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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 31

  • The back pages The Q&A

    Daeid, Niamh Nic  

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  • Expressing evaluative opinions: A position statement

    Aitken, Colin   Berger, Charles E. H.   Buckleton, John S.   Champod, Christophe   Curran, James   Dawid, A. P.   Evett, Ian W.   Gill, Peter   Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin   Jackson, Graham   Kloosterman, Ate   Lovelock, Tina   Lucy, David   Margot, Pierre   McKenna, Louise   Meuwly, Didier   Neumann, Cedric   Daeid, Niamh Nic   Nordgaard, Anders   Puch-Solis, Roberto   Rasmusson, Birgitta   Redmayne, Mike   Roberts, Paul   Robertson, Bernard   Roux, Claude   Sjerps, Marjan J.   Taroni, Franco   Tjin-A-Tsoi, Tjark   Vignaux, G. A.   Willis, Sheila M.   Zadora, Grzegorz  

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  • Onwards and upwards

    Daeid, Niamh Nic  

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  • Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles as an aid to STR in complex forensic DNA samples

    Kuffel, Agnieszka   Gray, Alexander   Daeid, Niamh Nic  

    Human biological samples with multiple contributors remain one of the most challenging aspects of DNA typing within a forensic science context. With the increasing sensitivity of commercially available kits allowing detection of low template DNA, complex mixtures are now a standard component of forensic DNA evidence. Over the years, various methods and techniques have been developed to try to resolve the issue of mixed profiles. However, forensic DNA analysis has relied on the same markers to generate DNA profiles for the past 30 years causing considerable challenges in the deconvolution of complex mixed samples. The future of resolving complicated DNA mixtures may rely on utilising markers that have been previously applied to gene typing of non forensic relevance. With Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS), techniques becoming more popular and accessible even epigenetic markers have become a source of interest for forensic scientists. The aim of this review is to consider the potential of alleles from the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) complex as effective forensic markers. While Massively Parallel Sequencing of HLA is routinely used in clinical laboratories in fields such as transplantation, pharmacology or population studies, there have not been any studies testing its suitability for forensic casework samples.
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  • Stable isotope profiling of burnt wooden safety matches RID F-1895-2011

    Farmer, Nicola   Curran, James   Lucy, David   Daeid, Niamh Nic   Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram  

    Arson is a significant problem around the world, and is a crime which results in a low number of convictions. The scene of an arson can be varied, commercial, residential or national park, and recently cases have been identified which were initiated by a lit match. Matches can be recovered from a scene, usually in a burnt condition. The benefit of analysing unburnt matches has been researched previously [1,2]. In most cases, burnt matches are recovered from scenes, and therefore the research was extended to investigate the potential of using IRMS to analyse burnt matches. This includes samples which have been exposed to petrol,and various fire extinguishing chemicals. Matches were sectioned to reveal central unburnt portions of wood and analysed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The stable isotope profile (SIP) of the wooden matchstick samples was unaffected by the presence of both petrol and a variety of fire extinguisher chemicals. Any changes seen could be attributed to the natural variability of isotopic composition encountered in a natural material such as wood. These findings were confirmed by the isotope analysis of 19 matchstick samples placed in mock fire training scenarios. The data was examined using a paired t-test and Hotellings T(2) test for a single sample. (C) 2009 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Recent Advances in the Application of Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis in Forensic Chemistry

    Daeid, Niamh Nic   Buchanan, Hilary A. S.   Savage, Kathleen A.   Fraser, James G.   Cresswell, Sarah L.  

    This review paper updates the previous literature in relation to the continued and developing use of stable isotope ratio analysis in samples which are relevant to forensic science. Recent advances in the analysis of drug samples, explosive materials, and samples derived from human and animal samples are discussed. The paper also aims to put the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry into a forensic context and discuss its evidential potential.
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  • Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on fabric - Part 2: Peroxidase reagents

    Farrugia, Kevin J.   Savage, Kathleen A.   Bandey, Helen   Ciuksza, Tomasz   Daeid, Niamh Nic  

    This study investigates the optimisation of peroxidase based enhancement techniques for footwear impressions made in blood on various fabric surfaces. Four different haem reagents: leuco crystal violet (LCV), leuco malachite green (LMG), fluorescein and luminol were used to enhance the blood contaminated impressions. The enhancement techniques in this study were used successfully to enhance the impressions in blood on light coloured surfaces, however, only fluorescent and/or chemiluminescent techniques allowed visualisation on dark coloured fabrics, denim and leather. Luminol was the only technique to enhance footwear impressions made in blood on all the fabrics investigated in this study. (C) 2010 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Luminescence detection of latent fingermarks on non -porous surfaces with heavy -metal -free quantum dots

    Shahbazi, Sorour   Boseley, Rhiannon   Grant, Braden   Chen, Dechao   Becker, Thomas   Adegoke, Oluwasesan   Daeid, Niamh Nic   Jia, Guohua   Lewis, Simon W.  

