Zavrtanik, M.  

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  • Module production of the one-arm AFP 3D pixel tracker

    Grinstein, S.   Cavallaro, E.   Chmeissani, M.   Dorholt, O.   Forster, F.   Lange, J.   Lopez Paz, I.   Manna, M.   Pellegrini, G.   Quirion, D.   Rijssenbeek, M.   Rohne, O.   Stugu, B.  

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is designed to identify events in which one or two protons emerge intact from the LHC collisions. AFP will consist of a tracking detector, to measure the momentum of the protons, and a time of flight system to reduce the background from multiple proton-proton interactions. Following an extensive qualification period, 3D silicon pixel sensors were selected for the AFP tracker. The sensors were produced at CNM (Barcelona) during 2014. The tracker module assembly and quality control was performed at IFAE during 2015. The assembly of the first AFP arm and the following installation in the LHC tunnel took place in February 2016. This paper reviews the fabrication process of the AFP tracker focusing on the pixel modules.
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  • Readout electronics for LGAD sensors

    Alonso, O.   Franch, N.   Canals, J.   Palacio, F.   Lopez, M.   Vila, A.   Dieguez, A.   Carulla, M.   Flores, D.   Hidalgo, S.   Merlos, A.   Pellegrini, G.   Quirion, D.  

    In this paper, an ASIC fabricated in 180 nm CMOS technology from AMS with the very front-end electronics used to readout LGAD sensors is presented as well as its experimental results. The front-end has the typical architecture for Si-strip readout, i.e., preamplification stage with a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) followed by a CR-RC shaper. Both amplifiers are based on a folded cascode structure with a PMOS input transistor and the shaper only uses passive elements for the feedback stage. The CSA has programmable gain and a configurable input stage in order to adapt to the different input capacitance of the LGAD sensors (pixelated, short and long strips) and to the different input signal (depending on the gain of the LGAD). The fabricated prototype has an area of 0.865mm x 0.965 mm and includes the biasing circuit for the CSA and the shaper, 4 analog channels (CSA+shaper) and programmable charge injection circuits included for testing purposes. Noise and power analysis performed during simulation fixed the size of the input transistor to W/L =3D 860 mu m/0.2 mm. The shaping time is fixed by design at 1 us and, in this ASIC version, the feedback elements of the shaper are passive, which means that the area of the shaper can be reduced using active elements in future versions. Finally, the different gains of the CSA have been selected to maintain an ENC below 400 electrons for a detector capacitor of 20 pF, with a power consumption of 150 mu W per channel.
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  • thin Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) for timing applications

    Carulla, M.   Doblas, A.   Flores, D.   Galloway, Z.   Hidalgo, S.   Kramberger, G.   Luce, Z.   Mandic, I.   Mazza, S.   Merlos, A.   Pellegrini, G.   Quirion, D.   Rodríguez, R.   Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.   Seiden, A.   Zhao, Y.  

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  • Mechanism-Based Investigation into Adaptation to Oxidative Acute Lung Injury

    Pellegrini, G.   Williams, D.   Kipar, A.  

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  • Microstructured silicon neutron detectors for security applications

    Esteban, S.   Fleta, C.   Guardiola, C.   Jumilla, C.   Pellegrini, G.   Quirion, D.   Rodriguez, J.   Lozano, M.  

    In this paper we present the design and performance of a perforated thermal neutron silicon detector with a (LiF)-Li-6 neutron converter. This device was manufactured within the REWARD project workplace whose aim is to develop and enhance technologies for the detection of nuclear and radiological materials. The sensor perforated structure results in a higher efficiency than that obtained with an equivalent planar sensor. The detectors were tested in a thermal neutron beam at the nuclear reactor at the Instituto Superior Tecnico in Lisbon and the intrinsic detection efficiency for thermal neutrons and the gamma sensitivity were obtained. The Geant4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the experimental conditions, i.e. thermal neutron beam and the whole detector geometry. An intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 8.6% +/- 0.4% with a discrimination setting of 450 keV was measured.
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  • Study of small-cell 3D silicon pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC

    Curras, E.   Duarte-Campderros, J.   Fernandez, M.   Garcia, A.   Gomez, G.   Gonzalez, J.   Jaramillo, R.   Moya, D.   Vila, I   Hidalgo, S.   Manna, M.   Pellegrini, G.   Quirion, D.   Pitzl, D.   Ebrahimi, A.   Rohe, T.   Wiederkehr, S.  

