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Now showing items 81 - 96 of 190

  • Selective Search Focusing on Retro-Synthetically Important Bonds in A Synthesis Design System

    Tanaka, Akio   Kawai, Takashi   Takabatake, Tetsuhiko   Okamoto, Hideho   Bersohn, Malcolm  

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  • Helicobacter pylori infection and reflux esophagitis in young and middle-aged Japanese subjects

    Kawai, Takashi   Yamamoto, Kei   Fukuzawa, Mari   Yamagishi, Tetsuya   Yagi, Kenji   Fukuzawa, Masakatsu   Kataoka, Mikinori   Kawakami, Kohei   Itoi, Takao   Sakai, Yoshihiro   Moriyasu, Fuminori   Takagi, Yu   Aoki, Tatsuya  

    Background and Aims: Helicobacter pylori infection rates are reported to be high in people over the age of 40 years, but are decreasing in younger age groups. A negative correlation has been reported between H. pylori infection and reflux esophagitis (RE). Methods: The subjects were 418 patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and measurement of serum immunoglobulin G H. pylori antibodies examined as part of their routine health checks. Their mean age was 39.2 +/- 8.3 years (range 22-58). We analyzed the RE findings (Los Angeles classification: A, B, C, D). Results: The total H. pylori infection rate was 33.7% (141/418). By age group, infection rates were 15.7% in the 20-29 years group, 28.0% in the 30-39 group, 34.3% in the 40-49 group and 69.1% in the 50-59 group. The proportion of H. pylori-negative subjects with RE was 23.5% (20-29, 22.9%; 30-39, 31.7%; 40-49, 32.4%; 50-59, 41.7%), significantly higher than that (12.1%) in H. pylori-positive subjects (20-29, 0%; 30-39, 16.7%; 40-49, 12.2%; 50-59, 10.5%). The severity of RE increased with advancing age in H. pylori-positive subjects, but not in H. pylori-negative subjects. Conclusion: In this study, higher rates of RE were seen in H. pylori-negative subjects. It may be, however, that the presence of H. pylori infection influences the progression of RE.
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  • Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori from Japan

    Rimbara, Emiko   Noguchi, Norihisa   Kijima, Hidenobu   Yamaguchi, Tai   Kawai, Takashi   Sasatsu, Masanori  

    The 23S rRNA gene in clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori isolated between 1995 and 2004 from Japan was investigated and the relationship between mutations in this gene and clarithromycin susceptibility was studied. Among nine mutations that have previously been reported to confer clarithromycin resistance, an adenine -> guanine transition at position 2142 (A2142G) or 2143 (A2143G) was detected in all clarithromycin-resistant strains (n = 67) but not in any clarithromycin-susceptible strains (n = 17). Mutations at positions 2182, 2223, 2244 and 2288 have previously been reported to confer clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori isolates from Bangladesh, China and Brazil. However, these mutations were not associated with clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori isolates from Japan in this study. Other mutations at positions 2115, 2144 and 2711, which have also been reported to confer clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori from Sweden and Italy, were not detected in the strains in this study. Our results suggest that susceptibility to clarithromycin is predicted by detection of mutations at positions 2142 and 2143 of the 23S rRNA gene in H. pylori isolates in Japan. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
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  • Chronic Pain in the Japanese Community--Prevalence, Characteristics and Impact on Quality of Life.

    Inoue, Shinsuke   Kobayashi, Fumio   Nishihara, Makoto   Arai, Young-Chang P   Ikemoto, Tatsunori   Kawai, Takashi   Inoue, Masayuki   Hasegawa, Tomomi   Ushida, Takahiro  

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is recognized as a public health problem that affects the general population physically, psychologically, and socially. However, there is little knowledge about the associated factors of chronic pain, such as the influence of weather, family structure, daily exercise, and work status.; OBJECTIVES: This survey had three aims: 1) to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Japan, 2) to analyze these associated factors, and 3) to evaluate the social burden due to chronic pain.; METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional postal survey in a sample of 6000 adults aged =E2=89=A520 years. The response rate was 43.8%.; RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 57.7 years (range 20-99 years); 39.3% met the criteria for chronic pain (lasting =E2=89=A53 months). Approximately a quarter of the respondents reported that their chronic pain was adversely influenced by bad weather and also oncoming bad weather. Risk factors for chronic pain, as determined by a logistic regression model, included being an older female, being unemployed, living alone, and no daily exercise. Individuals with chronic pain showed significantly lower quality of life and significantly higher psychological distress scores than those without chronic pain. The mean annual duration of absence from work of working-age respondents was 9.6 days (range 1-365 days).; CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that high prevalence and severity of chronic pain, associated factors, and significant impact on quality of life in the adult Japanese population. A detailed understanding of factors associated with chronic pain is essential for establishing a management strategy for primary care.=20
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  • Establishment of a pancreatic stem cell line from fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Kuise, Takashi   Noguchi, Hirofumi   Tazawa, Hiroshi   Kawai, Takashi   Iwamuro, Masaya   Saitoh, Issei   Kataoka, Hitomi Usui   Watanabe, Masami   Noguchi, Yasufumi   Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi  

