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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 79

  • MicroRNA Regulation of Epigenetic Modifiers in Breast Cancer

    Humphries, Brock   Wang, Zhishan   Yang, Chengfeng  

    Epigenetics refers to the heritable changes in gene expression without a change in the DNA sequence itself. Two of these major changes include aberrant DNA methylation as well as changes to histone modification patterns. Alterations to the epigenome can drive expression of oncogenes and suppression of tumor suppressors, resulting in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. In addition to modifications of the epigenome, microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is also a hallmark for cancer initiation and metastasis. Advances in our understanding of cancer biology demonstrate that alterations in the epigenome are not only a major cause of miRNA dysregulation in cancer, but that miRNAs themselves also indirectly drive these DNA and histone modifications. More explicitly, recent work has shown that miRNAs can regulate chromatin structure and gene expression by directly targeting key enzymes involved in these processes. This review aims to summarize these research findings specifically in the context of breast cancer. This review also discusses miRNAs as epigenetic biomarkers and as therapeutics, and presents a comprehensive summary of currently validated epigenetic targets in breast cancer.
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  • GmNAC8 acts as a positive regulator in soybean drought stress

    Yang, Chengfeng   Huang, Yanzhong   Lv, Wenhuan   Zhang, Yingying   Bhat, Javaid Akhter   Kong, Jiejie   Xing, Han   Zhao, Jinming   Zhao, Tuanjie  

    NAC proteins represent one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families involved in the regulation of plant development and the response to abiotic stress. In the present study, we elucidated the detailed role of GmNAC8 in the regulation of drought stress tolerance in soybean. The GmNAC8 protein was localized in the nucleus, and expression of the GmNAC8 gene was significantly induced in response to drought, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. Thus, we generated GmNAC8 overexpression (OE1 and OE2) and GmNAC8 knockout (KO1 and KO2) lines to determine the role of GmNAC8 in drought stress tolerance. Our results revealed that, compared with the wild type (WT) plant, GmNAC8 overexpression and GmNAC8 knockout lines exhibited significantly higher and lower drought tolerance, respectively. Furthermore, the SOD activity and proline content were significantly higher in the GmNAC8 overexpression lines and significantly lower in the GmNAC8 knockout lines than in the WT plants under drought stress. In addition, GmNAC8 protein was found to physically interact with the drought-induced protein GmDi19-3 in the nucleus. Moreover, the GmDi19-3 expression pattern showed the same trend as the GmNAC8 gene did under drought and hormone (ABA, ETH and SA) treatments, and GmDi19-3 overexpression lines (GmDi19-3-OE9, GmDi19-3-OE10 and GmDi19-3-OE31) showed enhanced drought tolerance compared to that of the WT plants. Hence, the above results indicated that GmNAC8 acts as a positive regulator of drought tolerance in soybean and inferred that GmNAC8 probably functions by interacting with another positive regulatory protein, GmDi19-3.
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  • GmHsp90A2 is involved in soybean heat stress as a positive regulator

    Huang, Yanzhong   Xuan, Huidong   Yang, Chengfeng   Guo, Na   Wang, Haitang   Zhao, Jinming   Xing, Han  

    Heat shock protein 90 s (Hsp90s), one of the most conserved and abundant molecular chaperones, is an essential component of the protective stress response. A previous study reported at least 12 genes in the GrnHsp9Os family in soybean and that GmHsp90A2 overexpression enhanced thermotolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we investigate the roles of GmHsp90A2 in soybean by utilizing stable transgenic soybean lines overexpressing GmHsp90A2 and mutant lines generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The results showed that compared with wild-type plants (WT) and empty vector control plants (VC), T-3 transgenic soybean plants overexpressing GmHsp90A2 exhibited increased tolerance to heat stress through higher chlorophyll and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in plants. Conversely, reduced chlorophyll and increased MDA contents in T-2 homozygous GmHsp90A2-knockout mutants indicated decreased tolerance to heat stress. GmHsp90A2 was found to interact with GmHsp90A1 in yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, subcellular localization analyses revealed that GmHsp90A2 was localized to the cytoplasm and cell membrane; as shown by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, GmHsp90A2 interacted with GmHsp90A1 in the nucleus and cytoplasm and cell membrane. Hence, we conclude that GmHsp90A1 is able to bind to GmHsp90A2 to form a complex and that this complex enters the nucleus. In summary, GmHsp90A2 might respond to heat stress and positively regulate thermotolerance by interacting with GmHsp90A1.
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  • GmHsp90A2 is involved in soybean heat stress as a positive regulator

    Huang, Yanzhong   Xuan, Huidong   Yang, Chengfeng   Guo, Na   Wang, Haitang   Zhao, Jinming   Xing, Han  

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  • HdeB chaperone activity is coupled to its intrinsic dynamic properties.