    A study of 3D pixel sensors of cell size 50 mu m x 50 mu m fabricated at IMB-CNM using double-sided n-on-p 3D technology is presented. Sensors were bump-bonded to the ROC4SENS readout chip. For the first time in such a small-pitch hybrid assembly, the sensor response to ionizing radiation in a test beam of 5.6 GeV electrons was studied. Results for non-irradiated sensors are presented, including efficiency, charge sharing, signal-to-noise, and resolution for different incidence angles.
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  • Monitoring of warfarin therapy:Preliminary results from a longitudinal pilot study

    Lomonaco, T.   Ghimenti, S.   Piga, I.   Biagini, D.   Onor, M.   Fuoco, R.   Paolicchi, A.   Ruocco, L.   Pellegrini, G.   Trivella, M. G.   Di Francesco, F.  

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between warfarin dosage, international normalized ratio, plasma and oral fluid concentrations of warfarin, and its metabolites, namely RR/SS-and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols. Nine patients on long-term warfarin therapy (4 with stable and 5 with unstable international normalized ratio values) were longitudinally monitored for over two months by recording warfarin dosage and measuring international normalized ratio, warfarin and warfarin alcohols concentrations in oral fluid and in plasma. At equivalent dose (20-30 mg week(-1)), the international normalized ratio was in the range 2.0-2.5 and 1.5-3.1 for stable and unstable patients, respectively. Moreover, stable patients showed nearly double total and unbound plasma warfarin concentration, and nearly triple oral fluid warfarin concentrations compared to unstable patients. Correlations between warfarin dosage and total plasma concentration of warfarin (r =3D 0.65, p < 0.01) or RS/SR-warfarin alcohols (r =3D 0.66, p < 0.01), as well as between stimulated oral fluid and total plasma concentrations of warfarin (r =3D 0.72, p < 0.01) and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols (r =3D 0.95, p < 0.01) suggest that the relative changes of the oral fluid concentrations of these species may provide clinically useful information for monitoring individual patients. Follow-up data revealed that even in the absence of changes of warfarin dose, the oscillations of plasma and oral fluid of WAR and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols parallel oscillations of international normalized ratio. Due to the long delay of its biological action, monitoring the plasma concentration of warfarin might help to predict variations of international normalized ratio and prevent the risk of thrombotic or haemorrhagic events. The information collected suggests that non-invasive monitoring of warfarin in oral fluid might represent a suitable tool for this purpose. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Recent developments on CMOS MAPS for the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker

    Rizzo, G.   Comott, D.   Manghisoni, M.   Re, V.   Traversi, G.   Fabbri, L.   Gabrielli, A.   Giorgi, F.   Pellegrini, G.   Sbarra, C.   Semprini-Cesari, N.   Valentinetti, S.   Villa, M.   Zoccoli, A.   Berra, A.   Lietti, D.   Prest, M.   Bevan, A.   Wilson, F.   Beck, G.   Morris, J.   Gannaway, F.   Cenci, R.   Bombelli, L.   Citterio, M.   Coelli, S.   Fiorini, C.   Liberali, V.   Monti, M.   Nasri, B.   Neri, N.   Palombo, F.   Stabile, A.   Balestri, G.   Batignani, G.   Bernardelli, A.   Bettarini, S.   Bosi, F.   Casarosa, G.   Ceccanti, M.   Forti, F.   Giorgi, M.A.   Lusiani, A.   Mammini, P.   Morsani, F.   Oberhof, B.   Paoloni, E.   Perez, A.   Petragnani, G.   Profeti, A.   Soldani, A.   Walsh, J.   Chrzaszcz, M.   Gaioni, L.   Manazza, A.   Quartieri, E.   Ratti, L.   Zucca, S.   Alampi, G.   Cotto, G.   Gamba, D.   Zambito, S.   Dalla Betta, G.-F.   Fontana, G.   Pancheri, L.   Povoli, M.   Verzellesi, G.   Bomben, M.   Bosisio, L.   Cristaudo, P.   Lanceri, L.   Liberti, B.   Rashevskaya, I.   Stella, C.   Vitale, L.  