    BACKGROUND: For cell therapies to treat diabetes, it is important to produce a sufficient number of pancreatic endocrine cells that function similarly to primary islets. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent a potentially unlimited source of functional pancreatic endocrine cells. However, the use of iPS cells for laboratory studies and cell-based therapies is hampered by their high tumorigenic potential and limited ability to generate pure populations of differentiated cell types in vitro. The purpose of this study was to establish a pancreatic stem cell line from iPS cells derived from mouse fibroblasts.; METHODS: Mouse iPS cells were induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells by a multi-step differentiation protocol, which was conducted as described previously with minor modifications. Selection of the pancreatic stem cell was based on morphology and Pdx1 expression. The pancreatic potential of the pancreatic stem cells was evaluated using a reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, and a glucose challenge test. To assess potential tumorigenicity of the pancreatic stem cells, the cells were injected into the quadriceps femoris muscle of the left hindlimb of nude mice.; RESULTS: The iPS-derived pancreatic stem cells expressed the transcription factor--Pdx1--a marker of pancreatic development, and continued to divide actively beyond passage 80. Endocrine cells derived from these pancreatic stem cells expressed insulin and pancreatic genes, and they released insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Mice injected with the pancreatic stem cells did not develop tumors, in contrast to mice injected with an equal number of iPS cells.; CONCLUSION: This strategy provides a new approach for generation of insulin-producing cells that is more efficient and safer than using iPS cells. We believe that this approach will help to develop a patient-specific cell transplantation therapy for diabetes in the near future.=20
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  • Genetic and epigenetic alterations of netrin-1 receptors in gastric cancer with chromosomal instability

    Toda, Keisuke   Nagasaka, Takeshi   Umeda, Yuzo   Tanaka, Takehiro   Kawai, Takashi   Fuji, Tomokazu   Taniguchi, Fumitaka   Yasui, Kazuya   Kubota, Nobuhito   Takehara, Yuko   Tazawa, Hiroshi   Kagawa, Shunsuke   Sun, Dong-Sheng   Nishida, Naoshi   Goel, Ajay   Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi  

    Background: The gene expressions of netrin-1 dependence receptors, DCC and UNC5C, are frequently downregulated in many cancers. We hypothesized that downregulation of DCC and UNC5C has an important growth regulatory function in gastric tumorigenesis. Results: In the present study, a series of genetic and epigenetic analyses for DCC and UNC5C were performed in a Japanese cohort of 98 sporadic gastric cancers and corresponding normal gastric mucosa specimens. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses and microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis was applied to determine chromosomal instability (CIN) and MSI phenotypes, respectively. More than 5 % methylation in the DCC and UNC5C promoters were found in 45 % (44/98) and 32 % (31/98) gastric cancers, respectively, and in 9 % (9/105) and 5 % (5/105) normal gastric mucosa, respectively. Overall, 70 % (58 of 83 informative cases) and 51 % (40 of 79 informative cases) of gastric cancers harbored either LOH or aberrant methylation in the DCC and UNC5C genes, respectively. In total, 77 % (51 of 66 informative cases) of gastric cancers showed cumulative defects in these two dependence receptors and were significantly associated with chromosomal instability. Both DCC and UNC5C were inactivated in 97 % of CIN-positive gastric cancers and in 55 % of CIN-negative gastric cancers. Conclusions: Defect in netrin receptors is a common feature in gastric cancers. DCC alterations are apparent in the early stages, and UNC5C alterations escalate with the progression of the disease, suggesting that the cumulative alterations of netrin-1 receptors was a late event in gastric cancer progression and emphasizing the importance of this growth regulatory pathway in gastric carcinogenesis.
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  • Virus-induced gene silencing in various Prunus species with the Apple latent spherical virus vector

