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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 315

  • Effect of waste exhaust heat on hydrogen production and its utilization in CI engine

    Thiyagarajan, S.   Sonthalia, Ankit   Geo, V. Edwin   Chokkalingam, Bharatiraja  

    The present study aims to utilize waste engine exhaust heat to produce hydrogen and utilize the same in the single cylinder CI engine as a closed system. A thermoelectric generator was used to convert the waste exhaust heat to hydrogen gas through PEM type fuel cell. The generator was placed in the engine exhaust and connected to the fuel cell and the output of the fuel cell was connected to the inlet manifold through a flow meter and safety devices. All the tests were conducted in a single cylinder CI engine with diesel as the base fuel and the produced hydrogen as the inducted fuel. Experiments were conducted at different load conditions with a constant speed of 1500 rpm. It is observed that the heat wasted from the exhaust increases with increase in load which improves the thermoelectric generator conversion efficiency and in turn increases the hydrogen flow rate. At maximum load, 351 ml/min of hydrogen was produced and sent to the inlet manifold of the engine. The conversion efficiency of the generator varies from 13.8% at low load to 51% at full engine load. The experimental results showed that with hydrogen induction brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was improved. At full load, BTE with hydrogen induction improves by 10% in comparison to only diesel engine operation. With hydrogen induction HC, CO and smoke emissions at full load reduced by 13.46, 31.57, and 24.7%, respectively, as compared to diesel. The decrease in emissions is attributed to decrease in diesel consumption as hydrogen replaces the diesel. However, there is a slight penalty in NOx emissions and it increases by 20% with hydrogen induction due to increase in in-cylinder temperature. (C) 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Effect of manifold injection of methanol/n-pentanol in safflower biodiesel fuelled CI engine

    Thiyagarajan, S.   Sonthalia, Ankit   Geo, V. Edwin   Prakash, T.   Karthickeyan, V.   Ashok, B.   Nanthagopal, K.   Dhinesh, B.  

    This paper intends to study the influence of methanol and n-pentanol pre-injection in the inlet manifold with safflower oil biodiesel (B100) as base fuel replacing diesel. Safflower oil biodiesel was prepared through the transesterification process. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder CI engine with the test fuels to evaluate the performance, emission and combustion parameters. Methanol and n-pentanol were injected in the inlet manifold along with intake air which enters the combustion chamber during the intake stroke. Both methanol and n-pentanol were injected 10% and 30% on a mass basis along with B100. The results demonstrated that the brake thermal efficiency in comparison to neat biodiesel operation is higher with methanol and n-pentanol injection. On 10% mass basis, the efficiency is higher with n-pentanol engine operation than methanol whereas the trend is opposite when 30% mass percentage of alcohols is used, due to higher heat release with methanol since its latent heat of vaporization is highest. The HC, CO and NOx emissions were higher with alcohol injection. Whereas the smoke emissions reduced with alcohol injection. The reduction in smoke emissions is due to homogeneous mixture formation between the pre-injected alcohols and air and less amount of biodiesel injected in this mixture. The increase in the mass percentage of alcohol tends to lower the smoke emissions further.
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  • Assessment of cashew nut shell oil as an alternate fuel for CI (Compression ignition) engines

    Kasiraman, G.   Geo, V. Edwin   Nagalingam, B.  

    Neat CNSO (cashew nut shell oil) otherwise called as Neat CNSL (cashew nut shell liquid) is capable of running the engine but possesses high viscosity and density. This drawback can be overcome by reducing its viscosity. This can be done by blending with secondary fuels and transesterification of CNSO as well. CNSO was separately blended with oxygenates (diethyl ether and dimethyl carbonate), alcohols (ethanol, methanol and butanol) and vegetable oils (camphor oil, orange peel oil, cottonseed oil and coconut oil) in various proportions by volume. Performance, emission and combustion characteristics were studied by operating the engine with cashew nut shell oil as base fuel blended with diesel and separately with other secondary fuels like oxygenates, alcohols and vegetable oils in various proportions by volume. Results proved that performance of neat CNSO is very low compared to diesel and CNSO methyl ester (CNSOME). Among the various oxygenate, alcohol and vegetable oil blends, DEE30 blend (CNSO70% + Diethyl ether30%), BUTANOL30 blend (CNSO70% Butanol30%) and CMPRO30 (CNSO70% + Camphor Oil 30%) has given better performance. Brake thermal efficiency increases to the maximum of 29.68% with DEE30 followed by CMPRO30 of 29.1% and BUTANOL30 of 28.4%. Smoke emission is 4.01 BSU for DEE30, 3.91 BSU for both CMPRO30 and BUTANOL30 which is lower compared to neat CNSO and CNSOME. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Comparative analysis of various methods to reduce CO2 emission in a biodiesel fueled CI engine

    Thiyagarajan, S.   Geo, V. Edwin   Martin, Leenus Jesu   Nagalingam, B.  

