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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 71753

  • Mortality after liver surgery in Germany

    Filmann, N.   Walter, D.   Schadde, E.   Bruns, C.   Kecks, T.   Lang, H.   Oldhafer, K.   Schlitt, H. J.   Schoen, M. R.   Herrmann, E.   Bechstein, W. O.   Schnitzbauer, A. A.  

    Background Mortality rates after liver surgery are not well documented in Germany. More than 1000 hospitals offer liver resection, but there is no central regulation of infrastructure requirements or outcome quality. Methods Hospital mortality rates after liver resection were analysed using the standardized hospital discharge data (Diagnosis-Related Groups, ICD-10 and German operations and procedure key codes) provided by the Research Data Centre of the Federal Statistical Office and Statistical Offices of the Lander in Wiesbaden, Germany. Results A total of 110 332 liver procedures carried out between 2010 and 2015 were identified. The overall hospital mortality rate for all resections was 5 center dot 8 per cent. The mortality rate among 17 574 major hepatic procedures was 10 center dot 4 per cent. Patients who had surgery for colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) had the lowest mortality rate among those with malignancy (5 center dot 5 per cent), followed by patients with gallbladder cancer (7 center dot 1 per cent), hepatocellular carcinoma (9 center dot 3 per cent) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (11 center dot 0 per cent). Patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma had the highest mortality rate (14 center dot 6 per cent). The mortality rate for extended hepatectomy was 16 center dot 2 per cent and the need for a biliodigestive anastomosis increased this to 25 center dot 5 per cent. Failure to rescue after complications led to mortality rates of more than 30 per cent in some subgroups. There was a significant volume-outcome relationship for CRLM surgery in very high-volume centres (mean 26-60 major resections for CRLMs per year). The mortality rate was 4 center dot 6 per cent in very high-volume centres compared with 7 center dot 5 per cent in very low-volume hospitals (odds ratio 0 center dot 60, 95 per cent c.i. 0 center dot 42 to 0 center dot 77; P < 0 center dot 001). Conclusion This analysis of outcome data after liver resection in Germany suggests that hospital mortality remains high. There should be more focused research to understand, improve or justify factors leading to this result, and consideration of centralization of liver surgery.
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  • Complicated course after cecal injury during laparoscopic salpingectomy

    Dralle, H.   Kluge, R.   Kaiser, G. M.   Schlitt, H. J.  

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  • Diagnosis of and Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Greten, T. F.   Malek, N. P.   Schmidt, S.   Arends, J.   Bartenstein, P.   Bechstein, W.   Bernatik, T.   Bitzer, M.   Chavan, A.   Dollinger, M.   Domagk, D.   Drognitz, O.   Duex, M.   Farkas, S.   Folprecht, G.   Galle, P.   Geissler, M.   Gerken, G.   Habermehl, D.   Helmberger, T.   Herfarth, K.   Hoffmann, R. T.   Holtmann, M.   Huppert, P.   Jakobs, T.   Keller, M.   Klempnauer, J.   Kolligs, F.   Koerber, J.   Lang, H.   Lehner, F.   Lordick, F.   Lubienski, A.   Manns, M. P.   Mahnken, A.   Moehler, M.   Moench, C.   Neuhaus, P.   Niederau, C.   Ocker, M.   Otto, G.   Pereira, P.   Pott, G.   Riemer, J.   Ringe, K.   Ritterbusch, U.   Rummeny, E.   Schirmacher, P.   Schlitt, H. J.   Schlottmann, K.   Schmitz, V.   Schuler, A.   Schulze-Bergkamen, H.   von Schweinitz, D.   Seehofer, D.   Sitter, H.   Strassburg, C. P.   Stroszczynski, C.   Strobel, D.   Tannapfel, A.   Trojan, J.   van Thiel, I.   Vogel, A.   Wacker, F.   Wedemeyer, H.   Wege, H.   Weinmann, A.   Wittekind, C.   Woermann, B.   Zech, C. J.  

