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Now showing items 1 - 10 of 10

  • Physical mapping of mouse collagen genes on Chromosome 10 by high-resolution FISH

    Sallinen, R   Latvanlehto, A   Kvist, AP   Rehn, M   Eerola, I   Chu, ML   Bonaldo, P   Saitta, B   Bressan, GM   Pihlajaniemi, T   Vuorio, E   Palotie, A   Wessman, M   Horelli-Kuitunen, N  

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on mechanically stretched chromosomes (MSCs) and extended DNA fibers enables construction of high-resolution physical maps by accurate ordering and orienting genomic clones as well as by measuring physical lengths of gaps and overlaps between them. These high-resolution FISH targets have hitherto been used mainly in the study of the human genome. Here we have applied both MSCs and extended DNA fibers to the physical mapping of the mouse genome. At first, five mouse collagen genes were localized by metaphase-FISH: Coll0a1 to chromosomal bands 10B1-B3; Coll3a1 to 10B4; and Col6a1, Col6a2, and Col18a1 to 10B5-C1. The mutual order of the genes, centromere-Col10a1-Col13a1-Col6a2-Col6a1-Col18a1-telomere, was determined by FISH on metaphase chromosomes, MSCs, and extended DNA fibers. To our knowledge, this is the first time mouse metaphase chromosomes have been stretched and used as targets for FISH. We also used MSCs to determine the transcriptional orientations, telomere-5 ' -3 ' -centromere, of both Col13a1 and Col18a1. With fiber-FISH, Col18a1, Col6a1, and Col6a2 were shown to be in a head-to-tail configuration with respective intergenic distances of about 350 kb and 90 kb. Comparison of our physical mapping results with the homologous human data reveals both similarities and differences concerning the chromosomal distribution, order, transcriptional orientations, and intergenic distances of the collagen genes studied.
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  • Elevated incidence of chromosomally chaotic embryos among frozen-thawed preimplantation embryos

    Salumets, A   Horelli-Kuitunen, N   Suikkari, AM   Metspalu, A   Tuuri, T  

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation on the formation of chromosomal abnormalities in human preimplantation embryos. Study design: The chromosomal constitutions of cleavage stage embryos (n = 61) were assessed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique, applying probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21, X and Y. Study group embryos frozen at zygote or two-cell stage (n = 29) were cultured in vitro post-thawing until they reached four- to six-cell stage, after which their chromosomal constitutions were assessed. Control group embryos frozen at four- to six-cell stage (n = 32) were analysed immediately after thawing in order to exclude any post-thaw effect. The proportions of genetically normal and abnormal embryos were compared between study and control group. Results: The proportions of normal, aneuploid and mosaic embryos were similar in both groups. However, significantly (P < 0.05) higher proportion of chaotic embryos in study (24.1%) compared to control group (6.3%) was observed. Conclusion: The elevated level of chromosomally chaotic embryos among embryos that had undergone cellular division after thawing as compared to embryos analysed immediately after thawing indicates a potential negative impact of cryopreservation on the formation of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Gene defect behind APECED: a new clue to autoimmunity.

    Bjorses, P   Aaltonen, J   Horelli-Kuitunen, N   Yaspo, M L   Peltonen, L  

    The molecular background of human autoimmunity is poorly understood. Although many autoimmune diseases have a genetic basis, the actual disease appearance results from a complex interplay between genes and environment and thus these diseases represent typical multifactorial diseases. Even with molecular tools provided by the Human Genome Project, it still remains a challenge to identify the predisposing DNA variants behind such multifactorial traits. Two strategies have been suggested to provide short-cuts to the dissection of the genetic background of complex autoimmune diseases: (i) identification of genes in rare human diseases with a strong autoimmune component or (ii) unravelling loci causing phenotypes resembling autoimmune diseases in inbred mice strains. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a monogenic autosomal disease with a recessive inheritance pattern, characterized by multiple autoimmune endocrinopathies, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophies. Since it is the only known human autoimmune disease inherited in a Mendelian fashion, it provides an excellent model to analyse the genetic component of human autoimmunity. The causative gene for APECED was isolated recently by a traditional positional cloning strategy by two independent groups. The cDNA for the APECED gene proved to originate from a novel gene, AIRE , which is expressed prevalently in thymus, pancreas and adrenal cortex. Multiple mutations in AIRE have been identified in APECED patients. The predicted proline-rich AIRE polypeptide harbours two PHD-type zinc finger motifs and contains a putative nuclear targeting signal suggesting its involvement in the regulation of transcription. In the future, functional analysis of the AIRE protein both in vitro and in vivo will provide valuable insight not only into the molecular pathogenesis of APECED but also into the aetiology of autoimmunity in general.
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  • Cloning of a novel human putative type Ia integral membrane protein mapping to 21q22.3