    The main aim of this experimental work is to reduce engine-out carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of CI engine fuelled with Karanja oil methyl ester (K100). K100 emitted higher NO and CO2 and lower smoke in comparison to diesel as a result of high fuel borne carbon and oxygen. Various techniques namely 1. Low-carbon biofuel blending 2. Post-combustion carbon capture system (PCCCS) 3. Oxygenate blending 4. Pre-combustion treatment system was adopted to reduce CO2 emission. Equal volume blending of low-carbon biofuels namely eucalyptus oil (EU), camphor oil (CMO), pine oil (PO) and Orange oil (ORG) with K100 reduces CO2 emission. K50-O50 blend emitted minimum CO2, about 27% less in comparison to K100. PCCCS with zeolite, activated carbon and liquid mono ethanolamine (MEA) injection with K50-O50 reduced CO2 emission further. CO2 emission for K50-O50+zeolite is 13.5% less in comparison to K50-O50 at maximum load. CO2 is further reduced with oxygenate blending. Oxygenates namely methanol (M), ethanol (E), n-butanol (B), n-pentanol (P) and acetone (A) were blended 20% by volume (based on the knock limit) with K50-O50 and tested along with zeolite based PCCCS. Among the oxygenates, methanol blending with K50-O50 with ZPCCCS lessened CO2 emission by 65% in comparison to K100. Magnetic fuel reforming system based pre-combustion treatment system reduced CO2 emission further. The combination of all the techniques emitted 68.5% less CO2 in comparison to K100 at maximum load. The effect of the techniques on other emission and performance parameters were also discussed in detail.
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  • Experiments on behaviour of preheated rubber seed oil in a direct injection diesel engine

    Geo, V. Edwin   Nagarajan, G.   Nagalingam, B.  

    Rubber seed oil (RSO) is one of the vegetable oils that has potential for use as a fuel for diesel engines. Owing to the high viscosity of RSO, its performance is slightly inferior to diesel fuel. Preheating of RSO reduces its viscosity to the level of diesel fuel that improves the fuel spray and atomisation characteristics, leading to complete combustion. In this experimental work, the effect of various fuel inlet temperatures on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine was evaluated. The experimental results show that the brake thermal efficiency increases from 26.6 to 28.4% when the fuel is preheated to a temperature of 150 degrees C. It also indicates that there is a reduction in the CO and smoke emissions with preheated RSO. The reduced ignition delay and combustion duration with RSO at 150 degrees C indicates faster heat release and leads to higher thermal efficiency. It is concluded that the performance, combustion and emission characteristics are improved for preheated RSO compared to raw RSO, but it is still inferior to diesel.
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  • Experimental analysis of Deccan hemp oil as a new energy feedstock for compression ignition engine

    Ravichandra, D.   Puli, Ravi Kumar   Chandramohan, V. P.   Geo, V. Edwin  

    This study investigates the biodiesel from Deccan hemp oil and its blends for the purpose of fuelling diesel engine. The performance and emission characteristics of Deccan hemp biodiesel are estimated and compared with diesel fuel. The experimental investigations are carried out with different blends of Deccan hemp biodiesel. Results show that brake thermal efficiency is improved significantly by 4.15% with 50 BDH when compared with diesel fuel. The Deccan hemp biodiesel reduces NOx, HC and CO emission along with a marginal increase in CO2 and smoke emissions with an increase in the biodiesel proportion in the diesel fuel. The improvement in heat release rates shows an increase in the combustion rate with different percentage blends of Deccan hemp biodiesel. From the engine test results, it has been established that 30-50 BDH of Deccan hemp biodiesel can be substituted for diesel.
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  • EFFECT OF FREE FATTY ACIDS AND SHORT CHAIN ALCOHOLS ON CONVERSION OF WASTE COOKING OIL TO BIODIESEL

    Awad, S.   Paraschiv, M.   Geo, V. Edwin   Tazerout, M.  