    Ding, Jienv   Yang, Chengfeng   Niu, Xiaogang   Hu, Yunfei   Jin, Changwen  

    Enteric bacteria encounter extreme acidity when passing through hosts' stomach. Since the bacterial periplasmic space quickly equilibrates with outer environment, an efficient acid resistance mechanism is essential in preventing irreversible protein denaturation/aggregation and maintaining bacteria viability. HdeB, along with its homolog HdeA, was identified as a periplasmic acid-resistant chaperone. Both proteins exist as homodimers and share similar monomeric structures under neutral pH, while showing different dimeric packing interfaces. Previous investigations show that HdeA functions through an acid-induced dimer-to-monomer transition and partial unfolding at low pH (pH 2-3), resulting in exposure of hydrophobic surfaces that bind substrate proteins. In contrast, HdeB appears to have a much higher optimal activation pH (pH 4-5), under which condition the protein maintains a well-folded dimer and the mechanism for its chaperone activity remains elusive. Herein, we present an NMR study of HdeB to investigate its dynamic properties. Our results reveal that HdeB undergoes significant micro- to milli-second timescale conformational exchanges at neutral to near-neutral pH, under the later condition it exhibits optimal activity. The current study indicates that HdeB activation is coupled to its intrinsic dynamics instead of structural changes, and therefore its functional mechanism is apparently different from HdeA. =20
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  • MicroRNAs: novel players in cancer diagnosis and therapies.

    Oom, Aaron L   Humphries, Brock A   Yang, Chengfeng  

    First discovered in 1993, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been one of the hottest research areas over the past two decades. Oftentimes, miRNAs levels are found to be dysregulated in cancer patients. The potential use of miRNAs in cancer therapies is an emerging and promising field, with research finding miRNAs to play a role in cancer initiation, tumor growth, and metastasis. Therefore, miRNAs could become an integral part from cancer diagnosis to treatment in future. This review aims to examine current novel research work on the potential roles of miRNAs in cancer therapies, while also discussing several current challenges and needed future research. =20
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  • A Clock Synchronization Method for Molecular Nanomachines in Bionanosensor Networks

    Lin, Lin   Yang, Chengfeng   Ma, Maode   Ma, Shiwei   Yan, Hao  

    The recent advancements in nanotechnology, electronic technology, and biology enable bio-inspired nanosensors. Bionanosensor networks, which are composed of nanoscale devices, are envisioned to apply to a great number of potential applications. Clock synchronization is essential to establish a distributed cooperation among the bionanosensors. This paper investigates the clock synchronization issue among the bionanosensors in the presence of Gaussian propagation delay for their molecular communication mechanism. A two-way message exchange mechanism is proposed. The closed-form expressions of maximum-likelihood estimators for the clock offset and the clock skew are derived. The convergence and the Cramer-Rao lower bound of the estimators are analytically analyzed. Simulation results further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed estimators. This paper lays a foundation for the complex cooperation of nanomachines in the bionanosensor networks.
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  • Determinative Surface-Wrinkling Microstructures on Polypyrrole Films by Laser Writing

    Cong, Jianwen   Wang, Juanjuan   Xie, Jixun   Yang, Chengfeng   Zhao, Jingxin   Li, Lele   Cao, Yanping   Fery, Andreas   Feng, Xi-Qiao   Lu, Conghua  

    We report a simple and efficient laser-writing strategy to fabricate hierarchical nested wrinkling microstructures on conductive polypyrrole (PPy) films, which enables us to develop advanced functional surfaces with diverse applications. The present strategy adopts the photothermal effect of PPy films to mimick the formation of hierarchical nested wrinkles observed in nature and design controlled microscale wrinkling patterns. Here, the PPy film is grown on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrate via oxidation polymerization of pyrrole in an acidic solution, accompanied by in situ self-wrinkling with wavelengths of two different scales (i.e., lambda(1) and lambda(2)). Subsequent laser exposure of the PPy/PDMS bilayer induces a new surface wrinkling with a larger wavelength (i.e., lambda(3)). Owing to the retention of the initial lambda(1), wrinkles, we obtain hierarchical nested wrinkles with the smaller lambda(1), wrinkles nested in the larger lambda(3) ones. Importantly, we realize the large-scale path-determinative fabrication of complex oriented wrinkling microstructures by controlling the relative motion between the bilayer and the laser. Combined with the induced changes in surface color, surface-wrinkling microstructures, and conductivity in the PPy films, the laser-writing strategy can find broad applications, for example, in modulation of surface wetting properties and fabrication of microcircuits, as demonstrated in this work.
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  • Duplex printing of all-in-one integrated electronic devices for temperature monitoring

