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Now showing items 65 - 80 of 190


    A hybrid vehicle (1) comprises a motor generator (MG 2) employed for driving the vehicle, an engine (40) used together with the motor generator (MG 2), an acceleration sensor (9) provided at a section for designating increase/decrease of drive request torque, and a controller (30) for actuating the engine when an engine output request value exceeds an actuation threshold. The controller (30) reduces the actuation threshold at least in response to an increase in drive request torque, preferably in response to an increase in drive request torque and a reduction in vehicle speed detected by a vehicle speed sensor (8).
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    A controller of an internal combustion engine in which damage to an exhaust gas purification catalyst, and the like, is avoided surely when switching is made to fuel of different properties during an operation. In an internal combustion engine which can run on a fuel of alcohol and gasoline mixed at an arbitrary ratio, a throttle opening is limited when there is an oil supply record and fuel learning has not yet completed (step 104). The internal combustion engine can be prevented from entering such an operation region that fuel increment correction is performed by limiting a throttle opening. Consequently, air/fuel ratio feedback control can be prevented from stopping when the fuel is switched, and therefore the air/fuel ratio can be prevented surely from taking such an improper value as having a risk of damaging a catalyst.
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  • Reducing binocular rivalry in the use of monocular head-mounted display

    Yamazoe, Takashi   Kishi, Shinsuke   Shibata, Takashi   Kawai, Takashi   Otsuki, Masaki  

    Monocular head-mounted displays (HMDs) can be used with wearable computers. However, such displays can cause binocular rivalry, a phenomenon in which the left and right images alternate, and is unstable. Binocular rivalry, when using HMD, causes the image of the environment to alternate with the HMD image, or even the total loss of perception of the image from the HMD. Binocular rivalry can occur with displays of any resolution. In this study, we used optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) to reduce binocular rivalry. A special stimulus synchronized to the occurrence of binocular rivalry was used to trigger OKN. The subject was asked to observe a visual stimulus and press a trigger button whenever binocular rivalry occurred. This initiated the presentation of a specific spatial frequency stimulus that broke up the rivalry. Electro-oculogram (EOG) electrodes recorded the observer's possible loss of perception of the HMD image, helping to confirm the occurrence of binocular rivalry. Sixteen subjects participated in the experiments. The results indicate that synchronizing special stimuli to the viewers' responses in order to induce OKN can reduce binocular rivalry.
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  • Ergonomic approaches to content creation for 3D displays

    Kawai, Takashi   Kishi, Shinsuke   Kim, Sang Hyun   Yamazoe, Takashi   Shibata, Takashi   Inoue, Tetsuri   Sakaguchi, Yusuke   Okabe, Kazushige   Yasuhiro, Kuno  

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  • W1048 Low Efficacy of PPI/AC Therapy for H. pylori-Eradication in Japan

    Kawai, Takashi   Yamagishi, Tetsuya   Yagi, Kenji   Kataoka, Mikinori   Kawakami, Kouhei   Sofuni, Atsushi   Itoi, Takao   Sakai, Yoshihiro   Moriyasu, Fuminori   Takagi, Yu   Aoki, Tatsuya   Rimbara, Emiko   Noguchi, Norihisa   Sasatsu, Masanori  

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  • Adaptive significance of gall formation for a gall-inducing aphids on Japanese elm trees.

    Takei, Mami   Yoshida, Sayaka   Kawai, Takashi   Hasegawa, Morifumi   Suzuki, Yoshihito  

    Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by external stimuli from parasitizing insects. It has been suggested that the stimuli include phytohormones such as auxin and cytokinins produced by the insects. In our study on the role of hormones in gall induction by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, it was found that feedback regulation related to auxin and cytokinin activity is absent in gall tissues, even though the aphids contain higher concentrations of those phytohormones than do plant tissues. Moreover, jasmonic acid signaling appears to be compromised in gall tissue, and consequently, the production of volatile organic compounds, which are a typical defense response of host plants to herbivory, is diminished. These findings suggest that these traits of the gall tissue benefit aphids, because the gall tissue is highly sensitive to auxin and cytokinin, which induce and maintain it. The induced defenses against aphid feeding are also compromised. The abnormal responsiveness to phytohormones is regarded as a new type of extended phenotype of gall-inducing insects. Copyright =C2=A9 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • The efficacy of a multidisciplinary group program for patients with refractory chronic pain.

