This paper focuses on the development of a thermal design tool for use in planning outdoor spaces by combining a heat balance simulation for urban surfaces, including buildings, the ground and greenery, with a 3D-CAD system that can be run on a personal computer. The newly developed tool is constructed by improving the previous simulation model, which uses the geographic information system (GIS) for the input data. The simulation algorithm is constructed so as to predict the surface temperature distribution of urban blocks while taking into account the actual design of the outdoor space using the 3D-CAD system. A method of multi-tracing simulation to calculate the sky view factor and radiative heat transfer is established. The optimal mesh size is examined for the tool so as to provide detailed spatial geometry within a suitable calculation time. The simulation model is integrated with an all-purpose 3D-CAD software, and the pre-processing method are constructed for practical use. The results obtained by applying this simulation tool to an area of detached houses reveals that the tool is able to evaluate the effects of building shape, materials, and tree shade on the surface temperature distribution, as well as the MRT and HIP, which are evaluation indices of the outdoor thermal environment. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study aims to clarify the summer microclimate in membrane structure buildings with semi-outdoor spaces and develop a computational simulation tool for designing a comfortable urban environment using membrane structures. Field measurements were conducted in a membrane structure building with a semi-outdoor space during a summer period. The present paper describes analysis results of measurement data for vertical distributions of air temperature and velocity under the membrane structure on clear sunny days. The following subjects were also discussed: (1) the effect of solar transmission on the warming of air temperature by the floor under the membrane structure; (2) the temperature reduction effect of ventilation by wind; (3) evaluation of thermal comfort in the living space under the membrane structure in terms of a thermal comfort index (new standard effective temperature: SET.). In order to demonstrate the capability to improve the thermal environment in the test membrane structure building, an evaporative cooling pavement was assumed to be applied to the ground under the membrane structure. The microclimatic modifying effect of this passive cooling strategy was evaluated using a numerical simulation method of coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a 3D-CAD-based thermal simulation tool developed by the authors' research group. Simulation results show that the proposed simulation method is capable of quantifying spatial distributions of surface temperature, air temperature, air velocity and moisture in the living space under the membrane structure. The thermal comfort index (SET*) can also be estimated using these simulated results. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aimed at controlling the increase in urban surface temperature and creating comfortable urban environments in summer, the authors have developed a passive evaporative cooling wall (PECW) constructed of porous ceramics. These ceramics enable their vertical surfaces to be wet up to a level higher than 100 cm when their lower end is placed in water. Our previous study has demonstrated the cooling performance and applicability of a prototype PECW constructed of pipe-shaped ceramics (ceramic pipes). The present paper presents a PECW unit system which can be easily installed for practical applications. Experiments were conducted using experimental PECW units. Experimental results show that the ceramic pipe developed in this study possessed a higher water-holding and soaking-up ability than the previous one. Wet surfaces of the new ceramic pipe reached a height of over 130 cm at an outdoor location exposed to solar radiation on sunny summer days. Furthermore, the air passing through the PECW unit was cooled, and its temperature can be reduced by around 2 degrees C during summer daytime. These results indicate that the proposed PECW can be broadly applied to various urban locations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As a passive cooling strategy aimed at controlling increased surface temperatures and creating cooler urban environments in summer, the authors developed a passive evaporative cooling wall (PECW) constructed of porous ceramics. These ceramics possess a capillary force to soak water, which means that their vertical surface is wet up to a level higher than 100 cm when their lower end is placed in water. The present paper describes an experiment that clarifies the cooling effects of a prototype PECW constructed of pipe-shaped ceramics. The PECW is capable of absorbing water and allows wind penetration, thus reducing its surface temperature by means of water evaporation. Passive cooling effects such as solar shading, radiation cooling, and ventilation cooling can be enhanced by incorporating PECWs into the design of outdoor or semi-outdoor spaces in parks, pedestrian areas and residential courtyards. The following findings were understood from an experimental data collected over a summer period. Wet vertical surfaces of the ceramic pipe reached a height of over 1 m at an outdoor location exposed to solar radiation. Wet surface conditions can be maintained throughout successive sunny days during summer. A slight difference in the vertical surface temperatures of the ceramic pipe was found. The air passing through the PECW was cooled, and its temperature can be reduced to a minimum value by several degrees during summer daytime. It was also found that the surface temperature of the shaded ceramic pipe can be maintained at a temperature nearly equal to the wet-bulb temperature of outdoor air. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As a passive cooling strategy aimed at controlling increased surface temperatures and creating cooler urban environments, the authors have developed a passive cooling wall (PCW) constructed of moist void bricks that are capable of absorbing water and which allow wind penetration, thus reducing their surface temperatures by means of water evaporation. Passive cooling effects, such as solar shading, radiation cooling and ventilation cooling can be enhanced by incorporating PCWs into the design of outdoor or semi-enclosed spaces in parks, pedestrian areas and residential courtyards. The purpose of the present paper is to detail the development of a 3D CAD-based simulation tool that can be used to predict and evaluate the thermal improvement effect in urban locations where PCW installation is under consideration. Measurement results for the surface reduction effect of a PCW are introduced in the first part of the paper. In the second part, thermal modeling of a PCW is proposed based on analysis results of experimental data. Following that, a comparison study that integrates the proposed thermal modeling was conducted to validate the simulation method. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the developed simulation tool, a case study was then performed to predict and evaluate the thermal improvement effect at an actual urban location where PCWs were installed. Simulations were performed by modeling the construction location in two scenarios; one where the PCWs were composed of dry bricks, and another where the bricks were wet. The results show that, in terms of surface temperature and mean radiant temperature (MRT), this simulation tool can provide quantitative predictions and evaluations of thermal improvements resulting from the installation of PCWs. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As an application of the super-hydrophilicity of a photocatalyst (TiO2) coating, buildings are cooled by sprinkling water on their external surfaces coated with TiO2. This is a new cooling technology that was recently developed in Japan. In order to make better use of this cooling system, quantitative prediction and evaluation of the cooling effect on the urban/built environment is required during design. In an attempt to provide a computer-aided simulation tool for supporting the above-mentioned design, we introduce a thermal simulation tool that was developed previously by the authors' group. The goal of the present study is to develop a numerical model by which to predict the temperature of a TiO2-coated surface with a water film and integrate the calculation algorithm into the simulation tool. The availability of the proposed model was discussed in the present paper. Various urban districts in downtown Tokyo were selected for a discussion of the availability of the simulation tool in which the proposed model is integrated. Simulations were performed to quantify the thermal improvement effect of the cooling system in terms of surface temperature reduction, mean radiative temperature (MRT), heat island potential (HIP), indoor air temperature, and cooling load reduction. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This paper describes the newly developed measurement system to record spherical thermograph by using wide-angle scanner； which has single element MCT detector； with panning-tilting mechanism and control system using PC and custom software. We also indicate the examples of evaluating thermal environments in normal living environment using this system.