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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 54

  • Allele mining and enhanced genetic recombination for rice breeding

    Leung, Hei   Raghavan, Chitra   Zhou, Bo   Oliva, Ricardo   Choi, Il Ryong   Lacorte, Vanica   Jubay, Mona Liza   Cruz, Casiana Vera   Gregorio, Glenn   Singh, Rakesh Kumar   Ulat, Victor Jun   Borja, Frances Nikki   Mauleon, Ramil   Alexandrov, Nickolai N.   McNally, Kenneth L.   Sackville Hamilton, Ruaraidh  

    Traditional rice varieties harbour a large store of genetic diversity with potential to accelerate rice improvement. For a long time, this diversity maintained in the International Rice Genebank has not been fully used because of a lack of genome information. The publication of the first reference genome of Nipponbare by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) marked the beginning of a systematic exploration and use of rice diversity for genetic research and breeding. Since then, the Nipponbare genome has served as the reference for the assembly of many additional genomes. The recently completed 3000 Rice Genomes Project together with the public database (SNP-Seek) provides a new genomic and data resource that enables the identification of useful accessions for breeding. Using disease resistance traits as case studies, we demonstrated the power of allele mining in the 3,000 genomes for extracting accessions from the GeneBank for targeted phenotyping. Although potentially useful landraces can now be identified, their use in breeding is often hindered by unfavourable linkages. Efficient breeding designs are much needed to transfer the useful diversity to breeding. Multi-parent Advanced Generation InterCross (MAGIC) is a breeding design to produce highly recombined populations. The MAGIC approach can be used to generate pre-breeding populations with increased genotypic diversity and reduced linkage drag. Allele mining combined with a multi-parent breeding design can help convert useful diversity into breeding-ready genetic resources.
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  • Using Genetic Diversity to Achieve Sustainable Rice Disease Management

    Leung, Hei   Zhu, Youyong   Revilla-Molina, Imelda   Fan, Jin Xiang   Chen, Hairu   Pangga, Ireneo   Cruz, Casiana Vera   Mew, Twng Wah  

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  • International Rice Research Institute: roles and challenges as we enter the genomics era

    Leung, Hei   Hettel, Gene P.   Cantrell, Ronald P.  

    The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) was established in 1960 by the Rockefeller (New York, NY, USA) and Ford Foundations (New York, NY, USA) in response to food scarcity problems in the developing world. Today, it is the world's leading international research and training center for rice. Based in the Philippines, with operations in 11 other countries, it is one of 16 Future Harvest Centers funded by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), an association of public and private donor agencies.
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  • Nuclear division and chromosome behavior during meiosis and ascosporogenesis in\r Pyricularia oryzae

    Leung, Hei   Williams, P. H.  

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  • Genetic analyses of electrophoretic enzyme variants, mating type, and hermaphroditism in\r Pyricularia oryzae\r Cavara

    Leung, Hei   Williams, Paul H.  

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  • Genetic, Physiological, and Gene Expression Analyses Reveal That Multiple QTL Enhance Yield of Rice Mega-Variety IR64 under Drought

    Swamy, Mallikarjuna B. P.   Ahmed, Helal Uddin   Henry, Amelia   Mauleon, Ramil   Dixit, Shalabh   Vikram, Prashant   Tilatto, Ram   Verulkar, Satish B.   Perraju, Puvvada   Mandal, Nimai P.   Variar, Mukund   Robin, S.   Chandrababu, Ranganath   Singh, Onkar N.   Dwivedi, Jawaharlal L.   Das, Sankar Prasad   Mishra, Krishna K.   Yadaw, Ram B.   Aditya, Tamal Lata   Karmakar, Biswajit   Satoh, Kouji   Moumeni, Ali   Kikuchi, Shoshi   Leung, Hei   Kumar, Arvind  