    Inoue, Masayuki   Inoue, Shinsuke   Ikemoto, Tatsunori   Arai, Young-Chang P   Nakata, Masatoshi   Miyazaki, Atsuko   Nishihara, Makoto   Kawai, Takashi   Hatakeyama, Noboru   Yamaguchi, Setsuko   Shimo, Kazuhiro   Miyagawa, Hirofumi   Hasegawa, Tomomi   Sakurai, Hiroki   Hasegawa, Yoshinobu   Ohmichi, Yusuke   Ushida, Takahiro  

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a major problem because it can result in not only a reduction in activities of daily living and quality of life but also requires initiation of social assistance. Seeking only to eliminate pain itself would appear to be too narrow an objective, in addition to often being unachievable; therefore, a multifaceted, comprehensive approach with multiple objectives is needed.; OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of a program (the 'Chronic Pain Class') offering cognitive behavioural therapy to small groups of individuals with refractory chronic pain in Japan. Exercise was an important feature of the program.; METHODS: A total of 46 patients who were experiencing treatment difficulties and decreased activity participated in the program. The programs were conducted in groups of five to seven patients who met weekly for nine weeks. Weekly sessions, which were approximately 2 h in duration, combined lectures with exercise. Several measures related to pain and physical function were administered at the beginning and the conclusion of the program.; RESULTS: Nine patients dropped out during the program. A number of measures (eg, pain intensity, disability, catastrophizing thoughts) showed significant improvements after intervention (P<0.002 after Bonferroni correction). Furthermore, most measures of physical function showed substantial improvement, especially seated forward bends, zig-zag walking, self-care and 6 min walk test (P<0.001).; CONCLUSION: The results of the present study provide evidence that a combination of cognitive behavioural therapy and exercise should be recommended to patients with refractory chronic pain.=20
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  • Oncocytic non-functioning endocrine tumor of the pancreas.

    Sugihara, Ayako   Nakasho, Keiji   Ikuta, Shin-ichi   Aihara, Tsukasa   Kawai, Takashi   Iida, Hiroya   Yoshie, Hidenori   Yasui, Chiaki   Mitsunobu, Masao   Kishi, Kiyohiko   Mori, Toshio   Yamada, Naoko   Yamanegi, Koji   Ohyama, Hideki   Terada, Nobuyuki   Ohike, Nobuyuki   Morohoshi, Toshio   Yamanaka, Naoki  

    Herein is presented the case of a malignant non-functioning endocrine tumor of the pancreas with oncocytic features, and a discussion on the high incidence of malignancy in oncocytic endocrine pancreatic tumors. The patient was a 65-year-old woman who showed no paraneoplastic symptoms produced by functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors. The primary tumor was located in the body and tail of the pancreas, and had metastasized to the liver. Tumor cells were arranged in a ribbon-like or trabecular pattern and had an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm containing numerous mitochondria and neurosecretory granules. The cytoplasm of the tumor cells was intensely stained with an antimitochondrial antigen antibody. Most tumor cells stained positively with Grimelius stain and for chromogranin A. Some tumor cells also stained for synaptophysin. However, the tumor cells negatively stained for hormones such as insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, gastrin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and pancreatic polypeptide, for serotonin, and for pancreatic enzymes such as amylase and trypsin. Analysis of 18 oncocytic pancreatic endocrine tumors, consisting of those reported previously and that in the present case, suggests that the high incidence of malignancy in oncocytic endocrine tumors is associated with the high incidence of non-functioning endocrine tumors among them, most of which are malignant.
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  • Impact of Effect of H. Pylori Infection On Reflex Esophagitis in Japan

