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Now showing items 1 - 7 of 7

  • Deleterious Mutation Burden and Its Association with Complex Traits in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Valluru, Ravi   Gazave, Elodie E.   Fernandes, Samuel B.   Ferguson, John N.   Lozano, Roberto   Hirannaiah, Pradeep   Zuo, Tao   Brown, Patrick J.   Leakey, Andrew D. B.   Gore, Michael A.   Buckler, Edward S.   Bandillo, Nonoy  

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a major staple food cereal for millions of people worldwide. Valluru et al. identify putative deleterious mutations among similar to 5.5M segregating variants of 229 diverse sorghum... Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is a major food cereal for millions of people worldwide. The sorghum genome, like other species, accumulates deleterious mutations, likely impacting its fitness. The lack of recombination, drift, and the coupling with favorable loci impede the removal of deleterious mutations from the genome by selection. To study how deleterious variants impact phenotypes, we identified putative deleterious mutations among similar to 5.5 M segregating variants of 229 diverse biomass sorghum lines. We provide the whole-genome estimate of the deleterious burden in sorghum, showing that similar to 33% of nonsynonymous substitutions are putatively deleterious. The pattern of mutation burden varies appreciably among racial groups. Across racial groups, the mutation burden correlated negatively with biomass, plant height, specific leaf area (SLA), and tissue starch content (TSC), suggesting that deleterious burden decreases trait fitness. Putatively deleterious variants explain roughly one-half of the genetic variance. However, there is only moderate improvement in total heritable variance explained for biomass (7.6%) and plant height (average of 3.1% across all stages). There is no advantage in total heritable variance for SLA and TSC. The contribution of putatively deleterious variants to phenotypic diversity therefore appears to be dependent on the genetic architecture of traits. Overall, these results suggest that incorporating putatively deleterious variants into genomic models slightly improves prediction accuracy because of extensive linkage. Knowledge of deleterious variants could be leveraged for sorghum breeding through either genome editing and/or conventional breeding that focuses on the selection of progeny with fewer deleterious alleles.
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  • A Population Structure and Genome-Wide Association Analysis on the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection

    Bandillo, Nonoy   Jarquin, Diego   Song, Qijian   Nelson, Randall   Cregan, Perry   Specht, Jim   Lorenz, Aaron  

    Population structure analyses and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted on crop germplasm collections provide valuable information on the frequency and distribution of alleles governing economically important traits. The value of these analyses is substantially enhanced when the accession numbers can be increased from similar to 1,000 to similar to 10,000 or more. In this research, we conducted the first comprehensive analysis of population structure on the collection of 14,000 soybean accessions [Glycine max (L.) Merr. and G. soja Siebold & Zucc.] using a 50K-SNP chip. Accessions originating from Japan were relatively homogenous and distinct from the Korean accessions. As a whole, both Japanese and Korean accessions diverged from the Chinese accessions. The ancestry of founders of the American accessions derived mostly from two Chinese subpopulations, which reflects the composition of the American accessions as a whole. A 12,000 accession GWAS conducted on seed protein and oil is the largest reported to date in plants and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with strong signals on chromosomes 20 and 15. A chromosome 20 region previously reported to be important for protein and oil content was further narrowed and now contains only three plausible candidate genes. The haplotype effects show a strong negative relationship between oil and protein at this locus, indicating negative pleiotropic effects or multiple closely linked loci in repulsion phase linkage. The vast majority of accessions carry the haplotype allele conferring lower protein and higher oil. Our results provide a fuller understanding of the distribution of genetic variation contained within the USDA soybean collection and how it relates to phenotypic variation for economically important traits.
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  • Metabolome-scale genome-wide association studies reveal chemical diversity and genetic control of maize specialized metabolites

    Zhou, Shaoqun   Kremling, Karl   Bandillo, Nonoy   Richter, Annett   Zhang, Ying K   Ahern, Kevin R   Artyukhin, Alexander B.   Hui, Joshua X   Younkin, Gordon C   Schroeder, Frank C   Buckler, Edward S.   Jander, Georg  

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  • Metabolome-Scale Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal Chemical Diversity and Genetic Control of Maize Specialized Metabolites.

    Zhou, Shaoqun   Kremling, Karl A   Bandillo, Nonoy   Richter, Annett   Zhang, Ying K   Ahern, Kevin R   Artyukhin, Alexander B   Hui, Joshua X   Younkin, Gordon C   Schroeder, Frank C   Buckler, Edward S   Jander, Georg  

    Cultivated maize (Zea mays) has retained much of the genetic diversity of its wild ancestors. Here, we performed nontargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics to analyze the metabolomes of the 282 maize inbred lines in the Goodman Diversity Panel. This analysis identified a bimodal distribution of foliar metabolites. Although 15% of the detected mass features were present in >90% of the inbred lines, the majority were found in <50% of the samples. Whereas leaf bases and tips were differentiated by flavonoid abundance, maize varieties (stiff-stalk, nonstiff-stalk, tropical, sweet maize, and popcorn) showed differential accumulation of benzoxazinoid metabolites. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), performed for 3,991 mass features from the leaf tips and leaf bases, showed that 90% have multiple significantly associated loci scattered across the genome. Several quantitative trait locus hotspots in the maize genome regulate the abundance of multiple, often structurally related mass features. The utility of maize metabolite GWAS was demonstrated by confirming known benzoxazinoid biosynthesis genes, as well as by mapping isomeric variation in the accumulation of phenylpropanoid hydroxycitric acid esters to a single linkage block in a citrate synthase-like gene. Similar to gene expression databases, this metabolomic GWAS data set constitutes an important public resource for linking maize metabolites with biosynthetic and regulatory genes. =C2=A9 2019 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.
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  • Deleterious Mutation Burden and its Association with Complex Traits in Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor )

