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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 70

  • Influence of geometry on shading effect inside photovoltaic greenhouses

    Castellano, S.  

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  • Patterns of coding variation in the complete exomes of three Neandertals

    Castellano, S.   Parra, G.   Sanchez-Quinto, F. A.   Racimo, F.   Kuhlwilm, M.   Kircher, M.   Sawyer, S.   Fu, Q.   Heinze, A.   Nickel, B.   Dabney, J.   Siebauer, M.   White, L.   Burbano, H. A.   Renaud, G.   Stenzel, U.   Lalueza-Fox, C.   de la Rasilla, M.   Rosas, A.   Rudan, P.   Brajkovi?, D.   Kucan, ?eljko   Gu?ic, I.   Shunkov, M. V.   Derevianko, A. P.   Viola, B.   Meyer, M.   Kelso, J.   Andres, A. M.   Paabo, S.  

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  • Crystal scintillators for low background measurements

    Bernabei, R.   Belli, P.   Cappella, F.   Caracciolo, V.   Castellano, S.   Cerulli, R.   Boiko, R. S.   Chernyak, D. M.   Danevich, F. A.   Dai, C. J.   d'Angelo, A.   d'Angelo, S.   Di Marco, A.   He, H. L.   Incicchitti, A.   Ma, X. H.   Mokina, V. M.   Montecchia, F.   Poda, D. V.   Polischuk, O. G.   Sheng, X. D.   Wang, R. G.   Ye, Z. P.   Tretyak, V. I.  

    The studies performed in the research of new materials and purification techniques allow us a wide choice among inorganic scintillators for a variety of use. In this paper crystal scintillators and their application and potentialities in low background measurements are discussed, with a particular attention to direct dark matter investigation.
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  • Final model independent result of DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Bernabei, R.   Belli, P.   Cappella, F.   Caracciolo, V.   Castellano, S.   Cerulli, R.   Dai, C. J.   d'Angelo, A.   d'Angelo, S.   Di Marco, A.   He, H. L.   Incicchitti, A.   Kuang, H. H.   Ma, X. H.   Montecchia, F.   Prosperi, D.   Sheng, X. D.   Wang, R. G.   Ye, Z. P.  

    The results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton x yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles (i.e. adding a further 0.17 ton x yr exposure) are presented. The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 data give evidence for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target, at 7.5 sigma C. L. Including also the first generation DAMA/NaI experiment (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton x yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles), the C. L. is 9.3 sigma and the modulation amplitude of the single-hit events in the (2-6) keV energy interval is: (0.0112 +/- 0.0012) cpd/kg/keV; the measured phase is (144 +/- 7) days and the measured period is (0.998 +/- 0.002) yr, values well in agreement with those expected for DM particles. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade.
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  • Final model independent results of DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 and perspectives of phase2

    Bernabei, R.   Belli, P.   Cappella, F.   Caracciolo, V.   Castellano, S.   Cerulli, R.   Dai, C. J.   d'Angelo, A.   d'Angelo, S.   Marco, A. Di   He, H. L.   Incicchitti, A.   Kuang, H. H.   Ma, X. H.   Montecchia, F.   Prosperi, D.   Sheng, X. D.   Wang, R. G.   Ye, Z. P.  

    This paper shortly summarizes the results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton x yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles. The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 and the former DAMA/NaI data (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton x yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles) give evidence at 9.3 sigma C.L. for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target. The modulation amplitude of the single-hit events in the (2-6) keV energy interval is: (0.0112 +/- 0.0012) cpd/kg/keV; the measured phase is (144 +/- 7) days and the measured period is (0.998 +/- 0.002) yr, values well in agreement with those expected for DM particles. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. Some of the perspectives of the presently running DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 are outlined.
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  • The S-Finger:A Synergetic Externally Powered Digit With Tactile Sensing and Feedback

    Imbinto, I.   Montagnani, F.   Bacchereti, M.   Cipriani, C.   Davalli, A.   Sacchetti, R.   Gruppioni, E.   Castellano, S.   Controzzi, M.  

    Partial hand amputation is by far the most common type of amputation worldwide. Nevertheless, regardless of their potential clinical and socioeconomic impact, battery-powered partial hand prostheses, namely, powered digits, have modestly progressed so far, and very few clinical solutions are available today. Here, we present a mechanical architecture, an alternative to state-of-the-art solutions, which exploits a high efficiency, non-back drivable mechanical transmission based on a face-gear pair and a miniaturized clutch. We took inspiration from the synergetic prehension approach proposed by Childress for whole hand amputation. The finger was equipped with a myoelectric controller and a tactile sensor able to provide users with discrete event sensory feedback. Measured speed (90 degrees/s) and force (6.5 N) of the newly dubbed S-Finger proved comparable with those of clinically available prostheses. The design demonstrated to be compact and rugged enough to undergo a clinical viability test with two partial hand amputees, fitted with custom three-fingered research prostheses using the S-Finger. The subjects successfully completed several dexterity tests and gave relevant feedback for the development of a second-generation device. These results contribute to the increasing research endeavors in the field of partial hand amputation.
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  • New search for correlated e(+)e(-) pairs in the alpha decay of Am-241