    Yaspo, ML   Aaltonen, J   Horelli-Kuitunen, N   Peltonen, L   Lehrach, H  

    The distal part of human chromosome 21q22.3 is exceptionally gene rich and contains several loci that have been linked to hereditary disorders. In the course of constructing an extensive transcript map for chromosome 21, we have isolated numerous coding segments in 21q22.3 that represent potential candidate genes in this region. Following this approach, we have cloned a novel single-copy gene (C21orf3) (HGMW-approved symbol C21orf1) expressed as a unique 2.69-kb mRNA in a wide range of tissues. We have precisely mapped C21orf3 by fiber FISH distal to marker D21S171. The C21orf3 gene encodes a predicted protein of 180 residues that does not share any sequence homology with other known proteins. C21orf3 harbors predicted structural features of a type Ia integral membrane protein and contains a tetrapeptide moth (YXRF) observed in several cell surface proteins involved in signal transduction. Although the function of C21orf3 is still unknown, this novel gene may play an important role in a cell trafficking mechanism. (C) 1998 Academic Press.
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  • New methods for molecular diagnosis and demonstration of the (CCTG)n mutation in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2)

    Sallinen, R   Vihola, A   Bachinski, LL   Huoponen, K   Haapasalo, H   Hackman, P   Zhang, S   Sirito, M   Kalimo, H   Meola, G   Horelli-Kuitunen, N   Wessman, M   Krahe, R   Udd, B  

    Myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 are autosomal dominant, multisystemic disorders with many similarities in their clinical manifestations. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is caused by a (CTG)n expansion in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene in 19q13.3 and myotonic dystrophy type 2 by a (CCTG)n expansion in intron 1 of ZNF9 in 3q21.3. However, the clinical diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy type 2 is more complex than that of myotonic dystrophy type 1, and conventional molecular genetic methods used for diagnosing myotonic dystrophy type 1 are insufficient for myotonic dystrophy type 2. Herein we describe two in situ hybridization protocols for the myotonic dystrophy type 2 mutation detection. Chromogenic in situ hybridization was used to detect both the genomic expansion and the mutant transcripts in muscle biopsy sections. Chromogenic in situ hybridization can be used in routine myotonic dystrophy type 2 diagnostics. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA fibers was used to directly visualize the myotonic dystrophy type 2 mutation and to estimate the repeat expansion sizes. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Functional analysis of novel mutations in y(+)LAT-1 amino acid transporter gene causing lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI)

    Mykkanen, J   Torrents, D   Pineda, M   Camps, M   Yoldi, ME   Horelli-Kuitunen, N   Huoponen, K   Heinonen, M   Oksanen, J   Simell, O   Savontaus, ML   Zorzano, A   Palacin, M   Aula, P  

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI; MIM 222700) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defective transport of the cationic amino acids lysine, arginine and ornithine at the basolateral membrane of the polar epithelial cells in the intestine and renal tubules, and by hyperammonemia after high-protein meals, LPI is caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 (solute carrier family 7, member 7) gene encoding y(+)LAT-1 (y(+)L amino acid transporter-1), which co-induces together with 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) system y(+)L in Xenopus oocytes, All Finnish LPI patients share the same founder mutation 1181-2A-->T (LPIFin) not found in LPI patients elsewhere. Mutation screening of 20 non-Finnish LPI patients revealed 10 novel mutations: four deletions, two missense mutations, two nonsense mutations, a splice site mutation and a tandem duplication. Five LPI mutations (L334R, G54V, 1291delCTTT, 1548delC and LPIFin) were studied functionally, Ail mutant proteins failed to co-induce amino acid transport activity when expressed with 4F2hc in Xenopus oocytes, Immunostaining experiments revealed that frameshift mutants 1291delCTTT, 1548delC and LPIFin remained intracellular on expression with 4F2hc. In contrast, the missense mutants L334R and G54V reached the oocyte plasma membrane when coexpressed with 4F2hc, demonstrating that they are transport-inactivating mutations. This finding, together with the strong degree of conservation among all members of this family of amino acid transporters, indicates that residues L334 and G54 play a crucial role in the function of the y+LAT-1 transporter.
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  • Human cationic amino acid transporter gene hCAT-2 is assigned to 8p22 but is not the causative gene in lysinuric protein intolerance.