    Kawai, Takashi   Gonoi, Ayako   Nitta, Michiya   Yamagishi, Noriko   Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki   Tao, Ryutaro  

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  • The effectiveness of packaged medicine in eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori in Japan

    Kawai, Takashi   Kawakami, Kohei   Kataoka, Mikinori   Takei, Kazuo   Taira, Satoru   Itoi, Takao   Moriyasu, Fuminori   Takagi, Yuu   Aoki, Tatsuya   Matsubayasiu, Jun   Mukai, Kiyoshi   Rimbara, Emiko   Noguchi, Norihisa   Sasatsu, Masanori  

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy for peptic ulcers is performed at many facilities in Japan. The eradication regimens are consisted of the 7-day triple therapy using lansoprazole (LPZ) or omeprazole (OPZ) + amoxicillin (AMPC) + clarithromycin (CAM). In theses regimens, 2 types of antibacterial drug are included, the method of taking medicine has been problematic. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a packaged tablets and capsules that contain eradication drugs. (Product name: Lansap). Subjects and methods: The study was performed in 100 H. pylori positive patients with upper gastrointestinal disease. The regimen of the eradicating drugs was administration for 7 days of LPZ 60 mg + AMPC 1,500 mg + CAM 800 mg. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was prescribed a package sets of tablets /capsules (package group) for taking the regimen, second group were prescribed the tablets /capsules from separate sets (conventional group) for taking the drugs. Eradication was evaluated by C-13 urea breath test 6-8 weeks after completion of the treatment. A questionnaire survey was also performed immediately after completion of the treatment regarding to forgetting to take the medicine, mistaking the dosage (quantity) of medicine, the total dose of medicine, and understanding of adverse effects of drugs. Results: The eradication rate (ITT) was 68.0% in the package group and 72.0% in the conventional group, showing no significant difference. Three and 7 patients forgot to take some drugs in the package and conventional groups, respectively, showing no significant difference. None and 2 patients mistook the dosage of medicine respectively. 29 and 26 patients felt that the total dose too much, respectively. As for understanding of adverse effects of drug, 24 and 25 patients understood them respectively. Conclusion: In H. pylori eradication therapy, package sets of eradication medicine are useful for prevention of mistaking the dosage of medicine.
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  • The Effectiveness of Packaged Medicine in Eradication Therapy of Helicobacter pylori in Japan

    Kawai, Takashi   Kawakami, Kohei   Kataoka, Mikinori   Takei, Kazuo   Taira, Satoru   Itoi, Takao   Moriyasu, Fuminori   Takagi, Yuu   Aoki, Tatsuya   Matsubayasiu, Jun   Mukai, Kiyoshi   Rimbara, Emiko   Noguchi, Norihisa   Sasatsu, Masanori  

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  • First Record of the Diogenid Hermit Crab Aniculus erythraeus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from Japan

    Sakamaki, Takashi   Kawai, Takashi  

    Aniculus erythraeus Forest, 1984, a poorly known species of hermit crab, is reported for the first time from Japan based on a single specimen collected from Kume Island, Ryukyu Islands. This discovery increases the number of Japanese species of Aniculus to seven and greatly extends the distributional range of the present species to the north. Differences between A. erythraeus and its close congener A. ursus (Olivier, 1812) are discussed on the basis of the specimens from the Ryukyu Islands.
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  • Visual Fatigue in Congenital Nystagmus Caused by Viewing Images of Color Sequential Projectors

    Ogata, Masaki   Ukai, Kazuhiko   Kawai, Takashi  

    Color breakup is the perceived splitting of the white portions of an image into its red, green, and blue components when the image is projected with the color sequential method and the viewer is moving his or her eyes. This study aims to evaluate how color breakup affects symptoms of visual fatigue in people with congenital nystagmus. The eyes of people with congenital nystagmus continuously oscillate leading to color breakup without pause. One in every 1 500 persons is afflicted with congenital nystagmus. Many sufferers have almost no symptoms in daily life except for a mild deterioration of visual acuity. Five subjects with congenital nystagmus were shown a 15-min portion of a movie projected with three video projectors (one liquid cyrstal display (LCD) projector and two single-chip digital light processing (DLP) projectors). They were subjectively evaluated both pre- and post-viewing with a questionnaire listing visual fatigue symptoms. One subject was tested in an additional experiment using six more projectors. Results indicated that subjects with congenital nystagmus felt severe visual fatigue after they viewed images produced by color sequential projectors. Mechanism of the cause of visual fatigue is not clear in general and in color breakup in congenital nystagmus, however, it was clear that people with nystagmus felt continuing color breakup as a flickering image. Flickering light is a major cause of visual fatigue. Color sequential projectors are best avoided in public settings, such as classrooms, lecture theaters and conference sites.
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  • BRAF V600E mutation is a predictive indicator of upfront chemotherapy for stage IV colorectal cancer