    Background: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a highly drought sensitive crop, and most semi dwarf rice varieties suffer severe yield losses from reproductive stage drought stress. The genetic complexity of drought tolerance has deterred the identification of agronomically relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL) that can be deployed to improve rice yield under drought in rice. Convergent evidence from physiological characterization, genetic mapping, and multi-location field evaluation was used to address this challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings: Two pairs of backcross inbred lines (BILs) from a cross between drought-tolerant donor Aday Sel and high-yielding but drought-susceptible rice variety IR64 were produced. From six BC4F3 mapping populations produced by crossing the +QTL BILs with the -QTL BILs and IR64, four major-effect QTL - one each on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10 - were identified. Meta-analysis of transcriptome data from the +QTL/-QTL BILs identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) significantly associated with QTL on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10. Physiological characterization of BILs showed increased water uptake ability under drought. The enrichment of DEGs associated with root traits points to differential regulation of root development and function as contributing to drought tolerance in these BILs. BC4F3-derived lines with the QTL conferred yield advantages of 528 to 1875 kg ha(-1) over IR64 under reproductive-stage drought stress in the targeted ecosystems of South Asia. Conclusions/Significance: Given the importance of rice in daily food consumption and the popularity of IR64, the BC4F3 lines with multiple QTL could provide higher livelihood security to farmers in drought-prone environments. Candidate genes were shortlisted for further characterization to confirm their role in drought tolerance. Differential yield advantages of different combinations of the four QTL reported here indicate that future research should include optimizing QTL combinations in different genetic backgrounds to maximize yield advantage under drought.
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  • Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice

    Tanger, Paul   Klassen, Stephen   Mojica, Julius P.   Lovell, John T.   Moyers, Brook T.   Baraoidan, Marietta   Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B.   McNally, Kenneth L.   Poland, Jesse   Bush, Daniel R.   Leung, Hei   Leach, Jan E.   McKay, John K.  

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.
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  • Collaborations in rice

    Fischer, Kenneth S.   Barton, John   Khush, Gurdev S.   Leung, Hei   Cantrell, Ronald  

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  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in a Gene for Translation Initiation Factor (eIF4G) of Rice (Oryza sativa) Associated with Resistance to Rice tungro spherical virus

    Lee, Jong-Hee   Muhsin, Muhammad   Atienza, Genelou A.   Kwak, Do-Yeon   Kim, Suk-Man   De Leon, Teresa B.   Angeles, Enrique R.   Coloquio, Edgardo   Kondoh, Hiroaki   Satoh, Kouji   Cabunagan, Rogelio C.   Cabauatan, Pepito Q.   Kikuchi, Shoshi   Leung, Hei   Choi, Il-Ryong  

    Rice tungro disease (RTD) is a serious constraint to rice production in South and Southeast Asia. RTD is caused by Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. Rice cv. Utri Merah is resistant to RTSV. To identify the gene or genes involved in RTSV resistance, the association of genotypic and phenotypic variations for RTSV resistance was examined in backcross populations derived from Utri Merah and rice germplasm with known RTSV resistance. Genetic analysis revealed that resistance to RTSV in Utri Merah was controlled by a single recessive gene (tsv1) mapped within an approximately 200-kb region between 22.05 and 22.25 Mb of chromosome 7. A gene for putative translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G(tsv1)) was found in the tsv1 region. Comparison of eIF4G(tsv1) gene sequences among susceptible and resistant plants suggested the association of RTSV resistance with one of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites found in exon 9 of the gene. Examination of the SNP site in the eIF4G(tsv1) gene among various rice plants resistant and susceptible to RTSV corroborated the association of SNP or deletions in codons for Val(1060-1061) of the predicted eIF4G(tsv1) with RTSV resistance in rice.
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  • Multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations in rice: progress and potential for genetics research and breeding

    Bandillo, Nonoy   Raghavan, Chitra   Muyco, Pauline Andrea   Sevilla, Ma Anna Lynn   Lobina, Irish T.   Dilla-Ermita, Christine Jade   Tung, Chih-Wei   McCouch, Susan   Thomson, Michael   Mauleon, Ramil   Singh, Rakesh Kumar   Gregorio, Glenn   Redona, Edilberto   Leung, Hei  