    The interdisciplinary guidelines at the S3 level on the diagnosis of and therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) constitute an evidence- and consensus-based instrument that is aimed at improving the diagnosis of and therapy for HCC since these are very challenging tasks. The purpose of the guidelines is to offer the patient (with suspected or confirmed HCC) adequate, scientifically based and up-to-date procedures in diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation. This holds not only for locally limited or focally advanced disease but also for the existence of recurrences or distant metastases. Besides making a contribution to an appropriate health-care service, the guidelines should also provide the foundation for an individually adapted, high-quality therapy. The explanatory background texts should also enable non-specialist but responsible colleagues to give sound advice to their patients concerning specialist procedures, side effects and results. In the medium and long-term this should reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with HCC and improve their quality of life.
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  • Cyclosporine A Inhibits the T-bet-Dependent Antitumor Response of CD8(+) T Cells

    Rovira, J.   Renner, P.   Sabet-Baktach, M.   Eggenhofer, E.   Koehl, G. E.   Lantow, M.   Lang, S. A.   Schlitt, H. J.   Campistol, J. M.   Geissler, E. K.   Kroemer, A.  

    Transplant recipients face an increased risk of cancer compared with the healthy population. Although several studies have examined the direct effects of immunosuppressive drugs on cancer cells, little is known about the interactions between pharmacological immunosuppression and cancer immunosurveillance. We investigated the different effects of rapamycin (Rapa) versus cyclosporine A (CsA) on tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells. After adoptive transfer of CD8(+) T cell receptor-transgenic OTI T cells, recipient mice received either skin grafts expressing ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA-expressing B16F10 melanoma cells. Animals were treated daily with Rapa or CsA. Skin graft rejection and tumor growth as well as molecular and cellular analyses of skin- and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were performed. Both Rapa and CsA were equally efficient in prolonging skin graft survival when applied at clinically relevant doses. In contrast to Rapa-treated animals, CsA led to accelerated tumor growth in the presence of adoptively transferred tumor-reactive CD8(+) OTI T cells. Further analyses showed that T-bet was downregulated by CsA (but not Rapa) in CD8(+) T cells and that cancer cytotoxicity was profoundly inhibited in the absence of T-bet. CsA reduces T-bet-dependent cancer immunosurveillance by CD8(+) T cells. This may contribute to the increased cancer risk in transplant recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitors. The authors show that immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporine A, but not rapamycin, decreases T-bet expression in tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells, which inhibits the immune response against developing melanomas in an antigen-specific mouse model.
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  • Pit-picking surgery for pilonidal disease

    Iesalnieks, I.   Deimel, S.   Kienle, K.   Schlitt, H. J.   Zuelke, C.  

    Background. The pit-picking method was first described by J. Bascom in 1980, however, this minimally invasive technique is used only by a minority of surgeons yet. Patients and methods. Surgery was performed under local anesthesia. All primary pits in the midline were removed by excising a border of skin of <1 mm and a 1 cm long incision was made parallel to one side of the cleft to open the chronic abscess cavity. No specific postoperative wound care was given. Results. Pit-picking surgery was carried out 157 times in a total of 153 patients (126 males) between June 2007 and November 2010. Follow-up information was available in 123 cases and 21 patients (17%) developed disease recurrence after a mean follow-up time of 7.1 months. By multivariate analysis, a body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2) (p=0.019) and duration of the disease of >= 6 months (p=0.017) were statistically significantly associated with disease recurrence after pit-picking surgery. The recurrence occurred more often in male than in female patients (20% versus 4.5%, p=0.12) Conclusion. Patients with pilonidal disease can be successfully treated by the pit-picking procedure in more than 80% of selected cases. Female patients and non-overweight male patients with short-term disease benefit most from this treatment method.
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  • The Liver as an Immunological Organ

    Schlitt, H. J.  