    Kawai, Takashi   Kataoka, Mikinori   Yamagishi, Tetsuya   Miyazaki, Ikuko   Oshima, Toshihiro   Yagi, Kenji   Kawakami, Kouhei   Sofuni, Atsusi   Taira, Satoru   Itoi, Takao   Moriyasu, Fuminori   Takagi, Yuu   Aoki, Tatsuya  

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    It is intended to provide a composition being obtained from Lophyllum decastes , which becomes available in a large amount at a low cost by artificial cultivation, and capable of exhibiting an antitumor activity when orally administered. Namely, a composition originating in Lophyllum decastes fruit body which comprises a soluble fraction of a hot-water extract of Lophyllum decastes fruit body passing a ultrafiltration membrane having a molecular weight cutoff of 30000.
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  • Visual Task Performance Using a Monocular See-Through Head-Mounted Display (HMD) While Walking

    Mustonen, Terhi   Berg, Mikko   Kaistinen, Jyrki   Kawai, Takashi   Hakkinen, Jukka  

    A monocular see-through head-mounted display (HMD) allows the user to view displayed information while simultaneously interacting with the surrounding environment. This configuration lets people use HMDs while they are moving, such as while walking. However, sharing attention between the display and environment can compromise a person's performance in any ongoing task, and controlling one's gait may add further challenges. In this study, the authors investigated how the requirements of HMD-administered visual tasks altered users' performance while they were walking. Twenty-four university students completed 3 cognitive tasks (high-and low-working memory load, visual vigilance) on an HMD while seated and while simultaneously performing a paced walking task in a controlled environment. The results show that paced walking worsened performance (d ' , reaction time) in all HMD-administered tasks, but visual vigilance deteriorated more than memory performance. The HMD-administered tasks also worsened walking performance (speed, path overruns) in a manner that varied according to the overall demands of the task. These results suggest that people's ability to process information displayed on an HMD may worsen while they are in motion. Furthermore, the use of an HMD can critically alter a person's natural performance, such as their ability to guide and control their gait. In particular, visual tasks that involve constant monitoring of the HMD should be avoided. These findings highlight the need for careful consideration of the type and difficulty of information that can be presented through HMDs while still letting the user achieve an acceptable overall level of performance in various contexts of use.
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    An antitumor composition comprising a fraction of a hot water-extract of Hypsizigus marmoreus fruit body which is soluble and cannot pass through an ultrafiltration membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 100,000; an antitumor composition obtained by further treating a composition comprising a fraction of a hot water-extract of Hypsizigus marmoreus fruit body which is soluble and cannot passe through an ultrafiltration membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 100,000 with an anion exchange resin and eluting; a food or a drink containing the above-described antitumor composition; a process for producing an antitumor composition characterized by comprising (1) the step of treating Hypsizigus marmoreus fruit body with hot water for 1 to 5 hours and removing insoluble matters from the hot-water extract thus obtained, and (2) the step of subjecting the soluble fraction obtained in the above step (1) to ultrafiltration of a molecular weight cutoff of 100,000; and a process for producing an antitumor composition characterized by comprising (1) the step of treating Hypsizigus marmoreus fruit body with hot water for 1 to 5 hours and removing insoluble matters from the hot-water extract thus obtained, (2) the step of subjecting the soluble fraction obtained in the above step (1) to ultrafiltration of a molecular weight cutoff of 100,000, and (3) the step of treating the composition obtained in the above step (2) with an anion exchange resin and then eluting.
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    In a control apparatus for an internal combustion engine having a valve timing control means controlling the timing opening and closing of an intake valve disposed in an intake port communicating with a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, when the internal combustion engine is being started from a cold condition, multi-stroke operation is set, in which one combustion cycle of the internal combustion engine includes two or more intake and compression strokes, formed by a first intake stroke and the first compression stroke and a second intake stroke and compression stroke, followed by a combustion stroke and an exhaust stroke. The valve timing control means controls a lift of the intake valve during the first intake stroke and the first compression stroke to a low lift amount, which is smaller than the normal lift amount required for intake of a requested intake air amount, and controls the lift of the intake valve in a second intake and a second compression stroke to the normal lift amount.
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  • Ergonomic evaluation of crosstalk in stereoscopy through heart activity and forehead blood flow