    Bernabei, R.   Belli, P.   Cappella, F.   Caracciolo, V.   Castellano, S.   Cerulli, R.   Dai, C. J.   d'Angelo, A.   Di Marco, A.   He, H. L.   Incicchitti, A.   Laubenstein, M.   Ma, X. H.   Montecchia, F.   Sheng, X. D.   Tretyak, V. I.   Wang, R. G.   Ye, Z. P.  

    A new search for production of correlated e(+)e(-) pairs in the alpha decay of Am-241 has been carried out deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the INFN by using pairs of NaI(Tl) detectors of the DAMA/LIBRA set-up. The experimental data show an excess of double coincidences of events with energy around 511 keV in faced pairs of detectors, which are not explained by known side reactions. This measured excess gives a relative activity lambda = (4.70 +/- 0.63) x 10(-9) for the Internal Pair Production (IPP) with respect to the alpha decay of Am-241; this value is of the same order of magnitude as previous determinations. In a conservative approach the upper limit lambda < 5.5 x 10(-9) (90% C.L.) can be derived. It is worth noting that this is the first result on IPP obtained in an underground experiment, and that the lambda value obtained in the present work is independent of the live-time estimate.
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  • Marathon callers: acoustic variation during sustained calling in treefrogs

    Castellano, S.   Gamba, M.  

    We investigated the effects of within-night sustained calling on call acoustic properties in a typical lek-breeding anuran (Hyla intermedia), in which males engage in intense acoustic competitions to attract females. We continuously recorded the calling of randomly selected males over a large portion of the nightly chorus activity and investigated the pattern of temporal variation in both fine-scale (pulse rate, call duration and rise-time) and gross-scale (call rate, call-group duration) properties. Despite the strong within-individual correlations that we observed between both fine-and gross-scale properties, only the fine-scale properties showed a consistent pattern of temporal variation: during sustained calling, call duration and rise-time tended to increase and pulse rate to decrease, whereas call rate and call-group duration were as likely to decrease as to increase. We hypothesised that vocal fatigue from sustained calling was responsible for the observed pattern of within-night temporal variation. As with some marathon champions who change the technique but not the speed of their running to remain competitive in a race, male treefrogs, to be sexually competitive, might mitigate vocal fatigue by modifying the call fine-scale structure but not the quantity of their calling.
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  • Sexual size dimorphism in the Tyrrhenian tree frog: a life-history perspective

    Cadeddu, G.   Giacoma, C.   Castellano, S.  

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often explained as the differential equilibrium between stabilizing survival selection and directional sexual/fecundity selection on the body size of males and females. Provided that survival selection is similar in both sexes, female-biased SSD is thought to occur when fecundity selection on female body size is stronger than sexual selection on male body size. However, in animals with indeterminate growth, body size depends on several life-history traits, thus, to understand why SSD has evolved, one should understand how it arises. We investigate SSD in the Tyrrhenian tree frog, Hyla sarda, by describing sexual dimorphism in age and growth and by assessing how body size affects their reproductive success. Females are 16% larger than males because they mature 1 year later, live 1 year longer and reach a larger asymptotic body size. Furthermore, body size correlates positively with female fecundity, but not with male mating success. These results suggest that SSD arises from differential optimal trade-offs between the expected number of reproductive episodes (which decreases with prolonging growth) and the expected success in each reproductive episode (which increases with prolonging growth).
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  • CdWO4 crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for double beta decay experiments

    Poda, D. V.   Barabash, A. S.   Belli, P.   Bernabei, R.   Boiko, R. S.   Brudanin, V. B.   Cappella, F.   Caracciolo, V.   Castellano, S.   Cerulli, R.   Chernyak, D. M.   Danevich, F. A.   d'Angelo, S.   Degoda, V. Ya.   Di Vacri, M. L.   Dossovitskiy, A. E.   Galashov, E. N.   Incicchitti, A.   Kobychev, V. V.   Konovalov, S. I.   Kovtun, G. P.   Laubenstein, M.   Mikhlin, A. L.   Mokina, V. M.   Nikolaiko, A. S.   Nisi, S.   Podviyanuk, R. B.   Polischuk, O. G.   Shcherban, A. P.   Shlegel, V. N.   Solopikhin, D. A.   Tretyak, V. I.   Umatov, V. I.   Vasiliev, Ya. V.   Virich, V. D.  