    Background: This article describes the development of Multi-parent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross populations (MAGIC) in rice and discusses potential applications for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and for rice varietal development. We have developed 4 multi-parent populations: indica MAGIC (8 indica parents); MAGIC plus (8 indica parents with two additional rounds of 8-way F1 inter-crossing); japonica MAGIC (8 japonica parents); and Global MAGIC (16 parents - 8 indica and 8 japonica). The parents used in creating these populations are improved varieties with desirable traits for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, yield, and grain quality. The purpose is to fine map QTLs for multiple traits and to directly and indirectly use the highly recombined lines in breeding programs. These MAGIC populations provide a useful germplasm resource with diverse allelic combinations to be exploited by the rice community. Results: The indica MAGIC population is the most advanced of the MAGIC populations developed thus far and comprises 1328 lines produced by single seed descent (SSD). At the S4 stage of SSD a subset (200 lines) of this population was genotyped using a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach and was phenotyped for multiple traits, including: blast and bacterial blight resistance, salinity and submergence tolerance, and grain quality. Genome-wide association mapping identified several known major genes and QTLs including Sub1 associated with submergence tolerance and Xa4 and xa5 associated with resistance to bacterial blight. Moreover, the genome-wide association study (GWAS) results also identified potentially novel loci associated with essential traits for rice improvement. Conclusion: The MAGIC populations serve a dual purpose: permanent mapping populations for precise QTL mapping and for direct and indirect use in variety development. Unlike a set of naturally diverse germplasm, this population is tailor-made for breeders with a combination of useful traits derived from multiple elite breeding lines. The MAGIC populations also present opportunities for studying the interactions of genome introgressions and chromosomal recombination.
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  • Sequencing multiple and diverse rice varieties. Connecting whole-genome variation with phenotypes.

    McNally, Kenneth L   Bruskiewich, Richard   Mackill, David   Buell, C Robin   Leach, Jan E   Leung, Hei  

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  • OsGF14e positively regulates panicle blast resistance in rice

    Liu, Qing   Yang, Jianyuan   Zhang, Shaohong   Zhao, Junliang   Feng, Aiqing   Yang, Tifeng   Wang, Xiaofei   Mao, Xingxue   Dong, Jingfang   Zhu, Xiaoyuan   Leung, Hei   Leach, Jan E.   Liu, Bin  

    Though GF14e has been reported to negatively regulate bacterial blight and sheath blight resistance in rice, its effect on panicle blast, the most destructive disease in rice is still unknown. In the present study, we identified that GF14e was highly expressed in panicles and was induced in panicles infected by blast pathogen. Overexpression of GF14e enhances resistance to panicle blast whereas silencing GF14e results in increased susceptibility to panicle blast, suggesting that GF14e plays a positive role in quantitative panicle blast resistance in rice. Our results also demonstrate that GF14e is regulated by WRKY71 and GF14e-mediated panicle blast resistance is related to activation of SA-dependent pathway and suppression of JA-dependent pathway. The functional confirmation of GF14e in panicle blast resistance makes it to be a promising target in molecular rice breeding. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • More genomic resources for less-studied crops

    Varshney, Rajeev K.   Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe   Leung, Hei   Ribaut, Jean-Marcel  

    Many of the crop species considered to be minor on a global scale, yet are important locally for food security in the developing world, have remained less-studied crops. Recent years have witnessed the development of large-scale genomic and genetic resources, including simple sequence repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and diversity array technology markers, expressed sequence tags or transcript reads, bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, genetic and physical maps, and genetic stocks with rich genetic diversity, such as core reference sets and introgression lines in these crops. These resources have the potential to accelerate gene discovery and initiate molecular breeding in these crops, thereby enhancing crop productivity to ensure food security in developing countries.
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  • Comparative analysis of root transcriptome profiles of two pairs of drought-tolerant and susceptible rice near-isogenic lines under different drought stress

    Moumeni, Ali   Satoh, Kouji   Kondoh, Hiroaki   Asano, Takayuki   Hosaka, Aeni   Venuprasad, Ramiah   Serraj, Rachid   Kumar, Arvind   Leung, Hei   Kikuchi, Shoshi  