    In the design of the Silicon Vertex Tracker for the high luminosity SuperB collider, very challenging requirements are set by physics and background conditions on its innermost Layer0: small radius (about 1.5 cm), resolution of 10-15 mum in both coordinates, low material budget <1%X 0, and the ability to withstand a background hit rate of several tens of MHz/cm 2. Thanks to an intense R&D program the development of Deep NWell CMOS MAPS (with the ST Microelectronics 130 nm process) has reached a good level of maturity and allowed for the first time the implementation of thin CMOS sensors with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixels, such as pixel-level sparsification and fast time stamping. Further MAPS performance improvements are currently under investigation with two different approaches: the INMAPS CMOS process, featuring a quadruple well and a high resistivity substrate, and 3D CMOS MAPS, realized with vertical integration technology. In both cases specific features of the processes chosen can improve charge collection efficiency, with respect to a standard DNW MAPS design, and allow to implement a more complex in-pixel logic in order to develop a faster readout architecture. Prototypes of MAPS matrix, suitable for application in the SuperB Layer0, have been realized with the INMAPS 180 nm process and the 130 nm Chartered/Tezzaron 3D process and results of their characterization will be presented in this paper. [All rights reserved Elsevier].
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  • Recent results on 3D double sided detectors with slim edges

    Pellegrini, G.   Baselga, M.   Christophersen, M.   Ely, S.   Fadeyev, V.   Fleta, C.   Gimenez, A.   Grinstein, S.   Lopez, I.   Lozano, M.   Micelli, A.   Phlips, B. F.   Quirion, D.   Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.   Tsiskaridze, S.  

    This paper reports on the first characterization of double sided 3D silicon radiation pixel detectors with slim edges. These detectors consist of a three-dimensional array of electrodes that penetrate into the detector bulk with the anode and cathode electrodes etched from opposite sides of the substrate. Different detectors were post-processed using the scribe-cleave-passivate (SCP) technology to make "slim edge" sensors. These sensors have only a minimal amount of inactive peripheral region, for the benefit of the construction of large-area tracker and imaging systems. The target application for this work is the use of 3D slim edge detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) CERN Project, where pixel detectors for position resolution and timing detectors for removal of pile up protons, will be placed as close as possible to the beam to detect diffractive protons at 220 m on either side of the ATLAS interaction point. For this reason the silicon areas should feature the narrowest possible insensitive zone on the sensor edge closest to the beam and withstand high nonuniform irradiation fluences. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Radiation resistance of double-type double-sided 3D pixel sensors

    Fernandez, M.   Jaramillo, R.   Lozano, M.   Munoz, F. J.   Pellegrini, G.   Quirion, D.   Rohe, T.   Vila, I.  

    The proposed high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity at the experiments interaction points by a factor of ten. The vertex detector will be the subsystem most affected by the luminosity increase, raising substantially their occupancy and radiation induced damage. To preserve the vertex physics performance under these new conditions, current pixel technologies have to be improved. Hybrid pixel sensors with double sided double type vertical electrodes (3D sensors) are becoming a mature technology for the detector layers closest to the interaction point due to their intrinsic radiation hardness. In addition, the double sided implementation of the 3D pixel technology provides some additional technical advantages with respect to the single-sided implementation. For this study, 3D pixel sensors manufactured at the Centro Nacional de Microelectronica of Barcelona (IMB-CNM) have been bonded to the PSI46 readout chip currently used by the Compact Muon Solenoid vertex detector. Detector performance before and after irradiation up to fluences of 5 x 10(15) n(eq)/cm(2) is presented. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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