    Toyosawa, Satoshi   Morikawa, Hiroyuki   Nakano, Koichi   Kawai, Takashi   Chen, Chin-Sen   Chang, Hung-Lu   Yang, Jinn-Cherng  

    Crosstalk is a phenomenon in stereoscopy where an image becomes blurry due to leakage of the left image into the right eye and vice versa, and is considered one of the serious problems impairing stereoscopic experience. The current study examines mental/cognitive activity under a various levels of crosstalk through heart activity and forehead blood flow. In the experiment that presented three still natural images and one graphical video with a various crosstalk levels, heart rate showed a decelerative-accelerative-decelerative pattern for all the stimuli up to the intolerably severe level. The result suggests changes in mental state in accordance to the crosstalk level: i.e. orientation response under no perceived crosstalk, active mental elaboration upon noticing crosstalk, and reduced level of elaboration as crosstalk progressed. The pattern, however, did not always agree amongst the physiological measures and the crosstalk ratios. This suggests that the mental state under crosstalked image viewing could be more complex than a simple combination of orientation response and active mental elaboration.
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    A vehicle control apparatus is a vehicle control apparatus controlling a vehicle (1) and provided with a regenerative device (11) generating electric power while applying a regenerative braking force by performing regenerative electric power generation, an electric power supply (13) capable of exchanging electric power with the regenerative device, and a hydraulic device (15) applying a hydraulic braking force attributable to a hydraulic pressure, and is provided with an electronic control device (19) controlling the regenerative device (11, 12) and the hydraulic device (15) so as to adjust the ratios (r1, r2) of the regenerative braking force (Tr1) and the hydraulic braking force (Tr2) to a required braking force (Tr0) required for the braking of the vehicle (1) based on an input electric power value (Pin) input into the electric power supply (13).
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  • Tailored eradication therapy based on fecal Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin sensitivities.

    Kawai, Takashi   Yamagishi, Tetsuya   Yagi, Kenji   Kataoka, Mikinori   Kawakami, Kohei   Sofuni, Atsushi   Itoi, Takao   Sakai, Yoshihiro   Moriyasu, Fuminori   Osaka, Yoshiaki   Takagi, Yu   Aoki, Tatsuya   Rimbara, Emiko   Noguchi, Norihisa   Sasatsu, Masanori  

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates using the PPI/AC regimen (proton pump inhibitor + amoxicillin + clarithromycin) are declining. We trialed tailoring eradication regimens according to clarithromycin (CAM) susceptibility.METHODS: The subjects were 70 H. pylori positive adults. They were randomly allocated to a tailored group and a control group. In the tailored group, subjects with CAM-sensitive strains were given PPI/AC eradication therapy, and those with CAM-resistant strains were given PPI/AM (metronidazole instead of clarithromycin) therapy. The control group were all given PPI/AC therapy. CAM sensitivity was measured by collecting fecal specimens, and extracting the DNA. The 23S rRNA domain, associated with CAM susceptibility in H. pylori, was amplified using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequencing was used to detect point mutations at A2143G and A2144G.RESULTS: Eradication rates were 94.3% in the tailored group and 71.4% in the control group. In particular, the eradication rate was 100% for CAM-resistant strains in the tailored group.CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, where CAM-resistant H. pylori strains are expected to continue to increase, tailored eradication therapy according to CAM sensitivity will be of benefit.
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