    In this article, the transesterification of three types of waste cooking oil (WCO) with methanol and ethanol was studied using alkali catalyzed process. The catalyst used in this study was sodium hydroxide. The effects of temperature, catalyst amount, alcohol to oil ratio, and the time of reaction on the yield were studied. The temperature and the catalyst amount were the most important factors affecting the yield of biodiesel. Also the process exhibited some sensitivity to the level of free fatty acids (FFA) in the WCO and to the type of alcohol. The yields of methyl esters varied from 97% with the lowest acidity (0.4% FFA WCO) to 76% with the highest acidity (3.25% FFA WCO). The ethyl esters yields were lower and the difference increased with the level of FFA in the oil, the maximum yield was 95% and 73% with the lowest and the medium acidities respectively and no reaction was registered with the highest one. The chromatographic analysis of the produced biodiesel showed high contents of fatty acid methyl esters varying from 96.5% to 98%. The physical-chemical characteristics of produced biodiesel were studied and compared to the European norm, EN 14214.
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  • Studies on improving the performance of rubber seed oil fuel for diesel engine with DEE port injection

    Geo, V. Edwin   Nagarajan, G.   Nagalingam, B.  

    Use of vegetable oils in diesel engines leads to a marginally inferior performance and higher smoke emissions due to their high viscosity and carbon residue. The performance of vegetable oils can be improved by injecting a small quantity of diethyl ether (DEE) along with air. The main objective of this study is to improve the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with rubber seed oil (RSO) through DEE injection at different flow rates of 100, 150 and 200 g/h. A single cylinder diesel engine with rated output of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm was converted to operate in the DEE injection mode. DEE was injected into the intake port during suction stroke, while rubber seed oil was injected directly inside the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. The injection timing of DEE was optimized for this mode of operation. Results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine improves from 26.5% with neat RSO to a maximum of 28.5% with DEE injection rate of 200 g/h. Smoke reduces from 6.1 to 4 BSU with DEE injection at the maximum efficiency flow rate. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are also less with DEE injection. There is an increase in the NO(x) emission from 6.9 g/kWh to 9.3 g/kWh at the optimum DEE flow rate. DEE injection with RSO shows higher peak pressure and rate of pressure rise compared to neat RSO. Heat release rate indicates an increase in the combustion rate due to the reduced ignition delay and combustion duration with DEE injection. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Investigation of novel Pistacia khinjuk biodiesel in DI diesel engine with post combustion capture system

    Karthickeyan, V   Ashok, B.   Nanthagopal, K.   Thiyagarajan, S.   Geo, V. Edwin  

    The exploration of new renewable based alternative fuel to the conventional fossil fuel research gains more attention due to increase in cost and environmental effect. The present study focused on obtaining new alternative fuel from non-edible oil namely Pistacia khinjuk seed oil using transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of neat biodiesel was evaluated using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry method. Pistacia khinjuk methyl ester (PKME) was blended with diesel and investigated in the diesel engine. Diesel showed better performance characteristics than PKME blends due to its low calorific value and density. At all loads, PKME blends exhibited lower engine exhaust emissions than diesel. On the other hand, increasing trend of brake specific oxides of nitrogen (BSNO) was noticed with PKME blends. In order to minimize the emission without compromising performance parameters, Post-combustion Capture System (PCS) was installed in tail pipe. At all loads, diesel and PKME blends were individually investigated with PCS. Due to presence of selective catalytic reduction in PCS unit, B20 sample showed lower BSNO emission than diesel and other blends. Higher in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate were observed with PKME blends. In addition, B20 showed better engine characteristics than other blends proximate to mineral diesel.
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  • Studies on dual fuel operation of rubber seed oil and its bio-diesel with hydrogen as the inducted fuel

    Geo, V. Edwin   Nagarajan, G.   Nagalingam, B.  