    Current and proposed nanoparticle-based techniques for development of latent fingermarks suffer a number of drawbacks such as complicated, multi-step and time-consuming procedures, batch-to-batch variability, expensive reagents, large background noise and toxicity. Here, we introduce a promising green development technique based on heavy-metal-free quantum dots for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces. Red-near infrared luminescent CuInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots in aqueous solution were produced in large scales using a simple, fast, water-based method with N-acetylcysteine as a biocompatible surfactant to coat the particles. The coated quantum dots were applied to the successful development of latent fingermarks deposited on a variety of surfaces, including highly patterned polymer banknotes and the sticky side of adhesive tape.
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  • An investigation into the correlation of knife damage in clothing and the lengths of skin wounds

    Daeid, Niamh Nic   Cassidy, Marie   McHugh, Shane  

    In determining the possibility that a specific weapon was responsible for a specific injury it is often valuable to examine the damage marks left on any clothing worn by a victim. Correlating this damage both to the skin and clothing with the dimensions of the suspect weapon (if available) may help in determining these possibilities. In this work four different types of knives were used to produce damage marks on various different fabrics both stretched and loose over skin. Statistically significant difference were found between the length of wound on the skin and the corresponding damage to the fabrics when the fabric was stretched over the Skill while no statistically significant differences were observed when the fabric was loose over the skin. This was true for all of the knives examined. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd, All rights reserved.
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  • Application of Unsupervised Chemometric Analysis and Self-organizing Feature Map (SOFM) for the Classification of Lighter Fuels

    Desa, Wan N. S. Mat   Daeid, Niamh Nic   Ismail, Dzulkiflee   Savage, Kathleen  

    A variety of lighter fuel samples from different manufacturers (both unevaporated and evaporated) were analyzed using conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. In total 51 characteristic peaks were selected as variables and subjected to data preprocessing prior to subsequent analysis using unsupervised chemometric analysis (PCA and HCA) and a SOFM artificial neural network. The results obtained revealed that SOFM acted as a powerful means of evaluating and linking degraded ignitable liquid sample data to their parent unevaporated liquids.
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  • Evaluating the performance of three GC columns commonly used for the analysis of ignitable liquid mixtures encountered in fire debris

    Choodum, Aree   Daeid, Niamh Nic  

    The analysis of debris recovered from fire scenes for the presence of ignitable liquids is of increasing importance for fire scene investigation. Increasingly this is carried out using Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS) using a standard dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column. Various publications in the available literature and survey data from forensic science laboratories favour HP-1 or HP-5 columns or their equivalent but no direct comparison of the sensitivity, selectivity or resolution of these columns for test mixtures relevant to ignitable liquid matrices have been published. This present work addresses this by analysing a matrix matched test mixture and an ignitable liquid test mixture using three different commercially available dimethylpolysiloxane columns currently referenced in the literature for ignitable liquid analysis. The ASTM standard method for analysis of ignitable liquids using GCMS was adopted and systematically modified for each column to afford maximum separation of the analytes and the results are presented.
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  • Detection and quantitation of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists in infused papers from prisons in a constantly evolving illicit market

    Norman, Caitlyn   Walker, Gillian   McKirdy, Brian   McDonald, Ciara   Fletcher, Daniel   Antonides, Lysbeth H.   Sutcliffe, Oliver B.   Daeid, Niamh Nic   McKenzie, Craig  