    In many species, liver transplants induce antigen-specific immunological tolerance. Furthermore, the liver seems to play an important role in oral tolerance although the exact mechanisms as to how the liver induces immunological tolerance still need to be defined. Apart from the presence of an unusual subset of effector cells of the innate immune system, the liver is rich in CD8+ T cells with an activated and preapoptotic phenotype. In this article, we discuss the suggested hypothesis to explain this phenotype. In addition, we discuss the different cell types that have been suggested to serve as antigen-presenting cells (APC) for naive T cells. Interestingly, different APCs seem to use different mechanisms to induce tolerance while hepatic stellate cells were reported to induce an effective immune response.
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  • Robot-assisted microwave thermoablation of liver tumors:a single-center experience

    Beyer, L. P.   Pregler, B.   Niessen, C.   Dollinger, M.   Graf, B. M.   Mueller, M.   Schlitt, H. J.   Stroszczynski, C.   Wiggermann, P.  

    To evaluate and compare the needle placement accuracy, patient dose, procedural time, complication rate and ablation success of microwave thermoablation using a novel robotic guidance approach and a manual approach. We performed a retrospective single-center evaluation of 64 microwave thermoablations of liver tumors in 46 patients (10 female, 36 male, mean age 66 years) between June 2014 and February 2015. Thirty ablations were carried out with manual guidance, while 34 ablations were performed using robotic guidance. A 6-week follow-up (ultrasound, computed tomography and MRI) was performed on all patients. The total procedure time and dose-length product were significantly reduced under robotic guidance (18.3 vs. 21.7 min, ; 2216 vs. 2881 mGycm, ). The position of the percutaneous needle was more accurate using robotic guidance (needle deviation 1.6 vs. 3.3 mm, ). There was no significant difference between both groups regarding the complication rate and the ablation success. Robotic assistance for liver tumor ablation reduces patient dose and allows for fast positioning of the microwave applicator with high accuracy. The complication rate and ablation success of percutaneous microwave thermoablation of malignant liver tumors using either CT fluoroscopy or robotic guidance for needle positioning showed no significant differences in the 6-week follow-up.
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  • VEGF: A Surrogate Marker for Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Stehr, A.   Toepel, I.   Mueller, S.   Unverdorben, K.   Geissler, E. K.   Kasprzak, P. M.   Schlitt, H. J.   Steinbauer, M.  

    This study aims to evaluate the value of VEGF as a surrogate marker for peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Prior to treatment, serum VEGF levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 293 PVD patients. Risk factors and clinical parameters of PVD were documented. Twenty-six age-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Serum VEGF values strongly correlated with Fontaine stages (p < 0.006, stage IV vs. controls). High VEGF values prior to treatment were associated with poor outcome. Serum VEGF appears to indicate the severity of PVD and might serve as a surrogate indicator of disease severity. (C) 2009 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Surgical treatment of liver metastases

    Loss, M.   Jung, E. M.   Scherer, M. N.   Farkas, S. A.   Schlitt, H. J.  

    The treatment of liver metastases has become more and more complex in recent years. More individualized therapeutic concepts have become feasible by the increase in different treatment options (surgical, interventional and oncological). In the field of surgery the definition of resectability could be broadened. More extensive liver resections are being performed, which are partly carried out as staged resections after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with portal vein embolization (PVE), radio frequency ablation (RFA) or other procedures in order to increase complete resection rates and patient survival. Consequently the overall 5 year survival rate of patients with resected colorectal liver metastases has doubled from 30% to nearly 60% in the past decade. Due to the complexity of the different treatment approaches an interdisciplinary assessment of the individual patient in experienced centers is necessary.
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  • Surgical Therapy for Adrenal Tumours

    Agha, A.   Iesalnieks, I.   Glockzin, G.   Schlitt, H. J.  

    Four endoscopic and four open accesses are available for the surgery of adrenal tumours. The decision to use one of the available techniques depends on tumour size, body mass index, previous abdominal surgery and the experience of the surgeon. Currently, the lateral laparoscopic and the dorsal retroperitoneoscopic approaches are most frequently used. Conventional surgery should be used if malignancy is suspected, especially for tumours larger than 6cm. In individual cases, even tumours up to 10 cm can be operated laparoscopically if there is no suspicion of invasive growth or lymphatic metastases. Each surgeon should choose the most familiar access. The retroperitoneoscopic and laparoscopic accesses for benign adrenal tumours up to 6cm are considered to be equivalent. The surgeon should also be able to approach adrenal tumours conventionally.
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  • Giant Cell Hepatitis: an Unusual Cause of Fulminant Liver Failure

    Hartl, J.   Buettner, R.   Rockmann, F.   Farkas, S.   Holstege, A.   Vogel, C.   Schnitzbauer, A.   Schlitt, H. J.   Schoelmerich, J.  