    Valluru, Ravi   Gazave, Elodie E.   Fernandes, Samuel B.   Ferguson, John N.   Lozano, Roberto   Hirannaiah, Pradeep   Zuo, Tao   Brown, Patrick J.   Leakey, Andrew D. B.   Gore, Michael A.   Buckler, Edward S.   Bandillo, Nonoy  

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  • Multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations in rice: progress and potential for genetics research and breeding

    Bandillo, Nonoy   Raghavan, Chitra   Muyco, Pauline Andrea   Sevilla, Ma Anna Lynn   Lobina, Irish T.   Dilla-Ermita, Christine Jade   Tung, Chih-Wei   McCouch, Susan   Thomson, Michael   Mauleon, Ramil   Singh, Rakesh Kumar   Gregorio, Glenn   Redona, Edilberto   Leung, Hei  

    Background: This article describes the development of Multi-parent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross populations (MAGIC) in rice and discusses potential applications for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and for rice varietal development. We have developed 4 multi-parent populations: indica MAGIC (8 indica parents); MAGIC plus (8 indica parents with two additional rounds of 8-way F1 inter-crossing); japonica MAGIC (8 japonica parents); and Global MAGIC (16 parents - 8 indica and 8 japonica). The parents used in creating these populations are improved varieties with desirable traits for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, yield, and grain quality. The purpose is to fine map QTLs for multiple traits and to directly and indirectly use the highly recombined lines in breeding programs. These MAGIC populations provide a useful germplasm resource with diverse allelic combinations to be exploited by the rice community. Results: The indica MAGIC population is the most advanced of the MAGIC populations developed thus far and comprises 1328 lines produced by single seed descent (SSD). At the S4 stage of SSD a subset (200 lines) of this population was genotyped using a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach and was phenotyped for multiple traits, including: blast and bacterial blight resistance, salinity and submergence tolerance, and grain quality. Genome-wide association mapping identified several known major genes and QTLs including Sub1 associated with submergence tolerance and Xa4 and xa5 associated with resistance to bacterial blight. Moreover, the genome-wide association study (GWAS) results also identified potentially novel loci associated with essential traits for rice improvement. Conclusion: The MAGIC populations serve a dual purpose: permanent mapping populations for precise QTL mapping and for direct and indirect use in variety development. Unlike a set of naturally diverse germplasm, this population is tailor-made for breeders with a combination of useful traits derived from multiple elite breeding lines. The MAGIC populations also present opportunities for studying the interactions of genome introgressions and chromosomal recombination.
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  • Allelic variants of OsHKT1;1 underlie the divergence between indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) for root sodium content

    Campbell, Malachy T.   Bandillo, Nonoy   Al Shiblawi, Fouad Razzaq A.   Sharma, Sandeep   Liu, Kan   Du, Qian   Schmitz, Aaron J.   Zhang, Chi   Very, Anne-Alienor   Lorenz, Aaron J.   Walia, Harkamal  

    Salinity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. Rice (Oryza sativa), a staple crop for the majority of the world, is highly sensitive to salinity stress. To discover novel sources of genetic variation for salt tolerance-related traits in rice, we screened 390 diverse accessions under 14 days of moderate (9 dS.m(-1)) salinity. In this study, shoot growth responses to moderate levels of salinity were independent of tissue Na+ content. A significant difference in root Na+ content was observed between the major subpopulations of rice, with indica accessions displaying higher root Na+ and japonica accessions exhibiting lower root Na+ content. The genetic basis of the observed variation in phenotypes was elucidated through genomewide association (GWA). The strongest associations were identified for root Na+: K+ ratio and root Na+ content in a region spanning similar to 575 Kb on chromosome 4, named Root Na+ Content 4 (RNC4). Two Na+ transporters, HKT1; 1 and HKT1; 4 were identified as candidates for RNC4. Reduced expression of both HKT1; 1 and HKT1; 4 through RNA interference indicated that HKT1; 1 regulates shoot and root Na+ content, and is likely the causal gene underlying RNC4. Three non-synonymous mutations within HKT1; 1 were present at higher frequency in the indica subpopulation. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the indica-predominant isoform exhibited higher inward (negative) currents and a less negative voltage threshold of inward rectifying current activation compared to the japonica-predominant isoform. The introduction of a 4.5kb fragment containing the HKT1; 1 promoter and CDS from an indica variety into a japonica background, resulted in a phenotype similar to the indica subpopulation, with higher root Na+ and Na+: K+. This study provides evidence that HKT1; 1 regulates root Na+ content, and underlies the divergence in root Na+ content between the two major subspecies in rice.
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