    Drug misuse in prisons contributes to increased disruption and violence and negatively impacts prisoner safety, rehabilitation, and recovery. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs), colloquially known as "spice", are infused into papers and are of particular concern in a prison setting where they are commonly vaped. Methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCRA infused papers, including impurity profiling, were developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with qualitative confirmation by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography with photodiode array and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-PDA-QToF-MS) and applied to 354 individual seized paper samples originating from 168 seizures from three Scottish prisons. Of these samples, 41% (146 samples from 101 seizures) contained at least one SCRA and multiple SCRAs were detected on 23% of these papers. Concentrations ranged from < 0.05-1.17 mg/cm(2) paper, representing the first reported quantitative data for SCRA infused papers. An evolution in the SCRAs detected was demonstrated; 5F-MDMB-PINACA (5F-ADB) predominated until late 2018, after which time 5F-MDMB-PICA and 4F-MDMB-BINACA became increasingly more prevalent, followed by the arrival of MDMB-4en-PINACA in June 2019. Concentration mapping data from two seized paper samples demonstrated that SCRA concentrations across larger papers were highly variable (0.47-2.38 mg/cm(2) paper) making consistent dosing by users, and representative sampling by laboratory analysts, difficult. Near real-time qualitative and quantitative information on SCRAs circulating in prisons acts as an early warning system for SCRAs emerging on the wider illicit market, inform the methods used to detect them and limit supply, and provide information to support harm reduction measures.
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  • Regulating the Internal Market – Edited by Niamh Nic Shuibhne

    Ida Otken Eriksson  

    No abstract is available for this article.
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  • Regulating the Internal Market – Edited by Niamh Nic Shuibhne

    Ida Otken Eriksson  

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  • Emerging use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a tool for discrimination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine by synthetic route RID F-1895-2011

    Buchanan, Hilary A. S.   Daeid, Niamh Nic   Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram   Kemp, Helen F.   Kerr, William J.   Middleditch, Michael  

    Drug profiling, or the ability to link batches of illicit drugs to a common source or synthetic route, has long been a goal of law enforcement agencies. Research in the past decade has explored drug profiling with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). This type of research can be limited by the use of substances seized by police, of which the provenance is unknown. Fortunately, however, some studies in recent years have been carried out on drugs synthesized in-house and therefore of known history. In this study, 18 MDMA samples were synthesized in-house from aliquots of the same precursor by three common reductive amination routes and analyzed for C-13, N-15, and H-2 isotope abundance using IRMS. For these three preparative methods, results indicate that H-2 isotope abundance data is necessary for discrimination by synthetic route. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis using H-2 data on its own or combined with C-13 and/or N-15 provides a statistical means for accurate discrimination by synthetic route.
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  • Aptamer-based cocaine assay using a nanohybrid composed of ZnS/Ag2Se quantum dots,graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles as a fluorescent probe

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan   Pereira-Barros, Magda A.   Zolotovskaya, Svetlana   Abdolvand, Amin   Daeid, Niamh Nic  

    Authors report on a new fluoro-graphene-plasmonic nanohybrid aptamer-based fluorescent nanoprobe for cocaine. To construct the nanoprobe, newly synthesized glutathione-capped ZnS/Ag2Se quantum dots (QDs) were first conjugated to graphene oxide (GO) to form a QD-GO nanocomposite. The binding interaction resulted in a fluorescence turn-ON. Thereafter, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were directly adsorbed on the QD-GO nanocomposite to form a novel QD-GO-CTAB-AuNP nanohybrid assembly that resulted in a fluorescence turn-OFF. Streptavidin (strep) was then adsorbed on the QDs-GO-CTAB-AuNP nanohybrid assembly which allowed binding to a biotinylated MNS 4.1 anticocaine DNA aptamer (B) receptor. The addition of cocaine into the strep-B-QDs-GO-CTAB-AuNP aptamer nanoprobe system aided affinity to the aptamer receptor and in turn turned on the fluorescence of the nanoprobe in a concentration-dependent manner. Under optimum experimental conditions, we found the strep-B-QD-GO-CTAB-AuNP to be far superior in its sensitivity to cocaine than the tested strep-B-QDs (no GO and CTAB-AuNPs), strep-B-QD-CTAB-AuNP (no GO) and strep-B-QD-GO (no CTAB-AuNP). In addition, the investigation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) amplified signal from tested plasmonic NPs shows that CTAB-AuNPs was far superior in amplifying the fluorescence signal of the nanoprobe. A detection limit of 4.6 nM (1.56 ng.mL(-1)), rapid response time (2 min) and excellent selectivity against other drugs, substances and cocaine metabolites was achieved. The strep-B-QD-GO-CTAB-AuNP aptamer-based fluorescent nanoprobe was successfully applied for the determination of cocaine in seized adulterated cocaine samples.
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