    Background: Plant roots are important organs to uptake soil water and nutrients, perceiving and transducing of soil water deficit signals to shoot. The current knowledge of drought stress transcriptomes in rice are mostly relying on comparative studies of diverse genetic background under drought. A more reliable approach is to use near-isogenic lines (NILs) with a common genetic background but contrasting levels of resistance to drought stress under initial exposure to water deficit. Here, we examined two pairs of NILs in IR64 background with contrasting drought tolerance. We obtained gene expression profile in roots of rice NILs under different levels of drought stress help to identify genes and mechanisms involved in drought stress. Results: Global gene expression analysis showed that about 55% of genes differentially expressed in roots of rice in response to drought stress treatments. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) increased in NILs as the level of water deficits, increased from mild to severe condition, suggesting that more genes were affected by increasing drought stress. Gene onthology (GO) test and biological pathway analysis indicated that activated genes in the drought tolerant NILs IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 and IR77298-5-6-B-18 were mostly involved in secondary metabolism, amino acid metabolism, response to stimulus, defence response, transcription and signal transduction, and down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis and cell wall growth. We also observed gibberellic acid (GA) and auxin crosstalk modulating lateral root formation in the tolerant NILs. Conclusions: Transcriptome analysis on two pairs of NILs with a common genetic background (similar to 97%) showed distinctive differences in gene expression profiles and could be effective to unravel genes involved in drought tolerance. In comparison with the moderately tolerant NIL IR77298-5-6-B-18 and other susceptible NILs, the tolerant NIL IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 showed a greater number of DEGs for cell growth, hormone biosynthesis, cellular transports, amino acid metabolism, signalling, transcription factors and carbohydrate metabolism in response to drought stress treatments. Thus, different mechanisms are achieving tolerance in the two tolerant lines.
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  • High-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping for breeding applications in rice using the BeadXpress platform

    Thomson, Michael J.   Zhao, Keyan   Wright, Mark   McNally, Kenneth L.   Rey, Jessica   Tung, Chih-Wei   Reynolds, Andy   Scheffler, Brian   Eizenga, Georgia   McClung, Anna   Kim, Hyunjung   Ismail, Abdelbagi M.   de Ocampo, Marjorie   Mojica, Chromewell   Reveche, Ma. Ymber   Dilla-Ermita, Christine J.   Mauleon, Ramil   Leung, Hei   Bustamante, Carlos   McCouch, Susan R.  

    Multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have the potential to increase the speed and cost-effectiveness of genotyping, provided that an optimal SNP density is used for each application. To test the efficiency of multiplexed SNP genotyping for diversity, mapping and breeding applications in rice (Oryza sativa L.), we designed seven GoldenGate VeraCode oligo pool assay (OPA) sets for the Illumina BeadXpress Reader. Validated markers from existing 1536 Illumina SNPs and 44 K Affymetrix SNP chips developed at Cornell University were used to select subsets of informative SNPs for different germplasm groups with even distribution across the genome. A 96-plex OPA was developed for quality control purposes and for assigning a sample into one of the five O. sativa population subgroups. Six 384-plex OPAs were designed for genetic diversity analysis, DNA fingerprinting, and to have evenly-spaced polymorphic markers for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and background selection for crosses between different germplasm pools in rice: Indica/Indica, Indica/Japonica, Japonica/Japonica, Indica/O. rufipogon, and Japonica/O. rufipogon. After testing on a diverse set of rice varieties, two of the SNP sets were re-designed by replacing poor-performing SNPs. Pilot studies were successfully performed for diversity analysis, QTL mapping, marker-assisted backcrossing, and developing specialized genetic stocks, demonstrating that 384-plex SNP genotyping on the BeadXpress platform is a robust and efficient method for marker genotyping in rice.
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  • Revealing sequence variation patterns in rice with machine learning methods

    Zeller, Georg   Clark, Richard M.   Childs, Kevin L.   Ulat, Victor   Stokowski, Renee   Ballinger, Dennis   Frazer, Kelly   Cox, David   Bruskiewich, Richard   Buell, C. Robin   Leach, Jan   Leung, Hei   McNally, Kenneth L.   Weigel, Detlef   Raetsch, Gunnar  

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