    The main problems with the use of neat vegetable oils in diesel engines are higher smoke levels and lower thermal efficiency as compared to diesel. The problem can be tackled by inducting a gaseous fuel in the intake manifold along with air. In this investigation, hydrogen is used as the inducted fuel and rubber seed oil (RSO), rubber seed oil methyl ester (RSOME) and diesel are used as main fuels in a dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine with rated output of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm was converted to operate in the dual fuel mode. Dual fuel operation of varying hydrogen quantity with RSO and RSOME results in higher brake thermal efficiency and significant reduction in smoke levels at high outputs. The maximum brake thermal efficiency is 28.12%, 29.26% and 31.62% with RSO, RSOME and diesel at hydrogen energy share of 8.39%, 8.73% and 10.1%, respectively. Smoke is reduced from 5.5 to 3.5 BSU with RSOME and for RSO it is from 6.1 to 3.8 BSU at the maximum efficiency point. The peak pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise increase with hydrogen induction. Heat release rate indicates an increase in the combustion rate with hydrogen induction. On the whole it is concluded that hydrogen can be inducted along with air in order to reduce smoke levels and improve thermal efficiency of RSO and its bio-diesel fuelled diesel engines. (C) 2008 International Association for Hydrogen Energy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Comparative assessment of hexanol and decanol as oxygenated additives with calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel

    Ashok, B.   Nanthagopal, K.   Darla, Sivaprasad   Chyuan, Ong Hwai   Ramesh, A.   Jacob, Ashwin   Sahil, G.   Thiyagarajan, S.   Geo, V. Edwin  

    In this research work, the four ternary blends were prepared with 30% and 40% by volume of higher alcohol (decanol and hexanol) with biodiesel while maintain 50% of diesel concentration. All ternary blends of diesel-biodiesel-higher alcohols were used in single cylinder engine and the results were compared with binary blend of 50%-50% biodiesel, pure diesel and biodiesel. It was revealed that thermal efficiency of ternary blends was higher than biodiesel and in some cases it is closer to pure diesel. In contrary, specific fuel consumption is found to lower with increase in alcohol fractions in ternary blends. Moreover, hydrocarbon, smoke, carbon monoxide emissions from alcohol-infused fuel blends were observed to be lower than both biodiesel and pure diesel. Significant reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions was also observed by the addition of higher alcohols to the fuel blend when compared to biodiesel fuel. It is to be noted that decanol 40% addition with diesel and biodiesel blend has shown better results in emission characteristics. Furthermore, the heat release rate and in-cylinder pressure for biodiesel were significantly lower compared to pure diesel fuels. However, addition of 40% decanol with fuel blend improved the heat release rate and in-cylinder pressure. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Comparative assessment of hexanol and decanol as oxygenated additives with calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel

    Ashok, B.   Nanthagopal, K.   Darla, Sivaprasad   Chyuan, Ong Hwai   Ramesh, A.   Jacob, Ashwin   Sahil, G.   Thiyagarajan, S.   Geo, V. Edwin  

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  • A comparative analysis of different methods to improve the performance of cotton seed oil fuelled diesel engine

    Martin, M. Leenus Jesu   Geo, V. Edwin   Singh, D. Kingsly Jeba   Nagalingam, B.  

    The present work focuses on finding the suitability of cotton seed oil as a fuel for diesel engines by comparing the different methods to improve the performance of neat cotton seed oil (CSO). Tests were conducted with neat CSO and diesel to obtain base data. Transesterification with alcohol, preheating of CSO and diesel-CSO blends; blending of orange oil, diesel, or diethyl ether (DEE) with CSO and the use of semi adiabatic engine concept are the methods which have been investigated. The brake thermal efficiency of diesel and neat CSO at peak power is 32.3% and 28% respectively. An increase in the brake thermal efficiency to 30.4% is noticed at peak output with ethyl ester of cotton seed oil (EECSO). Smoke, CO and HC levels are reduced with EECSO compared to neat CSO. A blend of 60% CSO and 40% of diesel results in good brake thermal efficiency and a significant reduction in smoke level. The preheated blend of 60% of CSO and 40% of diesel at 90 degrees C shows an increase in brake thermal efficiency, which is close to diesel. Engine performance improves with the addition of orange oil (OO) and DEE with CSO. The brake thermal efficiency increases with adiabatic engine at part loads compared to neat CSO operation. It is concluded that CSO and EECSO can be directly used in diesel engines without any modifications. However, preheating of CSO or its blend with diesel is a very effective way to lower its viscosity and improve its performance. Blending small quantities of orange oil and diethyl ether with CSO are also other effective methods to improve the performance of diesel engines. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Combined effect of fuel-design and after-treatment system on reduction of local and global emissions from CI engine

    Thiyagarajan, S.   Geo, V. Edwin   Martin, Leenus Jesu   Nagalingam, B.  