    Giant cell hepatitis is a very rare disease of unknown origin. It has been hypothesized that drugs, viral infections, or autoimmune reactions may play a pathogenetic role. Here, we describe a 33 year old patient with bacterial bronchitis who was treated with doxycycline (100 mg/d) for one week. Furthermore the patient complained of malaise and a distinct jaundice. Liver parameters increased dramatically (AST 4670 U/l, ALT 5350U/l, bilirubin 226 mu mol/l) and liver function was impaired (INR=1,45). The ultrasound scan showed a hepatomegaly with no signs of cirrhosis, normal spleen size and normal bile ducts; liver perfusion was normal. No evidence of Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, hepatitis A, B, C and E, HIV, CMV, VZV, adenoviral infections, or paracetamol intoxication was found. Subsequently, the patient developed acute liver failure (AST 2134 U/l, ALT 2820 U/l, bilirubin 380 mu mol/l, INR 3.0) and a beginning renal failure. Therefore, he was transferred to our transplant center. Due to increasing confusion and somnolence due to cerebral edema mechanical ventilation was needed. Because of an acute renal failure and severe hepatic encephalopathia MARS-hemodialysis was performed. Three weeks after the appearance of the jaundice he underwent liver transplantation (MELD 40). Surprisingly, in the explanted liver the diagnosis of giant cell hepatitis was made. Today - 2 years after successful liver transplantation - the patient is in a very good condition with normal liver function. In conclusion, giant cell hepatitis is a rare cause of acute liver failure that is often recognized only histologically.
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  • Hepatic trauma. Interventional and conservative therapy

    Loss, M.   Zorger, N.   Kirchner, G. I.   Schlitt, H. J.  

    The non-operative management of hemodynamically stable patients with liver trauma has become the standard of care. Non-operative treatment has a success rate of >80%. In the majority of cases of hemodynamic instability or high grade liver injuries, however, a surgical approach is necessary. As for conservative treatment of liver trauma the surveillance of patients in the ICU is of utmost importance. Repeat CT scans are only necessary in patients with high grade injuries or in case of complications. Interventional procedures, such as the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in cases of biliary complications or angiography for vascular complications, are increasingly being used in order to avoid surgery. The success rates of non-operative strategies have been improving continuously over the last decades.
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  • Immunosuppression for liver transplantation

    Geissler, E. K.   Schlitt, H. J.  

    In the last few decades liver transplantation (LTx) has become a reliable life-saving procedure for patients with chronic end-stage liver diseases. LTx has an outstanding success rate in the first few years after allografting, especially considering that many patients are on the brink of survival at the time of transplantation. The success of LTx is owed to the pioneers who developed the surgical procedures and to researchers who discovered the medications to help prevent immunological rejection of allografts. However, several problems continue to impose serious limits on LTx today, including a shortage of donor livers, recurrence of disease (eg, hepatitis, hepatocellular cancer), preservation of long-term allograft function and the side effects of anti-rejection drugs. While the dilemma of organ shortage is not a focus of this review, we will address the latter issues as they relate to the "oldest'' and "newest'' approaches to immunosuppression, and discuss the prospect that recipients could potentially be made immunologically tolerant to liver transplants. Due to the critical shortage of organs, new strategies to preserve transplanted liver allografts for the longest possible time are of paramount importance.
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  • Surgical therapy of benign liver tumors

    Loss, M.   Zuelke, C.   Obed, A.   Stoeltzing, O.   Schlitt, H. J.  