    Cadmium tungstate crystal scintillators enriched in Cd-106 and Cd-116 were developed. The produced scintillators exhibit good optical and scintillation properties, and a low level of radioactive contamination. Experiments to search for double beta decay of Cd-106 and Cd-116 are in progress at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). Prospects to further improve the radiopurity of the detectors by recrystallization are discussed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • THE INFLUENCE OF COLOUR ON RADIOMETRIC PERFORMANCES OF AGRICULTURAL NETS

    Castellano, S.   Hemming, S.   Russo, G.  

    The whole construction parameters of the net, combined with the shape of the structure, the position of the sun and the sky conditions affect the radiometric performance of the permeable covering system. The radiometric properties of the permeable membrane influence the quality of the agricultural production and the aesthetic characteristics of the netting system. Moreover, the colour of the material and the light reflection-especially of the wavelengths visible for the human eye (VIS, 380-760nm)- is an interesting criterion to determine the aesthetic value of the net structure and its environmental impact. In order to investigate the influence of the threads colour on the radiometric properties of the net, a set of field tests were performed by means of a spectroradiometer in combination with an experimental setup 120x120x50cm covered with membranes formed by threads with different colour. A second set of experiments were performed, on the same kind of nets, in laboratory by means of a combination of a large integrating sphere and a small one: the transmissivity from a direct (tau(DIR)) and diffuse (tau(DIF)) source and the reflectivity from diffuse source (rho) of 50x50cm samples were measured in the PAR range. The evaluation of the transmissivity values shows that the colour of a net influence spectral distribution of the radiation passing through the net absorbing their complementary colours. The transmissivity of black nets is almost constant in the visible range and the reduction of the incoming radiation is proportional to the solidity of the net. In the PAR range transparent and black nets doesn't cause an alteration of the spectrum of solar radiation and transmittance is almost constant with a slight growth in nets having lower porosity.
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  • Low Exchangeability of Selenocysteine, the 21st Amino Acid, in Vertebrate Proteins

    Castellano, S.   Andres, A. M.   Bosch, E.   Bayes, M.   Guigo, R.   Clark, A. G.  

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  • Polyrnorphic Alu insertions in five north-west Italian populations

    Santovito, A.   Selvaggi, A.   Cervella, P.   Castellano, S.   Bigatt, M. P.   Sella, G.   Delpero, M.  

    We analyzed the frequencies of eight human polymorphic Alu insertion loci in population samples from five towns in North-West Italy: Postua, Cavaglia, Biella, Torino, and Genova. All loci under scrutiny were found to be polymorphic in all samples, with the two exceptions of locus A25 in Postua, which was fixed for the absence of the Alu element, and APO in Genova, where the Alu insertion was fixed. Heterozigosity values were highly variable in all loci. F-ST values for all loci indicate that most of the variability is found within populations, while between population variability is lower. In the multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis plot, the studied populations are separated from the main group represented by European populations. The Postua sample is set apart also from neighboring towns as Cavagli. and Biella, confirming previous observations of the demographic isolation of this population.
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  • SelenoDB 1.0 : a database of selenoprotein genes, proteins and SECIS elements

    Castellano, S.   Gladyshev, V. N.   Guigo, R.   Berry, M. J.  

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  • THE INFLUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION PARAMETERS ON RADIOMETRIC PERFORMANCES OF AGRICULTURAL NETS

    Castellano, S.   Russo, G.   Mugnozza, G.S.  

    Plastic netting is most commonly used in agriculture to protect greenhouses, fruit-trees and ornamental plants from solar radiation, insects, birds, hail, wind, snow or heavy rainfall. There are many net typologies on the market with different construction parameters. It appears that there are no shared criteria for choosing the net typology which best fulfils a specific requirement, but that the choice generally depends on empirical or economic criteria, not on scientifically relevant considerations. In order to investigate the influence of net construction parameters on their radiometric properties, a set of field tests were performed using a spectroradiometer (GER2600) with a wavelength range of 250-2500 nm. Transmittance was calculated in field tests in the following wavelengths: UV (300-380 nm); Visible (380-760 nm); PAR (Photosynthetically active radiation 400-700 nm); NIR (760-1500 nm). Tests were carried out on 25 different kinds of commercial nets. An experimental setup of 120 x 120 x 50 cm was used to evaluate the radiometric properties of the nets tested. In addition, trials were performed on a full scale shade-house (9.60 x 4.40 x 30.00 in) covered with 4 different kinds of shading nets. Experimental test results made it possible to define the influence of net colour, porosity, shading factor and solar angle on the evaluation of transmittance in the UV, PAR and visible light wavelengths.
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  • Are there differential neuropsychological profiles in mild cognitive impairment patients with depressive symptoms?

    Signorelli, M.   Aguglia, E.   Caraci, F.   Castellano, S.   Di Nuovo, S.   Ullo, A.  

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