    Morikawa, Tatsuya   Inada, Ryo   Nagasaka, Takeshi   Mori, Yoshiko   Kishimoto, Hiroyuki   Kawai, Takashi   Umeda, Yuzo   Mishima, Hideyuki   Goel, Ajay   Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi  

    In stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC), initial resection of the primary tumor is considered to be an important strategy for improving disease outcome. However, there is no consensus on the timing as to when the surgical intervention of the primary tumor should occur. The present study hypothesizes that genetic profiles in CRC may indicate the appropriate treatment strategies for patients with stage IV CRC, and a cohort of 113 patients with stage IV CRC resected primary lesions at various periods were analyzed for the presence of mutations in the KRAS, exon 2, and BRAF genes, exon 15, and for the microsatellite instability status of the tumor. These data were additionally correlated with various clinicopathological features. Although BRAF-mutant was revealed to be an independent negative prognostic factor in stage IV CRC (HR, 8.42; 95% confidence interval, 2.72-26.02), BRAF-mutant samples exhibited better prognoses if they were treated with chemotherapy prior to tumor resection. Thus, the presence of BRAF mutations provides a compelling rationale for the establishment of intensive upfront chemotherapy to improve survival in stage IV CRC.
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  • 65-4: Invited Paper: Ergonomic Approaches to Stereoscopic and 360° Images

    Kawai, Takashi  

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  • Sa1871 Evaluation of Gastric Cancer Diagnosis Using Ultrathin Transnasal Endoscopy With Narrow-Band Imaging

    Kawai, Takashi   Yanagisawa, Kyosuke   Fukuzawa, Masakatsu   Kusano, Chika   Gotoda, Takuji   Moriyasu, Fuminori  

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    The invention includes a portable and compact retroreflective sign system (70). The system includes a base (56), a winding mechanism roller attached to the base, and a retroreflective roll-up sheeting (64) having a first end and a second end, wherein the first end is attached to the roller and the sign is wound about the roller. A sign support is attached to the base for supporting the roll-up sign in an unrolled position, wherein the sign support is extendible from the base. An attachment means (68) is present at the second end of the retroreflective roll-up sheeting (64) for attaching the sheeting to the sign support (66).
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  • A New Serum Antibody Test Kit (E Plate) for Evaluation of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication.

    KAWAI, Takashi   KAWAKAMI, Kohei   KUDO, Taku   OGIAHARA, Shoji   HANDA, Yutaka   MORIYASU, Fuminori  

    Objective Serological antibody test have been widely performed to detect the presence of H. pylori, but they have not been used to evaluate the status of H. pylori after eradication. In this study we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a new serological test kit (E-plate) after eradication. Method Eradication of H. pylori was performed in 100 patients by proton pump inhibitor (PPI)+amoxicillin (AMPC)+clarithromycin (CAM) or PPI+AMPC therapy. Evaluation of H. pylori was done by culture, histology and rapid urease test before, and 8 weeks after, the treatment. Serological tests were also performed before and after treatment using the E plate. Cure was defined as no evidence of H. pylori at 8 weeks after the treatment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the ideal cut-off value for percentage change in the serological test. Result Success was obtained in 73 patients, failure in 20 patients and there were 7 dropouts. Serological test value was significantly decreased after treatment (44.3+/-29.6 U/ ml) compared to before treatment (94.8+/-73.2 U/ml) in the successful cases. In contrast, those with no significant change after treatment (62.7+/-31.3 U/ml) compared to before treatment (72.9+/-47.7 U/ml) were considered as failure cases. ROC analysis revealed that cut-off values of a 20%, 30%, and 40% decrease on E plate result yielded a sensitivity of 95.5%, 92.4%, 71.2% and a specificity of 73.3%, 84.2%, 94.7%, respectively. Conclusion The new E plate serological test kit for H. pylori was useful for distinguishing success from failure 8 weeks after completion of eradication therapy for H. pylori.
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