    This experimental study aims to mitigate harmful emissions from a CI engine using bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) approach. The engine used for this experimental work is a single cylinder CI engine with a rated power of 5.2 kW at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The BECCS approach is a combination of plant-based biofuels and carbon capture and storage (CCS) system. The whole investigation was done in four phases: (1) Substituting diesel with Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) (2) Equal volume blending of Orange oil (ORG) with KOME (3) 20% blending of n-butanol (B) with KOME-ORG blend (4) CCS system with zeolite based non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) and mono ethanolamine (MEA) based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system with KOME-ORG + B20 blend. The experimental results show that substitution of diesel with KOME reduces smoke emission, but increases NO and CO2 emission. KOME-ORG blend reduces CO2 and smoke emissions with high NO emission due to combustion improvement. In comparison with the sole combustion of KOME at full load condition, the combination of KOME-ORG + B20 as bio-fuel with zeolite based post-combustion treatment system resulted in a maximum reduction of NO, smoke and CO2 emission by 41%, 19% and 15% respectively.
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  • Effect of fuel inlet temperature on cottonseed oil-diesel mixture composition and performance in a DI diesel engine

    Martin, M. Leenus Jesu   Geo, V. Edwin   Nagalingam, B.  

    Vegetable oils are receiving a lot of attraction as alternative engine fuels as they are renewable. The main problems with the use of neat vegetable oils in direct injection (DI) diesel engines are higher viscosity and relatively lower thermal efficiency as compared to diesel fuel. In this investigation the cotton seed oil (CSO) has been considered as an alternative fuel for the compression ignition (C.I.) engine. The viscosity of this oil is decreased by blending with diesel and preheating the CSO diesel blends to reduce the viscosity further. The mixture of varying proportions of cotton seed oil and diesel were prepared and their viscosities at various inlet temperatures were calculated and the performance and emission levels of these mixtures are compared with diesel fuel. The performance of the engine using preheated blends and cottonseed oil were studied using a single cylinder diesel engine. Significant improvement in engine performance is observed with preheated CSO and diesel mixture compared to neat CSO. Test results show that there is a marginal increase in the brake thermal efficiency of the engine, as the fuel inlet temperature of the blend and the amount of diesel in the blend increases. It is increases from 28% to the maximum of 30.5% with preheated CSO and diesel mixture of 40%. The smoke, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) emissions of the engine is also less with the preheated blends. Smoke emission reduces from 3.9 Bosch smoke unit (BSU) to 3.5 Bosch smoke unit (BSU) which is very close to diesel smoke value of 3.4 BSU. Heat release rates indicated an increase in combustion rate with preheated mixtures. The cylinder peak pressure increases from 70.4 bar to 72.5 bar for optimum preheated mixture (60% CSO and 40% diesel at 343 K). From the engine test results it has been established that 60% of cotton seed oil at 343 K can be substituted for diesel. (C) 2016 Energy Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Comparative analysis of various techniques to improve the performance of novel wheat germ oil - an experimental study

    Geo, V. Edwin   Prabhu, C.   Thiyagarajan, S.   Maiyalagan, T.   Aloui, Fethi  

    The current study aims to explore the opportunities of using the high viscous biofuel namely Wheat Germ oil (WGO) in a twin cylinder CI engine. High viscous fuels suffer from improper atomization leading to poor combustion and higher smoke emission. To address this problem, various techniques namely transesterification, fuel ionization and hydrogen induction were studied. WGO was converted to its ester which reduced the viscosity. Fuel ionization increases the vibrational frequency of the molecules, weakens the bonds and converted to ions, which increases the dispersion rate during injection and improves the combustion subsequently. Hydrogen is having faster flame speed and higher calorific value aids in combustion enhancement at its knock limited levels. The twin cylinder tractor engine selected for this experiment runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was run using diesel to achieve the preferred warm-up condition in order to use WGO, which hada cold starting problem. Tests were conducted with wheat germ biodiesel (WGBD), WGO with permanent magnet (PM), electromagnet (EM) and the combination of PM and EM-based fuel ionization system and finally WGO with hydrogen induction rates of 2%, 4.3%, 6.7% and 10.3% at maximum engine load condition. It is observed that all the techniques improved the performance of WGO. Among the techniques tested, hydrogen induction displayed better results in terms of performance and emission characteristics with a slight penalty in NO emission. (C) 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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