    Lauteala, T   Horelli-Kuitunen, N   Closs, E   Savontaus, M I   Lukkarinen, M   Simell, O   Cunningham, J   Palotie, A   Aula, P  

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a recessively inherited amino acid disorder characterized by defective efflux of cationic amino acids at the basolateral membrane of the intestinal and renal tubular epithelium. Recently, cDNAs encoding the related proteins hCAT-2A and hCAT-2B have been cloned. These two carrier proteins are most likely to product of the same gene, hCAT-2. Using the hCAT-2B cDNA, we assigned the hCAT-2 gene to chromosome 8p22. Furthermore, by linkage analysis in Finnish LPI families, we ruled out that hCAT-2B is involved in LPI disease.
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  • Interstitial deletion of bands 11q21-->22.3 in a three-year-old girl defined using fluorescence in situ hybridization on metaphase chromosomes.

    Horelli-Kuitunen, N   Gahmberg, N   Eeva, M   Palotie, A   Jarvela, I  

    A 3-year-old girl has a de novo deletion of 11q21-22.3. The patient was studied because of minor anomalies, disproportionate short stature, and developmental delay. The deletion was first detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis and defined further by using chromosome 11-specific YAC clones by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes. Three YAC clones, 11H7, 4A5, and IH4, were lacking from one of the patient's chromosome 11. Trigonocepahly, hypertelorism, apparently low-set ears, mild renal abnormality, and delay in speech development found in our patient are similar findings in other published interstitial deletion cases. Our study shows that a molecular cytogenetic approach is useful in defining the specific location and the extent of an interstitial deletion in cytogenetically difficult areas such as 11q. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • The order and transcriptional orientation of the human COL13A1 and P4HA genes on chromosome 10 long arm determined by high-resolution FISH.

    Horelli-Kuitunen, N   Kvist, A P   Helaakoski, T   Kivirikko, K   Pihlajaniemi, T   Palotie, A  

    The genes for type XIII collagen (COL13A1) and prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4HA) were previously assigned to human chromosome 10q by radioactive in situ hybridization. Here we have applied fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with targets representing different levels of resolution to determine, first, the order of these genes along chromosome 10; second, their transcriptional orientation; and third, the distance between these genes. The order along the chromosome was determined to be centromere-COL13A1-P4HA-telomere using mechanically stretched chromosomes. By combining the data from stretched chromosomes and interphase nuclei, we found that the transcriptional orientation were tail to tail (COL13A1 3'-3' P4HA). The distance between these genes was measured by fiber FISH to be approximately 550 kb.
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  • Chromosomal localization of SLC12A5/Slc72a5, the human and mouse genes for the neuron-specific K+-Cl- cotransporter (KCC2) defines a new region of conserved homology

    Sallinen, R   Tornberg, J   Putkiranta, M   Horelli-Kuitunen, N   Airaksinen, MS   Wessman, M  

    K+-Cl- cotransporters (KCCs) constitute a branch of the cation-chloride cotransporter (CCC) family. To date, four KCC isoforms (KCC1-KCC4) have been identified and they all mediate obligatorily coupled, electroneutral transmembrane movement of K+ and Cl- ions. KCC2 (gene symbol SLC12A5) is expressed exclusively in neurons within the central nervous system and abnormalities in its expression have been proposed to play a role in pathological conditions such as epilepsy and neuronal trauma. Here we have determined chromosome location of both the human and the mouse genes encoding KCC2, which may assist in future efforts to determine the contribution of KCC2 to inherited human disorders. We assigned human SLC12A5 to 20q12 --> q13.1 and its murine homolog, Slc12a5, to 5G2-G3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These mapping data are contradictory to the previously reported human-mouse conserved synteny relationships disrupting an exceptionally well-conserved homology segment between human Chr 20 and mouse Chr 2. We hence suggest the first region of conserved homology between human Chr 20 and mouse Chr 5. Copyright (C) 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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