    Zhao, Jingxin   Zhang, Yan   Huang, Yinan   Zhao, Xiaoxin   Shi, Yunhui   Qu, Jingyi   Yang, Chengfeng   Xie, Jixun   Wang, Juanjuan   Li, Lele   Yan, Qinghai   Hou, Shihui   Lu, Conghua   Xu, Xinhua   Yao, Yagang  

    The fast development of wearable and portable smart electronics has immensely encouraged the demand for miniaturized integrated electronic devices. In this study, we utilized a duplex printing strategy to construct an all-in-one integrated electronic device by integrating asymmetric micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) with a tandem line-type temperature sensor (TLTS) based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). In the integrated configuration, the 3D printing asymmetric MSCs based on MXenes/single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) positive electrode and rGO/SWCNTs negative electrode delivered a large areal specific capacitance of 30.76 mF cm(-2), high energy density of 8.37 mu Whcm(-2), and long lifetime (no significant capacitance decay of over 10 000 cycles). Moreover, the assembled device can offer the stable out power to TLTSs. Particularly, the temperature sensitivity of the duplex printed integrated electronic device can reach 1.2% per degree celsius. Collectively, the efficient 3D printing strategy can be used to build diverse all-in-one integrated electronic devices with state-of-the-art performance for next-generation wearable and portable electronics.
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  • Duplex printing of all-in-one integrated electronic devices for temperature monitoring

    Zhao, Jingxin   Zhang, Yan   Huang, Yinan   Zhao, Xiaoxin   Shi, Yunhui   Qu, Jingyi   Yang, Chengfeng   Xie, Jixun   Wang, Juanjuan   Li, Lele   Yan, Qinghai   Hou, Shihui   Lu, Conghua   Xu, Xinhua   Yao, Yagang  

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  • AUTOMATIC STERILIZING SYSTEM AND AUTOMATIC STERILIZING SYSTEM FOR CONTAINER TRUCK

    An automatic sterilizing system for a container truck has a sterilizing passage, a detector, a sprayer pole for sterilizing, a high pressure pump, a sterilizing liquid container, an automatic dosing device, an automatic water supply device and computing controller. The detector is set outside of the sterilizing passage, and the sprayer pole for sterilizing is set on the two sides of and on top of the sterilizing passage. The sprayer pole for sterilizing has a flow passage for disinfectant and a nozzle. The detecting signal output terminal of the detector is connected with the input terminal of the computing controller. The controlling signal output terminal of the computing controller is connected with the automatic dosing device and the automatic water supply device separately. The system is capable of thorough sterilization and has good safety.
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  • A Novel Dual-Stator Hybrid Excited Synchronous Wind Generator

    Liu, Xiping   Lin, Heyun   Zhu, Z. Q.   Yang, Chengfeng   Fang, Shuhua   Guo, Jian  

    This paper presents a novel dual-stator hybrid excited synchronous wind generator and describes its structural features and operation principle. The no-load magnetic fields with different field currents are computed by 3-D finite-element method. Static characteristics, including the flux-linkage and EMF waveforms of stator windings, and inductance waveforms of armature windings and field winding, are analyzed. The simulation results show that due to the dual-stator structure, the air-gap magnetic flux can be easily controlled, while the output voltage can be increased effectively. Tests are performed on the prototype machine to validate the predicted results, and an excellent agreement is obtained.
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  • miR-497 and miR-34a retard lung cancer growth by co-inhibiting cyclin E1 (CCNE1).