    Benign liver tumors are being detected more frequently due to the widespread use of ultrasound and complementary methods and due to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. In the case of a reliable diagnosis of asymptomatic hemangioma or focal nodular hyperplasia surgery is not indicated. Hepatic adenoma of considerable size should be resected primarily based on the risk of rupture. Improvements in diagnostic imaging as well as the optimization of surgical procedures with extremely low complication rates permit an individualized management strategy founded on evidence-based algorithms. In the case of an equivocal diagnosis, we advocate low-risk tumor resection instead of tumor biopsy due to the inherent complication rates of hemorrhage or tumor-cell dissemination and possible misleading histology.
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  • Diagnosis and treatment of colorectal liver metastases - Workflow

    Grundmann, R. T.   Hermanek, P.   Merkel, S.   Germer, C. -T.   Grundmann, R. T.   Hauss, J.   Henne-Bruns, D.   Herfarth, K.   Hermanek, P.   Hopt, U. T.   Junginger, T.   Klar, E.   Klempnauer, J.   Knapp, W. H.   Kraus, M.   Lang, H.   Link, K. -H.   Loehe, F.   Merkel, S.   Oldhafer, K. J.   Raab, H. -R.   Rau, H. -G.   Reinacher-Schick, A.   Ricke, J.   Roder, J.   Schaefer, A. -O.   Schlitt, H. J.   Schoen, M. R.   Stippel, D.   Tannapfel, A.   Tatsch, K.   Vogl, T. J.  

    In this review, standards of diagnosis and treatment of colorectal liver metastases are described on the basis of a workshop discussion. Algorithms of care for patients with synchronous/metachronous colorectal liver metastases or locoregional recurrent tumour are presented. Surgical resection is the procedure of choice in the curative treatment of liver metastases. The decision about the resection of liver metastases should consider the following parameters: 1. General operability of the patient (comorbidity); 2. Achievability of an R0O situation: i. if necessary, in combination with ablative methods, ii. if necessary, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, iii. the ability to eradicate extrahepatic tumour manifestations; 3. Sufficient volume of the liver remaining after resection (,,future liver remnant = FLR): i. if necessary, in combination with portal vein embolisation or two-stage hepatectomy; 4. The feasibility to preserve two contiguous hepatic segments with adequate vascular inflow and outflow as well as biliary drainage; 5. Tumour biological aspects ("prognostic variables"); 6. Experience of the surgeon and centre! Extrahepatic disease does not contraindicate hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases provided a complete resection of both intra- and extrahepatic disease is feasible. Even in bilobar colorectal metastases and 5 or more tumours in the liver, a complete tumour resection has been described. The type of resection (hepatic wedge resection or anatomic resection) does not influence the recurrence rate. Preoperative volumetry is indicated when major hepatic resection is planned. The FLR should be 25 % in patients with normal liver, 40% in patients who have received intensive chemotherapy or in cases of fatty liver, liver fibrosis or diabetes, and 50-60% in patients with cirrhosis. In patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases, preoperative chemotherapy enables complete resection in 15-30% of the cases, whereas the value of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resectable liver metastases has not been sufficiently supported. In situ ablative procedures (radiofrequency ablation = RFA and laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy = LITT) are local therapy options in selected patients who are not candidates for resection (central recurrent liver metastases, bilobar multiple metastases and high-risk resection or restricted patient operability). Patients with tumours larger than 3 cm have a high local recurrence rate after percutaneous RFA and are not optimal candidates for this procedure. The physician's experience influences the results significantly, both after hepatectomy and after in situ ablation. Therefore, patients with colorectal liver metastases should be treated in centres with experience in liver surgery.
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  • Split-liver transplantation

    Loss, M.   Obed, A.   Schlitt, H. J.  

    Split-liver transplantation is now established as a safe and successful technique that extends the donor pool for patients of all ages and thus reduces waiting-list mortality, although it can not solve the problem of organ shortage alone. Split-liver transplantation additionally represents an alternative to living liver transplantation without a potential risk of harm to the donor. Careful selection of donor and recipient, high technical and surgical skill, and experience are necessary to achieve results comparable to those of whole organ transplantation.
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