    Han, Zhiyuan   Zhang, Yanbin   Yang, Qiaoyuan   Liu, Binbin   Wu, Jianjun   Zhang, Yajie   Yang, Chengfeng   Jiang, Yiguo  

    Cyclin E1, encoded by the CCNE1 gene, promotes G1/S transition, chromosome instability, and oncogenesis. Here, we show that miR-497 and miR-34a target the 3'-UTR of CCNE1. miR-497 and miR-34a are downregulated in cancer cells and their ectopic expression inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model. The effect of simultaneous overexpression of miR-497 and miR-34a on the inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor growth, and the downregulation of cyclin E1 was stronger than the effect of each miRNA alone. The synergistic actions of miR-497 and miR-34a partly correlated with cyclin E1 levels. When cells stably expressing CCNE1 were transfected with the Hi-miR-497/34a plasmid, there was no effect on colony formation, compared with that of cells transfected with either Hi-miR497 or Hi-miR34a. These results indicate cyclin E1 is downregulated by both miR-497 and miR-34a, which synergistically retard the growth of human lung cancer cells. =20
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  • LncRNA LINC00341 mediates PM2.5-induced cell cycle arrest in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Xu, Yiqin   Peng, Xiaowu   Yang, Ti   Liu, Meiling   Chen, Lijian   Dai, Xin   Wang, Zhishan   Yang, Chengfeng   Yan, Bing  

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) could adhere to many toxic substances and cause respiratory diseases.However, the associated pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of PM2.5 on cell cycle progression in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) and the underlying mechanism mediated by lncRNAs. PM2.5 treatment inhibited cell proliferation in 16HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner. The results of flow cytometry assay (FCM) showed that PM2.5 induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The lncRNA microarray analysis indicated that treatment with PM2.5 led to the alteration of lncRNA expression profiles. qRT-PCR were performed to confirm the differential expression of several candidate lncRNAs. IncRNA LINC00341 was significantly up-regulated in 16HBE cell after PM2.5 treatment. Further functional studies showed that knockdown of lncRNA LINC00341 reversed PM2.5-induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and p21 expression. These results suggest that up-regulation of the lncRNA LINC00341 mediates PM2.5-induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and probably through regulating the expression of p21.
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  • Dysregulations of Functional RNA Modifications in Cancer,Cancer Stemness and Cancer Therapeutics

    Uddin, Mohammad Burhan   Wang, Zhishan   Yang, Chengfeng  

    More than a hundred chemical modifications in coding and non-coding RNAs have been identified so far. Many of the RNA modifications are dynamic and reversible, playing critical roles in gene regulation at the posttranscriptional level. The abundance and functions of RNA modifications are controlled mainly by the modification regulatory proteins: writers, erasers and readers. Modified RNA bases and their regulators form intricate networks which are associated with a vast array of diverse biological functions. RNA modifications are not only essential for maintaining the stability and structural integrity of the RNA molecules themselves, they are also associated with the functional outcomes and phenotypic attributes of cells. In addition to their normal biological roles, many of the RNA modifications also play important roles in various diseases particularly in cancer as evidenced that the modified RNA transcripts and their regulatory proteins are aberrantly expressed in many cancer types. This review will first summarize the most commonly reported RNA modifications and their regulations, followed by discussing recent studies on the roles of RNA modifications in cancer, cancer stemness as wells as functional RNA modification machinery as potential cancer therapeutic targets. It is concluded that, while advanced technologies have uncovered the contributions of many of RNA modifications in cancer, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Moreover, whether and how environmental pollutants, important cancer etiological factors, trigger abnormal RNA modifications and their roles in environmental carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of how RNA modifications promote cell malignant transformation and generation of cancer stem cells, which will lead to the development of new strategies for cancer prevention and treatment.
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  • Chimaerins: GAPs that bridge diacylglycerol signalling and the small G-protein Rac

    Yang, Chengfeng   Kazanietz, Marcelo?G.  

    Chimaerins are the only known RhoGAPs (Rho GTPase-activating proteins) that bind phorbol ester turnout promoters and the lipid second messenger DAG (diacylglycerol), and show specific GAP activity towards the small GTPase Rac. This review summarizes our knowledge of the structure, biochemical and biological properties of chimaerins. Recent findings have established that chimaerins are regulated by tyrosine kinase and GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) via PLC (phospholipase Q activation and DAG generation to promote Rac inactivation. The finding that chimaerins, along with some other proteins, are receptors for DAG changed the prevalent view that PKC (protein kinase Q isoenzymes are the only cellular molecules regulated by DAG. In addition, vigorous recent studies have begun to decipher the critical roles of chimaerins in the central nervous system, development and turnout progression.
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